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HIST_1302_CH_19_World War I

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  • 1. America and World war I (1916-1920)
    Chapter 19
  • 2. American International Relations
    Roosevelt Corollary
    Roosevelt announced that the U.S. would intervene to ensure the stability and solvency of Latin American nations
    Particularly the Dominican Republic, Panama, and Cuba
    Many of these nations were in severe debt with Europe
    Roosevelt also wanted to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama
    Opened in 1914
  • 3. American International Relations
    Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
    Taft tried to substitute economic force for military power
    Money over the military
    Use economic investment and loans for persuasion
    Worked in the Caribbean
    However, it alienated China, Japan, and Russia
  • 4.
  • 5. American International Relations
    Wilson’s Moral Imperialism
    Rescinded Dollar Diplomacy and announced that he would respect Latin America’s independence
    Believed that the spread of manufactured American goods and investments would spread democratic ideals
    In reality, Wilson got the U.S. more involved militarily in Latin America
    More than any President before or since
    Wilson also got involved with the Mexican Revolution
    Mexicans viewed American soldiers as invaders instead of liberators
    America’s presence complicated issues in Mexico greatly
  • 6.
  • 7. Principles of Just War
    War must be waged as a last resort
    War must be waged by a legitimate authority against another legitimate authority
    War must be waged to redress a wrong suffered
    War must be waged with a reasonable chance of success
    The ultimate goal of war is to reestablish peace
    Violence must be used proportionally to the injury suffered
    Combatants must discriminate between mutual combatants and non-combatants (civilians)
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. World War I
    Phase 1 – Neutrality
    Wilson urges Americans to stay neutral in regard to the conflict in Europe
    In reality, he and most Americans were sympathetic to the Allies
    Early in the war, a British luxury liner named the Lusitania was sank by German submarine
    Germany sank a few other ships, but then pledged to not attack any more ships without warning
    These events gave American commercial ships pause and concern over Germany’s neutrality toward the U.S.
  • 11.
  • 12. World War I
    Phase 1 – Neutrality
    Diplomats, politicians, and military experts began to debate the role the U.S. would play in world affairs; especially the situation in Europe
    Debates over neutrality
    Immigrants wanted the U.S. to stay neutral because Americans had a long tradition of neutrality and immigrants did not potentially want to get involved in a war against countries they shared ethnic backgrounds with
    Progressives wanted to get involved with the war as quickly as possible
    They believed that Wilson’s reluctance to side with the Allies was controlled by big business interests
  • 13. World War I
    Phase 2 – Preparedness
    By the end of 1915, Wilson began promoting a policy of preparedness regarding the conflict in Europe
    Wilson began to negotiation with an increasingly aggressive Germany and a hostile Mexico in 1916
    Democrats champion him as the man “Who Kept Us Out of the War”
    In the last months of 1916, Wilson appeals for the embattled nations to work towards a “Peace Without Victory”
  • 14. World War I
    Phase 2 – Preparedness
    Wilson initially wanted to run his reelection campaign on a platform of Americanism and preparedness
    Better judgment called for him to run on a platform of neutrality and “Keeping the Country out of the War”
    Wilson wins by only a ½ million votes despite a large turnout by women voters
    Germany violated the U.S.’s neutrality agreement shortly afterwards
    Germany reasoned that the U.S. had declared their intent to side with the Allies because the U.S. was frequently trading with England
  • 15.
