Aerospace Engineering

9,517 views

Published on

Senior Graduation Project base on Aerospace Engineering

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
3 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,517
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
23
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
341
Comments
3
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Hello ladies and gentleman. My name is Rich Farrell and I am here today to talk to you about my Senior Graduation Project which was based on Aerospace Engineering.
  • Aerospace Engineering is a discrete branch of engineering that has an enormous effect on everyday life. The process of designing aircraft is a very complex and intricate art that involves a wealth of knowledge and skills. The world would not be the same place it is today without the technological advancements of Aerospace Engineering.
  • I wanted to learn more about Aerospace Engineering because I planned on majoring in Aerospace in college and I wanted to make sure I liked the topic. My whole life I have had a love for building things from scratch and I have always wanted to be a pilot. I feel the best way to combine my passions would be to major in aerospace engineering.
  • There are many different branches on engineering, but Aerospace Engineering strictly focuses on the design, science, and manufacturing of aircraft and spacecraft. Engineers also get to test the aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, or rockets they design as long as they are properly licensed.
  • The main focus of Aerospace Engineering today revolves around the advancement of space exploration, aviation, and defense systems. With advancing technologies, the focus of engineers change because of new ideas, for example designing defense systems in outer space. Engineers need to be able to apply their prior knowledge to new concepts to be successful in this ever changing world. Engineers can specialize in four different parts of an aircraft’s design. These include structural design, navigation and control, guidance, and instrumentation.
  • Structural design engineers are the first engineers to design any part of the aircraft because all the other systems of the aircraft need to be fit into the overall structure of the aircraft. They have to make sure the aircraft is strong enough to support whatever load it is designated to carry and make sure it is light enough to be able to fly.
  • Navigation and control engineers design everything on the aircraft that is needed to maneuver the aircraft. They also design the aircraft’s power-plant because it is used along with controls like rudders, stabilizers, and ailerons to control the aircraft.
  • Guidance system engineers focus on the electronic systems used to keep the aircraft on course. Mainly these engineers design new GPS systems for aircraft, but the do not deal with the older non-electronic instruments.
  • Instrumentation engineers design non-electronic navigation instruments that help keep an aircraft on course if it’s electronic systems fail. These engineers help keep pilots alive by ensuring the pilots have reliable back up navigational systems. All instruments need to rely on simple technology so they do not fail. For instance a compass relies on the earth’s magnetic field to point out direction.
  • Within the broad discipline of aerospace engineering their are two sub divisions: Aeronautical Engineering and Astronautical engineering. When engineers go through college choose if they would rather be in Aeronautical or Astronautical engineering.
  • Aeronautical engineers only design aircraft that stay inside the Earth’s atmosphere. These aircraft include missiles, airplanes, gliders, and some rockets. These aircraft can operate in the troposphere and the stratosphere, but if they go any higher there is not enough oxygen for the engines to run and the air is too tin to generate lift.
  • Astronautical engineers design aircraft that operate in outer space. These aircraft include satellites, spaceships, and some rockets. They have to be able to withstand the harsh conditions of outer space and be able to make it through the Earth’s atmosphere without burning up.
  • People have had ideas for flying machines for hundreds of years, but no one had successfully built one until the Montgolfier brothers built a hot air balloon in 1783. Inventors like Leonardo da Vinci studied birds and used scientific concepts to design flying machines, but none of them worked because they were inefficient and relied on human power. The Montgolfier balloon was fueled by burning wood and fabrics that created the hot air that lifted the ballon. The first flight was unmanned, but within the same year people were flying in the balloon at hights upwards of 3,000 feet. One of the most noted aeronautical engineers is Sir George Cayley who was the first person to identify the four forces of flight, which are weight, lift, drag, and thrust. He designed several flying machines, but all were inefficient due to useless propulsion systems.
  • Although the Wright brothers are probably the most famous aeronautical engineers, they were not the first people to discover flight, but they were the first people to discover an efficient way of powered flight. Their very first flight only went 120 feet, but the aircraft was powered, manned, and controlled. The Wright brother’s success instantly sparked a huge interest in flight, which would lead to huge technological advancements in aeronautics. Soon militaries around the world saw the benefits of aircraft and began funding research in aeronautics, which led to most of the major advancements in aerospace engineering.
