DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LABORATORY
TECHNOLOGY
HAEMATOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC II (SBD 0153)

NAME : NUR FATHIYAH BINTI MOHD.
ID
: 012012...
NORMOCYTIC (NORMAL SIZE)
 biconcave shape , no nucleus
SIZE
 7.2 X 2.1 µm




NORMOCHROMIC
Hemoglobin content in rbc....
normocytic
microcytic

marcocytic
 MCV < 90 fl
 Defect in nuclear maturation /
stimulated erythrocytes.
Disorder : Folate and vitamin B12
deficiency , re...
m
i
c
r
o
c
y
t
i
c

 Low in hemoglobin
synthesis.
 MCV > 80 fl
 Disorder : iron
deficiency anaemia ,
thalassemia and
h...
Tear drop cell
(dacryocytes)

Sickle cell
(drepanocytes)

Target cell
(codocytes)

Thorn cell
(acanthocytes)

Helmet cell
...
Sickle cell
(drepanocytes)
Usually forming the shape
of a cresent or banana.

No central pallor

Dense hemoglobin
(dark re...
Target cell
(codocytes)

About the same size
as normal RBC

Disorder : liver
disease , thalassemia
Bull’s eye appearance
(...
Thorn cell (acanthocytes)
Multiple thorny , spikes.

No central
pallor

Also known as spur cell

Rare thorn cell may be
se...
Causes : decrease deformability which leads
to increasing cell rigidity and premature
destruction.
Disorder : bleeding in ...
Due to underlying
RBC membrane
defect.

Compact and
round shape

“slit-like” or
“mouth-like “
central pallor.

Disorder : ...
Usually
longer and
narrower
than normal
RBC.

OVALOCYTES /
ELLIPTOCYTES

Disorder : thalassemia
, hemolytic anemia ,
iron ...
Doughnut
shaped

No central
pallor

SPHEROCYTES
MCV may be normal of
slightly decreased

Due to loss of
membrane due to
ag...
BLISTER
CELL

Vacuoles may
ruptured

Thinner area at periphery / outer
membrane of cell membrane.

Disorder : pulmonary
em...
An army helmet
features with short
straps.

Remains after
rupturing of
blister cell

HELMET CELL
(SCHIZOCYTES)

Disorder :...
TEAR DROP CELL
(DACRYOCYTES)

Unipolar tapered
end with a blunt tip

Increase number of
tear drop RBC is a clue
to a possi...
Normal erythrocytes
: pinkish red with
lighted coloured
centre.

Hypochromia : central pallor
exceed 1/3 of the cell membr...
AGGLUTINATION
Irregular overlapping
aggregate of RBC’s.

Seen in cold antibody
syndrome

Reaction of antibodies with
antig...
C
crystal

Howelljolly
bodies

Malaria
parasites

RBC
inclusion

Basophilic
stippling /
punctate
basiphilia

Pappenheimer
...
Nuclear / cytoplasmic
aggregates of stainable
substances , usually protein.

condition
 formed if there is the
abnormalit...
May be centrally
located or sometimes in
the periphery

Staining :
Romanowsy (eosinmetilena blue)

Composed of
fragments o...
BASOPHILIC STIPPLING /
PUNCTATE BASOPHILIA
Staining : romanowsy
(eosin-metilena blue

Artifactual caused by
precipitation ...
PAPPENHEIMER BODIES
(SIDEROCYTE)
Staining : prussian blue
Caused by excess
available iron
throughout the body
Purplish irr...
H INCLUSION
Stain with supravital
stain four drops of blood
is incubated with 0.5ml
of brilliant cresyl blue
for 20 minute...
Purple-blue inclusions visible only after
supravital stain

Composed of
denatures hemoglobin

HEINZ
BODIES

Seen in alpha ...
CABOT RING
Purplish ring-shaped , figure-8 /
loop shaped structure composed
of nuclear membrane remnants

Exact mechanism
...
Round to oval ringshaped intracellular
parasite in RBC’s

MALARIA
PARASITES
Found in malaria
Usually <2 micrometer in
youn...
C
CRYSTAL
Hexagon shaped /
rhomboid shaped
crystalline structures
in RBC’s.