  • 16. World War I
    Phase 2 – Preparedness
    The Zimmerman Telegram
    A telegram from Germany to Mexico indicating that Germany would wage unrestricted warfare on the seas against the United States
    Germany wanted to offer Mexico financial support so Mexico could reclaim its lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
    After the U.S. intercepted the message, Wilson orders all American merchant ships to arm themselves
    He also ordered the U.S. Navy to sink any aggressive submarines
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. World War I
    Phase 3 – Declaring War
    Five U.S. merchant ships were sunk by German submarines in March 1917
    This propels Wilson to declare war
    Wilson’s Secretary of War, William Jennings Bryan quits because of his fundamentalist stance against war
    Wilson formally declares war on 2 April 1917
  • 20. World War I
    Phase 3 – Declaring War
    Americans initially believed they would fight the war by sending supplies to the Allies
    However, they quickly realize they would have to commit troops because of the high casualty rates due to trench warfare in Europe
    Americans thought the war would be like a safari
    Propaganda greatly portrayed it as such
    The Wilson administration enacts the Selective Service Act
    Drafts over 2 million soldiers
    June 1917 – American troops land in France
    Summer 1918 – American forces combined with Allied forces were strong enough to persuade the Germans to ask for peace
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. World War I Under Just War Standards
    Wilson constantly portrayed America as an innocent nation
    Free of self-interest and righteous in its cause; good vs. evil
    Americans were fighting for the rights of mankind
    Future peace and security in the world
    Americans desire no conquest and see no dominion
    Wilson effectively sets the tone for how Americans view foreign policy for the rest of the century and into the 21st century
  • 24. World War I Under Just War Standards
    A tyrannical and total evil requires a total response
    Everyone has to be involved in the war
    Women and minorities become involved despite significant domestic issues
    Wilson was ultimately biased
    Believed Germans started the problem and Britain was the savior trying to fix it
  • 25. World War I Under Just War Standards
    Wilson’s view on conducting business on the seas while remaining neutral
    In reality, from 1897 to 1914, American overseas investments soared to over $2.6 billion dollars
    Unrestricted German warfare on the seas definitely cuts into profits
    The shipping industry was vital to America’s economic prosperity
  • 26. World War I Under Just War Standards
    Was it a just war?
    World War I destroyed an entire generation of European men
    Europe never recovers from World War I spiritually
    Most stop going to church, lose hope in the traditional sense of a benevolent God loving and protecting them
    In contrast, Americans view themselves as the victors who saved the day
    Europe could not have won without us
    The American clergy gets a boost from their ardent support of the war
    Fundamentalism grows throughout the next decade
  • 27. The Progressive Clergy’s War
    Christian fundamentalist theologians saw the war as a chance to confront the timeless problems of Christian theology in the context of total war
    Sort of a spin on the social gospel; Americans would be serving the kingdom of God by embarking on a religious war against a pagan nation (Germany)
    Their goals required the war to be an epic battle between good and evil
  • 28. The Progressive Clergy’s War
    Wilson’s administration becomes intimately tied with the Progressive clergy
    National week of prayer after war broke out in Europe
    Wilson becomes the poster boy for Southern Baptists who believed he was God’s chosen agent to fix the ills of the world
  • 29. The Progressive Clergy’s War
    Unique blend of social service, personal salvation, and military service
    Pastor William P. Merrill: “The best mark of a ‘saved’ man is not that he wants to go to heaven, but that he is willing to go to China, or the battle-field in France, or to the slums of the city, or to the last dollar of his resources, or to the limit of his energy, to set forward the Kingdom of God.”
  • 30.
  • 31. The Progressive Clergy’s War
    Even after the war is over, the clergy tried anything to keep the agenda of social service, personal salvation, and military service going
    They wanted military conscription and training to be permanent features of America
    Always willing and diligent to go forth as Christian soldiers
    Beginning of a new American militarism
  • 32.
  • 33. Prohibition: The 18th Amendment
    Progressive agenda called for the banning of intoxicating liquors
    Saw national legislation as the best strategy
    A resurgence of the temperance movement
    World War I gave this agenda backing
    Progressive clergy at the forefront of the media and very willing to help the Progressives out
    The amendment did not ban all alcohol, but made it extremely difficult to obtain
  • 34.