  • NASA, one of the foremost contributors in Aerospace Engineering was founded in 1958 by the USA to help make advancements in wartime technology. They would focus on designing defense systems and weapons that would operate in outer space. All of the major advancements in aerospace have come from wartime technology.
  • Since aerospace engineering is such a complex form of engineering, only a select few universities provide Aerospace Engineering majors. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University is the leading university in Aerospace Engineering. It is located at Daytona Beach International Airport and is equipped with it’s own private landing strip. The school focuses on providing education in a variety of aviation careers and provides a variety of courses in aerospace engineering. Engineers will take different courses depending on their career path. Some of these courses include: Fluid Mechanics, Astrodynamics, Mathematics, Propulsion, Aircraft Structures, Avionics, and Material Sciences among many others.
  • Engineers do not just design aircraft, they can design software for aircraft, deal with marketing and sales for an aircraft manufacturer, manage a team of aerospace engineers that work on a specific project, they can research new technologies, ensure their company’s product is operating at full potential by preforming field services, and they can also study to become professors of aerospace engineering.
  • If an aerospace engineer majors in aerospace engineering and plans on becoming an aircraft designer, that engineer will need to learn all of the design disciplines needed for flight. These disciplines include: thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, and guidance/control systems. Engineers can focus on only one discipline or they can become experts in multiple disciplines.
  • Thermodynamics is involved in both astronautical and aeronautical engineering because it is primarily used in the design of rockets and jet engines. Engineers use thermodynamics to help determine how powerful the engines need to be to power the spacecraft or aircraft. Celestial mechanics involves the study of all of the forces that will act on spacecraft outside earth’s atmosphere. Engineers use celestial mechanics to make sure spacecraft can survive the harsh elements of space.

  • Aerodynamics is very important discipline in aerospace engineering because it involves the science behind why aircraft fly. The most important principles in aircraft aerodynamics are lift and drag. Lift is what pushes the up against the aircraft’s wing and keeps it flying. Drag slows the aircraft down because it is friction created by the air running over the aircraft’s surface. Engineers use wind tunnels to help perfect their design and ensure maximum efficiency. Propulsion mechanics are used by astronuatical engineers to help determine how to power spacecraft. Since spacecraft are powered only by rockets engineers use propulsion mechanics to make sure the spacecraft will perform properly.


  • Acoustic design involves all of the aircraft systems that respond to sound. In airplanes the primary acoustic system is the VOR receiver which picks up radio frequencies from airports to determine the aircraft’s location. It also involves the communication systems used by pilots to communicate with other pilots and airports. The last main design principle of aircraft is the control/guidance systems, which involve everything needed to control the aircraft. Engineers need to design the control systems within the aircraft’s structural design and ensure that the systems will not fail. The guidance systems are used to keep the aircraft on course and make sure the aircraft gets where it needs to go.

  • Like I said earlier there are for forces that act on aircraft during flight, these forces include lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Weight is the force that pulls the aircraft towards the earth and consists of the aircraft’s weight, fuel, and payload. Lift is the opposing force of weight and it needs to be greater then the force of the weigh for the aircraft to be able to fly. Lift acts on a center of pressure on the wing and pushes against the wind to keep the aircraft flying. Thrust and drag are also opposing forces. Trust is created by the engines to push the aircraft through the air, while drag hits the surface area of the aircraft and slows it down. The force of the thrust needs to be much greater than the force of the drag.
  • The same four forces that act on an aircraft also act on a rocket, but in different ways. Weight and Drag are both opposing forces to thrust, so the thrust has to be very powerful for the rocket to fly. Lift barely affects the flight of the rocket because the rocket is traveling vertically. Lift will affect the rocket if it starts to veer towards a horizontal trajectory.
  • There are many parts on a commercial airplane, but not all of the are necessary for an airplane to fly. An airplane needs a fuselage, a wing, vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, and an engine to be able to fly, but it will be uncontrollable without the other parts. The rudder, elevator, flaps, and ailerons are necessary for the pilot to be able to properly control the airplane. The slats and spoilers are put on aircraft to make it even easier for the pilot to control the aircraft and keep it on a perfect course.
  • All the parts on the rocket are necessary for the rocket to fly. The nose cone, launch lug, body tube, and fins are all used to keep the rocket on course. The engine is pushed on against a mount so when it fires it pushes the rocket upward. Recovery wadding is put in the body to keep the rocket from catching on fire. When the rocket reaches it’s maximum altitude the engine shoots a small charge out that blows the nose cone, shock cord, and parachute out of the body to slow the rocket’s decent.