Variable sized RBC
crystalline dark bluepurpl...
RETICULOCYTES
Young red blood cells that
contains ribonucleic acid
and ribosomes
Seen As dark
blue granule or
filament
Sta...
normal and abnormalities in red blood cell
normal and abnormalities in red blood cell
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normal and abnormalities in red blood cell

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  • Thank YOU so very much for posting this. I am studying for my ASCP BOC exam for MLT and next year I will be testing again for the MLS. In two years I will be testing into the specialized area with work on Phd. So finding this is a True Blessing. :)
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normal and abnormalities in red blood cell

  1. 1. DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY HAEMATOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC II (SBD 0153) NAME : NUR FATHIYAH BINTI MOHD. ID : 012012111311. LECTURER’S NAME :MDM SHUHADA DATE OF SUBMISSION : 03 DECEMBER 2013
  2. 2. NORMOCYTIC (NORMAL SIZE)  biconcave shape , no nucleus SIZE  7.2 X 2.1 µm    NORMOCHROMIC Hemoglobin content in rbc. Normal colour : pinkish red (wright / leishman staining). Pale central area -1/3 of total surface
  3. 3. normocytic microcytic marcocytic
  4. 4.  MCV < 90 fl  Defect in nuclear maturation / stimulated erythrocytes. Disorder : Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency , reticulocytosis.
  5. 5. m i c r o c y t i c  Low in hemoglobin synthesis.  MCV > 80 fl  Disorder : iron deficiency anaemia , thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies , malabsorption syndrome.
  6. 6. Tear drop cell (dacryocytes) Sickle cell (drepanocytes) Target cell (codocytes) Thorn cell (acanthocytes) Helmet cell (schizocytes) Shape variation Burr cell (echinocytes) Blister cell Spherocytes Ovalocytes / elliptocytes Stomatocytes
  7. 7. Sickle cell (drepanocytes) Usually forming the shape of a cresent or banana. No central pallor Dense hemoglobin (dark red to light purple) Disorder : sickle cell anemia
  8. 8. Target cell (codocytes) About the same size as normal RBC Disorder : liver disease , thalassemia Bull’s eye appearance (resembles the target sign) Due to excess membrane cholesterol or low haemoglobin content
  9. 9. Thorn cell (acanthocytes) Multiple thorny , spikes. No central pallor Also known as spur cell Rare thorn cell may be seen in a blood smear which may be due to the very old RBC’s Disorder : cirrhosis , neonatal hepatitis and post-splenectomy
  10. 10. Causes : decrease deformability which leads to increasing cell rigidity and premature destruction. Disorder : bleeding in gastric ulcers , peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Evenly distributed , uniformly sized spicules BURR CELL (ECHINOCYTES)
  11. 11. Due to underlying RBC membrane defect. Compact and round shape “slit-like” or “mouth-like “ central pallor. Disorder : alcoholism , thalassemia minor , hereditary spherocytosis. STOMATOCYTES
  12. 12. Usually longer and narrower than normal RBC. OVALOCYTES / ELLIPTOCYTES Disorder : thalassemia , hemolytic anemia , iron deficiency anemia. Usually has a central pallor
  13. 13. Doughnut shaped No central pallor SPHEROCYTES MCV may be normal of slightly decreased Due to loss of membrane due to aging , antibody coating or genetic defect. Disorder : autoimmune hemolytic anemia , transfusion reaction
  14. 14. BLISTER CELL Vacuoles may ruptured Thinner area at periphery / outer membrane of cell membrane. Disorder : pulmonary emboli in sickle cell anemia , microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
  15. 15. An army helmet features with short straps. Remains after rupturing of blister cell HELMET CELL (SCHIZOCYTES) Disorder : emboli , G6PD deficiency , hemolytic anemia
