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C&G Practical Cleaning Skills
109 Clean & Dispose of bodily fluids,
spillages and hazardous items
Biohazards Awareness
Aims and Objectives
By the end of this course you will be able to:
 Describe what a “biohazard” is
...
Biohazards Awareness
Aims and Objectives
You will also:
 Identify and deal with simulated spillages and
contaminated item...
Biohazard awareness
What are “biohazards”?







Body fluids
Nappies
Sanitary towels
Contraceptives
Clothing
Dressi...
Body Fluids


As well as Sharps and Needles you may encounter:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦



Blood
Urine
Vomit
Faeces
Sputum

All of whic...
Biohazard Awareness
What causes the risk?
Pathogenic bacteria
 Viruses
 Fungi
 Parasites

Pathogenic bacteria
Most multiply quickly in large numbers and cause
illness
 Need time, nutrients, moisture and correct
...
Viruses






Need only one or two viral cells to cause illness
Can only multiply within the living cells of the body...
Fungi / parasites
Fungi
 Appears in the form of moulds and yeast
 Thrush is an example
Parasites
 Examples include lice...
Infections common with needle
stick injuries / contamination


Lock Jaw (Tetanus)



Hepatitis A



Hepatitis B



Hep...
Lock Jaw (Tetanus)






An acute infectious disease of the central nervous
system caused by the toxins of the clostr...
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver
 Symptoms include: Tiredness, flu like
symptoms, muscle aches, loss of
a...
Strain

Transmission

Does it persist?

Hepatitis A & E

Poor hygiene, Eating
and drinking infected
water/food

No

Hepati...
HIV







(Human immunodeficiency virus)

HIV is a virus that infects and can kill certain cells in
the immune syste...
How could this effect me?
Hepatitis A can survive can survive outside the body
for several months
 Hepatitis B can remain...
How could this effect me?
Potential risk of infection following an injury from an
infected needle is approximately:
42% fo...
Can I be vaccinated?
Hepatitis B vaccine available as 3 injections at
monthly intervals followed by a blood test
 Hepatit...
How can I protect myself?
Participate in training related to the disposal of
sharps and body fluids
 Help you employer se...
How can I protect myself?








Avoid trying to recap needles
Plan for safe handling and disposal of needles and/o...
How can I protect myself?
Risk assessment is a vital step before starting any work
procedure. You are required to assess w...
Where biohazards may be found
Derelict Buildings
Where biohazards may be found
Void properties
Where biohazards may be found
Disused areas
Where biohazards may be found
Less common but still used:
 Public toilets
 Children’s parks and play areas
 Train stati...
Where biohazards may be found
And don’t forget..
 General toilet areas
 First aid / treatment rooms
 Eating areas
Emergency action in the event
of a needle stick injury


In the event of a cut,
needle stick injury or
splash:
◦ Wash ski...
Sharps Collection
Equipment & PPE


A Sharps collection kit
should consist of the
following items:



Copy of the Collec...
Sharps Collection
Procedure
Safe Recovery Procedure
 Use only appropriate

PPE & Equipment



Keep away from body
Place...
A Typical Sharps Collection
Procedure
Example Collection Procedure



Staff should collect and
check the Sharps collectio...
Cleaning Body Fluid Spillages
Equipment
Requirements:
'Clean-up' kits can be provided by
your Supervisor or Manager
which ...
Body Fluids Procedure
General instructions that
apply to all fluid clean ups.
 Always wear all protective
gear provided.
...
-

Body Fluid and Sharps
Actions
5.
DISCARD SHARPS: solid materials

1.

DO NOTHING: initially carefully
survey the affect...
9.

10.

11.

Body Fluid and Sharps
Actions:
12. FINAL DISPOSAL: the yellow

DISINFECT: place all
contaminated items in th...
Additional guidelines for
assessment
1.

2.

Equipment used for body
fluid spillages should not be
used for any other task...
Practical task – The removal of body
fluid spillages and contaminated items
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Unit 109 Clean and Dispose of Body Fluids and Hazardous Items

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Underpinning knowledge to increase the awareness of dealing with and handling bodily fluid spillages and hazardous items associated with sharps and other drug related material.