  • There are two major propulsion systems used on aircraft, they are a rotary engine with a propeller and gas turbine or jet engines. Rotary engines were the first engines used on airplanes and they are still used on aircraft today. Jet engines are used on larger airplanes like passenger jets because they are very powerful and allow the airplane to go faster.
  • The career outlook for aerospace engineers graduating from an accredited aviation university is fairly good. The amount of aerospace engineers is expected to rise by 2012 because the troubled economy is forcing companies to come up with new and more efficient aircraft, so they need more engineers. Military cutbacks are expected to reduce the amount of aerospace engineers in the military, but the number of engineers in the private sector is expected to increase.
  • Aerospace engineers make more money the the majority of other engineers because of the unique skills needed to design aircraft. They earn anywhere from $49,000 to $120,000 annually. The average aerospace engineer earns from $61,000 to $94,000.
  • Drafting, also known as Technical Drawing, is a very important part of an Aerospace Engineer’s job. All engineers take technical drawing classes because they need to learn how to draw their discipline using standard conventions, so any other engineer can use their drawings. Everything from the lines to angles to text on the drawing must be measurable in someway and there is very little freehand drawing in drafting. Engineers will freehand sketch what they want to design, but the final draft of the drawing should have no freehand sketching on it.
  • There are six major drafting conventions that all engineers follow when designing anything, these include: line thickness, text size, dimensioning, layout, view projections, and descriptive geometry. Engineers use different pencils that are numbered for identification, to change the thickness of lines. Every final drawing should have set sizes for text, have proper dimensions, have corresponding layouts if there are different view projections, and all geometric shapes should be labeled and measured.
  • When engineers begin drafting, they start by drawing an overall freehand sketch of what they are designing. They then take that sketch and make proper dimensions so they can begin the technical drawings. Once the first technical drawing is complete, the engineer can then draw different perspectives of the object, which include Front, Side, and Top views. After all views of the technical drawing are finished the engineer can then take those drawings and transfer them into a computer aided design program or CAD for short.
  • Engineers use a variety of tools while drafting to ensure the drawing meets all the standard conventions. These tools include a drafting table, t-square, compass, 30-60-90 triangle and a 45-45-90 triangle, an array of different numbered pencils with an eraser, and a straight edge for measurements. Without these tools the technical drawings would not be measurable in anyway because these tools allow the engineer to draw measurable lines, angles, circles, ellipses, arcs, and geometric shapes.
  • Advancements in computer technology has allowed engineers to switch from traditional drafting to computer aided design. Make the switch has made it quicker and easier for engineers to design aircraft and it is also easier to give the designs to the manufacturer through CAD.
  • CAD can be used to design any part of an aircraft and the computer design programs can make both 2d and 3d designs of the aircraft. Engineers can use CAD to make scale drawings on the computer and give them to manufacturers so they can then build the aircraft.
  • There are many different CAD programs and they all have there strengths and weaknesses. The most popular CAD programs include: AutoCAD, TurboCAD, AutoDesk Inventor, Pro/Engineer, and Microstation which is used in our school. I used microstation to make the technical drawings of the airplane for my application.
  • CAD can basically be used to design everything on the aircraft: including the layout of the aircraft’s structure, the layout of the control systems, electrical systems, fuel systems, and the layout of the power plant.
  • Once the engineer designs the aircraft by drafting the design or using CAD, the design can be sent to a manufacturer so they can build a test aircraft. When the test aircraft is completed the test pilots test the aircraft rigorously to make sure it operates at maximum potential.
  • If the aircraft passes the tests, it can then be sent into mass production so the manufacturer can build and sell the aircraft. Each aircraft will still go through thorough testing to make sure it will preform at maximum potential.
  • For my application I applied my research to build a model airplane and rocket, along with transferring the designs of both the rocket and the airplane into multiple CAD drawings.
  • The rocket I built took about two hours to build and was fairly simple to put together. There are several different engines that can be used to power the rocket. The engines are labeled from A-F for this particular rocket and they get more powerful as the letter advances through the alphabet. The engines also have a small charge that explodes at maximum altitude and it ejects the nose-cone and a parachute that slows the rocket’s decent.