  16. 16. TEAR DROP CELL (DACRYOCYTES) Unipolar tapered end with a blunt tip Increase number of tear drop RBC is a clue to a possible underlying marrow process. Disorder : thalassemia , severe anemia , megaloblastic anemia , mylefibrosis.
  17. 17. Normal erythrocytes : pinkish red with lighted coloured centre. Hypochromia : central pallor exceed 1/3 of the cell membrane. Anisochromia : uneven coloration of erythrocytes. Hyperchromia : erythrocytes is intensively coloured. Polychromatophilia : cytoplasm is greyishorange in colour. VARIATION IN RED CELL COLORATION
  18. 18. AGGLUTINATION Irregular overlapping aggregate of RBC’s. Seen in cold antibody syndrome Reaction of antibodies with antigens on erythrocytes ROULEAUX FORMATION Caused by concentration of fibrinogen or immunoglobulin Arrangement of erythrocytes in groups that resembles stacks of coins Seen in multiple myeloma , inflammation VARIATION IN RED CELL DISTRIBUTION
  19. 19. C crystal Howelljolly bodies Malaria parasites RBC inclusion Basophilic stippling / punctate basiphilia Pappenheimer bodies (siderocytes) Reticulocytes Cabot ring Heinz bodies H inclusion
  20. 20. Nuclear / cytoplasmic aggregates of stainable substances , usually protein. condition  formed if there is the abnormalitiy  invoved virus infection  classified according to staining
  21. 21. May be centrally located or sometimes in the periphery Staining : Romanowsy (eosinmetilena blue) Composed of fragments of DNA Caused by acceleration / ineffective erythropoiesis in which chromosome fragments are left in the cytoplasm Disorder : splenectomy and in thalassemia , hemolytic anemia HOWELL-JOLLY BODIES
  22. 22. BASOPHILIC STIPPLING / PUNCTATE BASOPHILIA Staining : romanowsy (eosin-metilena blue Artifactual caused by precipitation of RNA during staining Composed of ribosomes Very small blue / blue-gray granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm of RBC’s Disorder : defective / accelerated heme synthesis , lead poisoning anf thalassemia
  23. 23. PAPPENHEIMER BODIES (SIDEROCYTE) Staining : prussian blue Caused by excess available iron throughout the body Purplish irregular aggregates of granules composed of ferric iron Disorder : sideroblastic anemia , thalassemia , asplenism
  24. 24. H INCLUSION Stain with supravital stain four drops of blood is incubated with 0.5ml of brilliant cresyl blue for 20 minutes at 37°c Blue-green dots can be seen in the red blood cell Composed of precipitated chains of beta-hemoglobin Can be seen in HbH disease because of the deposit of the unstable hemoglobin red blood cell,HbH.
  25. 25. Purple-blue inclusions visible only after supravital stain Composed of denatures hemoglobin HEINZ BODIES Seen in alpha thalassemia , G6PD deficiency and unstable hemoglobin syndromes
  26. 26. CABOT RING Purplish ring-shaped , figure-8 / loop shaped structure composed of nuclear membrane remnants Exact mechanism unknown Staining : romanowsky Rarely seen Disorder : pernicious anemia , lead poisoning , homozygous thalassemia and post-splenectomy
  27. 27. Round to oval ringshaped intracellular parasite in RBC’s MALARIA PARASITES Found in malaria Usually <2 micrometer in young trphozoites
  28. 28. C CRYSTAL Hexagon shaped / rhomboid shaped crystalline structures in RBC’s. Variable sized RBC crystalline dark bluepurple inclusions. Disorder : hemoglobin C , hemoglobin SC
  29. 29. RETICULOCYTES Young red blood cells that contains ribonucleic acid and ribosomes Seen As dark blue granule or filament Staining : Supravital stains (such as brilliant cresyl blue, as used here) clump RNA and mitochondria and permit easy identification of reticulocytes, as compared to mature RBC

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