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Transcript of "Unit 109 Clean and Dispose of Body Fluids and Hazardous Items"

  1. 1. C&G Practical Cleaning Skills 109 Clean & Dispose of bodily fluids, spillages and hazardous items
  2. 2. Biohazards Awareness Aims and Objectives By the end of this course you will be able to:  Describe what a “biohazard” is  Identify places and people at risk  Health and safety relating to sharps and body fluids and contaminated items  Understand what to do in the event of an injury  Understand the need for personal protective equipment  Describe the correct equipment required to deal with sharps and body fluid spillages  The sharps collection procedure
  3. 3. Biohazards Awareness Aims and Objectives You will also:  Identify and deal with simulated spillages and contaminated items (assessed to C&G standards)  Complete the paperwork
  4. 4. Biohazard awareness What are “biohazards”?       Body fluids Nappies Sanitary towels Contraceptives Clothing Dressings      Sharps/needles Food (raw and cooked) Dusts Human/animal tissues Chemicals
  5. 5. Body Fluids  As well as Sharps and Needles you may encounter: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Blood Urine Vomit Faeces Sputum All of which should be treat as being infected!
  6. 6. Biohazard Awareness What causes the risk? Pathogenic bacteria  Viruses  Fungi  Parasites 
  7. 7. Pathogenic bacteria Most multiply quickly in large numbers and cause illness  Need time, nutrients, moisture and correct temperature to multiply  Produce toxins, which are poisonous substances that cause illness  Most can be killed with antibiotics 
  8. 8. Viruses      Need only one or two viral cells to cause illness Can only multiply within the living cells of the body it invades Do not survive long outside the host body Breaks through the immune system’s defences Cannot be killed by antibiotics but immunisation can prevent some viral diseases
  9. 9. Fungi / parasites Fungi  Appears in the form of moulds and yeast  Thrush is an example Parasites  Examples include lice, fleas, scabies and threadworm
  10. 10. Infections common with needle stick injuries / contamination  Lock Jaw (Tetanus)  Hepatitis A  Hepatitis B  Hepatitis C  HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
  11. 11. Lock Jaw (Tetanus)      An acute infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by the toxins of the clostridium tetani Common in soil, human and animal faeces and digestive tracts of humans and animals Infection may follow puncture wounds, bites, splinters, burns, lacerations and fractures Symptoms include muscle spasm, stiffness of facial muscles, difficulty breathing or convulsions Treatment requires tetanus antitoxin with immunisation and booster shots
  12. 12. Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver  Symptoms include: Tiredness, flu like symptoms, muscle aches, loss of appetite, nausea, jaundice, abdominal pain, aversion to cigarettes and alcohol, cirrhosis and liver failure  Treatment involves rest, avoiding alcohol, antiviral drugs and vaccination 
  13. 13. Strain Transmission Does it persist? Hepatitis A & E Poor hygiene, Eating and drinking infected water/food No Hepatitis B Exchange of body fluids Can cause chronic infection Hepatitis C By exchanging body fluids or transfusion of contaminated blood Often causes chronic infection Hepatitis D Exchange of body fluids Often causes chronic infection Hepatitis
  14. 14. HIV      (Human immunodeficiency virus) HIV is a virus that infects and can kill certain cells in the immune system It is carried in the blood and other body fluids (though rarely saliva or tears) It is spread during sexual intercourse, sharing needles or mother to baby Symptoms include: fever, weight loss, swollen glands, white patches in mouth Treatment – drugs to fight infection
  15. 15. How could this effect me? Hepatitis A can survive can survive outside the body for several months  Hepatitis B can remain infectious for up to a week outside the body  Hepatitis C can live outside the body for up to 4 days  HIV can only survive a few hours outside the body in “wet” spillages 
  16. 16. How could this effect me? Potential risk of infection following an injury from an infected needle is approximately: 42% for tetanus  30% for Hepatitis B  3% for Hepatitis C  0.3% for HIV 
  17. 17. Can I be vaccinated? Hepatitis B vaccine available as 3 injections at monthly intervals followed by a blood test  Hepatitis A vaccine – single injection  Tetanus – 3 injections at monthly intervals  Hepatitis C – no vaccine currently available  HIV – no vaccine currently available (all can be done at your local doctor or health centre) 
  18. 18. How can I protect myself? Participate in training related to the disposal of sharps and body fluids  Help you employer select and evaluate devices that reduce the risk of injury  Only use supplied and recommended PPE  Discuss vaccinations with your Health and safety advisor/officer 
  19. 19. How can I protect myself?       Avoid trying to recap needles Plan for safe handling and disposal of needles and/or body fluid spillages Promptly dispose of all used needles in the appropriate container Report all needle stick injuries or contamination to ensure you receive appropriate aftercare Tell your manager about any needle stick or body fluid hazards you may see Remember to fill in the accident book if any incident or injury occurs
  20. 20. How can I protect myself? Risk assessment is a vital step before starting any work procedure. You are required to assess what is needed to protect yourself and others from infection. Make sure these steps are in place before you begin the task. Some risk assessments may be written down already but some may need to be done on the spot to deal with unexpected situations