  • The model airplane I built was a balsa wood model of WWII airplane called the OE-1 birddog that was used for surveillance during the war. The model was very complex and it took around 25-30 hours to build.
  • I made three different perspective drawings of the airplane including Front, Side, and Top Views. The drawings were very complex and time consuming because they needed to follow all of the design conventions. Each perspective took around 6-8 hours to draw, with over 20 hours of total drawing time just for the airplane. The rocket was very easy to draw and took less than an hour for total drawing time because of it’s simplistic design. I only needed one perspective for the rocket because it is symmetric from every view.




  • In conclusion, Aerospace Engineers affects everyday life by making advancements in flight technology. Almost everyone will fly on an airplane at some point in their life and some people even fly everyday. These engineers help make the world run smoother by designing new and safe technology for everyday people to use.
  • Aerospace Engineering

    1. 1. Aerospace Engineering By: Rich Farrell
    2. 2. Thesis Aerospace Engineering is a discrete branch of engineering that has a huge effect on everyday life. The process of designing aircraft is a very complex and intricate art that involves a wealth of knowledge and skills.
    3. 3. Personal Relevance I really wanted to learn more about Aerospace Engineering because I plan on majoring in Aerospace Engineering at college. I have always had a love of airplanes and a love for building things from scratch. Aerospace engineering allows me to combine my passions, so I can have a career doing what I love to do.
    4. 4. What is Aerospace Engineering? A branch of engineering that involves the design, manufacturing, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/28634332@N05/4053615832/ Aerospace Engineering encompasses the testing of aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and rockets. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/LESEC/60950480/ MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    5. 5. Continued The focus of Aerospace Engineering today revolves around the advancement of space exploration, aviation, and defense systems. Aerospace Engineers specialize in areas that include: structural design, navigation and control, guidance, and HTTP://GRIN.HQ.NASA.GOV/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-000650.JPG instrumentation. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    6. 6. Structural Design Structural Design - Engineers focus on the overall layout of the airplane. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MSC_PICS/3945450173/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    7. 7. Navigation and Control The engineers that focus on navigation and control design everything that makes the aircraft maneuverable. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/BUSABOYS/3062765729/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    8. 8. Guidance These engineers focus on electronic guidance systems for aircraft. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MATTHEWPHX/2325660754/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    9. 9. Instrumentation These engineers design instruments that will help keep an aircraft on course if it’s electronic systems fail. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/NOGWATER/57324173/SIZES/L/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    10. 10. Branches of Aerospace There are two main branches of Aerospace engineering, Aeronautical and Astronautical engineering. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 28634332@N05/4053615832/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 28634332@N05/4053615832/ PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP:// FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082&SOURCE=GALE&USERGRO UPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
    11. 11. Aeronautical Engineering Aeronautical engineering involves craft that stay inside Earth’s atmosphere. Craft such as missiles, airplanes, gliders, and some rockets. HTTP://WWW.VTAIDE.COM/PNG/ATMOSPHERE.HTM PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP://FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082 &SOURCE=GALE&USERGROUPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
    12. 12. Astronautical Engineering Astronautical Engineering involves craft that operate in outer space. Craft such as satellites, spaceships, and some rockets. HTTP://WWW.VTAIDE.COM/PNG/ATMOSPHERE.HTM PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP://FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082 &SOURCE=GALE&USERGROUPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
    13. 13. History The very first flight was performed by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 in a hot air balloon. The first planning for “flying machines” began in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sir George Cayley is know as the first real pioneer of aeronautics engineering. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/PMURF/124396690/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
    14. 14. Continued The Wright brothers first flight on December 17, 1903 sparked interest in aerospace engineering on a whole different level. Aeronautical technology advanced rapidly during HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ both World Wars. 35437908@N04/3441455285/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
    15. 15. Continued In 1958 the USA founded NASA because of the cold war, an organization that would go on to make huge advancements in Aerospace Engineering. The majority of the advancements in aerospace engineering have come from wartime HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ technology. 8490341@N04/4388535872/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
    16. 16. Schooling The career path for an Aerospace Engineer starts with schooling. There are a variety of courses an engineer will take depending on what their career path is, including: Fluid Mechanics, Astrodynamics, Mathematics, Propulsion, Aircraft Structures, Avionics, Material Sciences, and many others. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MZWP/312439334/ COHN, JESSICA. “REACH FOR THE STARS.” CAREER WORLD NOV.-DEC. 2007, 3RD ED.: 22+. SIRS DISCOVERER. WEB. 30 NOV.2009. <HTTP:// DISCOVERER.PROD.SIRS.COM.WF2DNVR11.WEBFEAT.ORG////?URN=URN%3ASIRS %3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000269745>. WWW.ERAU.EDU
    17. 17. Careers Within Aerospace Engineering A major in Aerospace Engineering can provide may different career opportunities including careers in: Software development Marketing and sales Management Research Design and development Field service Teaching HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ GSFC/2915118017/ RUDY, CAROL ANN. “CAREERS IN AVIATION: PART 6.” MIAMI HERALD [MIAMI] 15 MAY 2001: N. PAG. SIRS DISCOVERER. WEB. 30 NOV. 2009. <HTTP://DISCOVERER.PROD.SIRS.COM.WF2DNVR11.WEBFEAT.ORG////? URN=URN%3ASIRS%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000136252>.
    18. 18. Aerospace Engineering Design Disciplines Thermodynamics Celestial mechanics Aerodynamics Propulsion Acoustics HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ Guidance and Control AIRPLANE/THERMO1.HTML Systems NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    19. 19. Thermodynamics and Celestial Mechanics HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ TOPTECHWRITER/338573258/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/THERMO.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    20. 20. Aerodynamics and Propulsion HTTP://WWW.NASA.GOV/AUDIENCE/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ FORSTUDENTS/K-4/DICTIONARY/ ROCKET/ROCKET.HTML AERODYNAMICS.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    21. 21. Acoustics, Guidance and Control Systems HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/BETH- 21582132@N02/3325879849/ HARPER/3883504562/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
    22. 22. Forces that act on Aircraft NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010. HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/FORCES.HTML      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/ K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    23. 23. Forces acting on a Rocket HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ ROCKET/RKTFOR.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/ K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    24. 24. Major Parts of an Airplane HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/AIRPLANE.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/ WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    25. 25. Major Parts of a Rocket HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ROCKET/ RKTPARTS.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    26. 26. Types of Propulsion Systems HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/PROPELLER.HTML AIRPLANE/TURBINE.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
    27. 27. Career Outlook The number Aerospace Engineers is expected to increase by 2012. The cuts in military spending may cut back on aerospace engineers in the military, but the number of engineers in the private sector is expected to increase. The troubled economy is expected increase the number of aerospace engineers because airlines want new aircraft that are cheaper to run. "AEROSPACE ENGINEERS CAREER INFORMATION." COLLEGEGRAD. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY      2010. <HTTP://WWW.COLLEGEGRAD.COM/CAREERS/PROFT07.SHTML>.
    28. 28. Salaries The average aerospace engineer makes around $61,180 to $94,340 annually. The lower end of the spectrum makes less than $49,920 annually. The upper end of the spectrum makes upwards of $120,760 annually. "AEROSPACE ENGINEERS CAREER INFORMATION." COLLEGEGRAD. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY      2010. <HTTP://WWW.COLLEGEGRAD.COM/CAREERS/PROFT07.SHTML>.