  21. 21. Where biohazards may be found Derelict Buildings
  22. 22. Where biohazards may be found Void properties
  23. 23. Where biohazards may be found Disused areas
  24. 24. Where biohazards may be found Less common but still used:  Public toilets  Children’s parks and play areas  Train stations  Park benches  Disused garages  Church yards  Temporary accommodation  Cells
  25. 25. Where biohazards may be found And don’t forget..  General toilet areas  First aid / treatment rooms  Eating areas
  26. 26. Emergency action in the event of a needle stick injury  In the event of a cut, needle stick injury or splash: ◦ Wash skin thoroughly with soap under running water ◦ If bleeding, encourage bleeding before washing. Never suck a wound! ◦ Cover skin with a waterproof dressing ◦ Report the incident to your line manager ◦ Seek medical advice ◦ If possible take the needle (sealed in a box) or chemical sample when seeking medical advice
  27. 27. Sharps Collection Equipment & PPE  A Sharps collection kit should consist of the following items:  Copy of the Collection Procedures  Litter picker or plastic tongs  Empty Sharps Containers  Sterile Wipes  Medical Gloves  Approved Sharps Gloves
  28. 28. Sharps Collection Procedure Safe Recovery Procedure  Use only appropriate PPE & Equipment   Keep away from body Place directly into Sharps Container
  29. 29. A Typical Sharps Collection Procedure Example Collection Procedure  Staff should collect and check the Sharps collection kit Staff should always use the equipment provided to reduce the possibility of injury  Preventing Needle Stick injuries is the best way of protecting yourself from infection   If there are any items of equipment missing from the kit You Must report the shortage to your Supervisor immediately  When staff reach the location of the Sharp they should proceed with extreme caution
  30. 30. Cleaning Body Fluid Spillages Equipment Requirements: 'Clean-up' kits can be provided by your Supervisor or Manager which should typically contain:       Latex gloves in perfect condition, A disposable polythene apron, Granules for absorbing spillages, Disinfectant cleanser spray, Disinfectant handwipes, Yellow disposal bag
  31. 31. Body Fluids Procedure General instructions that apply to all fluid clean ups.  Always wear all protective gear provided.  Follow instructions carefully on all absorption products.  Use only the yellow biohazard bags to dispose of waste.  Check with your supervisor for specific disposal instructions.  Principles of the cleaning procedure: • ALWAYS assume any body fluids may contain disease causing agents • There should be no physical contact between them and the cleaner's body • Infection hazards will be destroyed by the disinfectant in a short time e.g. half an hour • Body fluid spills and sharps etc must be treated as biohazard/clinical waste. • Read all instructions carefully before handling any fluids
  32. 32. - Body Fluid and Sharps Actions 5. DISCARD SHARPS: solid materials 1. DO NOTHING: initially carefully survey the affected area. 2. DISCOVERY: on discovering any “Sharps” or “Body Fluids”, isolate the affected area. 3. Do not clean until adequately stocked 'Clean-up' kit is available. 4. PROTECT YOURSELF: wear the plastic apron and put on disposable latex gloves forthwith. If gloves become damaged in the operation replace them immediately (from the 'Clean-up' kit). should be removed using the Scoop and Spatula provided in the kit and placed directly into the 'Sharpsafe' container; alternatively and for sharps - needles/glass - use forceps. After use, decontaminate implements by spraying with the disinfectant and leave soaking, do not dry them. 6. BODY FLUID SPILLAGES: follow instructions given in the 'Clean-up' kit:- 7. ABSORB: body fluids absorbent granules, with the 8. REMOVE GRANULES: collect with a Scoop and Spatula or similar and discard into the yellow disposal bag,
  33. 33. 9. 10. 11. Body Fluid and Sharps Actions: 12. FINAL DISPOSAL: the yellow DISINFECT: place all contaminated items in the yellow disposal bag, also spray disinfect the contaminated site but leave for a few minutes. Dispose of any non reusable items in the yellow disposal bag. REMOVE APRON and GLOVES: in that order, dump into the yellow disposal bag, CLEAN HANDS with the Disinfectant-wipes, and discard into the yellow disposal bag. disposal bag should be sealed up and put in robust container pending disposal. Any spillage en route or into the container, will also need to be cleaned in the same manner as described previously. Ask your Manager to arrange for its disposal. 13. The 'Sharpsafe' container should be transported to and stored in a safe place for future use or ask your Manager to arrange for its disposal.
  34. 34. Additional guidelines for assessment 1. 2. Equipment used for body fluid spillages should not be used for any other tasks Any action which leads or may lead to risk of personal infection or cross contamination will mean immediate failure of the task 3. 4. 5. 6. Body fluids include: Blood, Urine, Vomit, Faece s, Sputum etc. Contaminated items include: Nappies, Sanitary towels, Contraceptives, Clo thing, Dressings, Needles, Syringes etc. You must show competence in removing one item from 3. and one item from 4. Spillages should be reported to the appropriate person
  35. 35. Practical task – The removal of body fluid spillages and contaminated items
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