    29. 29. Drafting Drafting is also known as Technical Drawing. All technical drawings have a standards and conventions that Drafters follow. Everything from lines to HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ angles to text must MATTHEWPIPER/2947273251/ measurable in some way. There is little to no freehand drawing in Drafting. DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    30. 30. Drafting Conventions Line Thickness. Text Size Dimensioning Layout View Projections Descriptive Geometry HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ CHRISTOPHERSCORTEZ/4268069348/ DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    31. 31. Steps of Drafting 1. Sketch overall drawing. 2. Begin to figure out overall dimensions for drawing. 3. Begin technical drawings by using overall dimensions as a guide. 4. After first drawing is complete, draw different perspectives of the HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ MSK13/4108482239/ object (Front, Side, Top Views). 5. Drafted drawings can then be put into computer programs by using CAD. DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    32. 32. Drafting Tools Drafting Table. T-Square. Compass. 30-60-90 triangle and 45-45-90 triangle. An array of different HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ numbered pencils with eraser. SHENGHAN/3388012454/ Straight Edge DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    33. 33. Change from Drafting to CAD With advancing technology drafting has become obsolete and CAD has become the new way to make technical drawings. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    34. 34. CAD-Computer Aided Design With today’s technology engineers can use CAD to design all parts of an aircraft. CAD allows engineers to make 2D and 3D designs of aircraft. Engineers can make scale drawings with design programs that manufacturers then use to build the aircraft. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    35. 35. Popular CAD Programs AutoCAD TurboCAD AutoDesk Inventor Pro/Engineer MicroStation (used in HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ our school) 38569128@N05/3861494801/ REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    36. 36. So what can CAD be used for? CAD can be used to design the layout of the structure, control systems, electrical systems, fuel systems, and the power plant. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
    37. 37. From Design to Production Once engineers finish design all the fundamentals of the aircraft they can give the design to a manufacturer to build a test aircraft. When the test aircraft is completed test pilots then HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ UNIT2345/4540861953/ test the aircraft rigorously to make sure it operates at full potential. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT
    38. 38. Continued If the aircraft passes the test will go into production and the manufacturer can than sell the aircraft. Each aircraft will still go through testing after it is built to make sure it preforms at maximum HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 25616404@N05/4033280989/ potential. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT
    39. 39. Application To apply what I learned in my research to everyday life, I built a model airplane and rocket. I also transferred the aircraft design to multiple CAD drawings.
    40. 40. Rocket The rocket I built is a standard rocket that can be bought at a hobby store. The complete assembly took around two hours and is fairly simple.
    41. 41. Airplane The model airplane I built was of a WWII aircraft called the Birddog. The model took around 25-30 hours to build because it is very complex.
    42. 42. CAD I made three perspectives of the airplane included Front, Side, and Top views. There is only one perspective of the rocket because it is symmetric from every view.
    43. 43. Class Activity We are going to go onto NASA’s website to use a virtual model that demonstrates the factors involved with lift. HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/FOILSIME.HTML
    44. 44. Works Cited Cohn, Jessica. “Reach for the Stars.” Career World Nov.-Dec. 2007, 3rd ed.: 22+. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 30 Nov.2009. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org////?urn=urn%3Asirs %3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000269745>. Colditz, Graham. “Aerospace Industry.” Encylopedia of Cancer and Society. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Excerpt from Encylopedia of Cancer and Sociey. Ed. Graham Colditz. Vol. 1. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc., 2007. 3 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http:// find.galegroup.com//infomark.do? &contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX2660500018&source=gal e&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0>. Davies, Mark. The Standard Book for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers. Ed. Mark Davies. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003. Print “Doing Business with NASA.” SIRS Government Reporter Dec. 1996: 6-19. SIRS Government Reporter. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http://sks.sirs.com.wf2dnvr6.webfeat.org/bin/hst-article-display? id=SPL2957-0-8&artno=0000086177&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=&title=This%20Is %20NASA&res=Y&ren=Y&gov=Y&lnk=N&ic=N>. Wilkinson, Ronald S., and John F. Buydos. Aeronautical and Astronautical Resources of the Library of Congress: A Comprehensive Guide. Washington DC: The Library of Congress, 2007. Print.
    45. 45. Continued Pattillo, Donald M. Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2003. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com// infomark.do? &contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX3401800082&source=gale&userG roupName=king46652&version=1.0>. Rudy, Carol Ann. “Careers in Aviation: Part 6.” Miami Herald [Miami] 15 May 2001: n. pag. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org////?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS %3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000136252> Reese, Susan. "CAD/CAM: A New Dimension in Design and Manufacturing." Techniques. 01 Jan. 2005: 37. eLibrary. Web. 23 May. 2010. "Aerospace Engineers Career Information." CollegeGrad. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2010. <http:// www.collegegrad.com/careers/proft07.shtml>. NASA. "Guided Tours of the BGA." NASA. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2010. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/ K-12/airplane/guided.htm>. Dym, Clive L; Agogino, Alice M; Eris, Ozgur; Frey, Daniel D; Leifer,. "Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning." Journal of Engineering Education 1(2005):103. eLibrary. Web. 23 May. 2010. www.erau.edu
    46. 46. Conclusion In conclusion, Aerospace Engineers affect everyday life by making advancements in flight technology. Almost everyone will fly on an airplane at some point in their life and some people even fly everyday. These engineers help make the world run smoother by designing new and safe technology for everyday people to use.

    ×