  • 35. Prohibition: The 18th Amendment
    One of the few amendments to have a time constraint on ratification
    Only amendment to be repealed
    21st amendment repeals the 18th amendment
    The 18th amendment went into effect in January 1920
    Organized crime and illegal liquor trafficking go up astronomically
  • 36. Women’s Suffrage: The 19th Amendment
    The U.S.’s entry into World War I threatened the suffrage movement
    The National Women’s Party militantly fought for suffrage despite World War I
    Urged people to vote against Senators who would not recognize women’s suffrage in the 1918 mid-term elections
    Women’s efforts during the war won them the respect they needed to get the 19th amendment passed
    Wilson began to publically support the amendment in January 1918
    In August 1920, the 19th amendment was certified
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. The Espionage and Sedition Acts
    Espionage Act of 1917 – prohibited spying, interfering with the military draft, and making “false statements” that might impede military success
    Sedition Act of 1918 – forbade Americans to use “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” regarding the U.S. government, flag, or armed forces during times of war
    The act also allowed the Postmaster General to deny mail delivery to dissenters of government policy during wartime
  • 40. The Espionage and Sedition Acts
    Wilson’s support from the Progressive Democrats and clergy allowed him to easily support these harsh policies that fostered a culture of paranoia
    The passage of these acts turned World War I into a holy, righteous war
    Opposite of the just war that the United States was committed to win
  • 41.
  • 42. 100 Percent Americanism
    Overall push to Americanize – make a more homogeneous national culture
    This became the battle cry for the Ku Klux Klan in Texas during the 1920s
    Anti-German sentiment
    Germans were persecuted
    German literature was destroyed, German teachers were fired, education was almost non-existent for German-Americans during the war
    Germans became a symbol of total and ultimate evil during World War I
  • 43.
  • 44. 100 Percent Americanism
    Eugenics Movement
    A very Progressive idea that combined Social Darwinism with Evolution
    Selective breeding should be applied to humans in order to improve the species
    Eugenics professionals studied the mental characteristics of different races extensively
    Gave anti-immigration and racism a significant boost, making it seem ‘professional’
    Eugenics festivals
    Prizes for families with the best lineage; awarded on a point system
  • 45. 100 Percent Americanism
    Black Protest
    Roosevelt and Wilson both felt that blacks were unfit for suffrage
    Largely ignored the 14th and 15th amendments
    W.E.B. DuBois wrote the Souls of Black Folk
    A Progressive attempt to investigate, expose, and reconcile conflicting ideals of American freedom for blacks and whites
    DuBois also was a co-founder of the NAACP
  • 46. Spanish Influenza
    What is a pandemic?
    Virtually all parts of the world are affected by an illness
    What was the Spanish Influenza?
    Subtype of the H1N1 flu virus (similar to the Swine flu)
    Lasted approximately from March 1918 to June 1920
    Began as a strain that resembled typical flu symptoms
    Mutated into a deadlier strain in the latter part of 1918
  • 47.
  • 48. Spanish Influenza
    What was the Spanish Influenza?
    Troop movements in war zones probably hastened the mutation of the virus
    Due to the poor conditions the troops were living in; trenches
    Living and traveling in small quarters and in large groups
    Troops became the most vulnerable to the virus
    Civilians typically developed immunity to the lighter strain of the virus
  • 49.
  • 50. Spanish Influenza
    Mortality rate
    Roughly 3 to 6 percent of the world’s population
    25 million dead in the first 25 weeks alone
    Spread to the Arctic and Pacific Islands
    Affected healthy, young adults; made the immune system go into overdrive
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. Spanish Influenza
    Why was it called the Spanish Influenza?
    Spain was a neutral country during World War I
    News and media was not censored like the rest of the world
    Gave the disproportionate notion that Spain had the most cases of the virus
    Led people to think that the virus originated there
    No one really knows where the virus came from
    Survivors of the virus
    Woodrow Wilson, Walt Disney, and Gen. John J. Pershing
  • 54. The Strike Wave of 1919
    Wartime rhetoric regarding economic democracy and freedom helped inspire the labor uprising
    The uprising started world-wide
    Socialism and Communism began to influence the United States again
    The strike wave began in Seattle in January 1919
    Great Steel Strike – striking for union recognition, higher waves, and an 8-hour work day
  • 55.
  • 56. Wilson’s Fourteen Points
    “It took God Ten Commandments, and it took Wilson Fourteen Points”
    Basically, this was his outline for peace and to bring about a lasting peace
    Copies of the speech were dropped behind enemy lines as propaganda
    He was encouraged when the Germans asked for peace
    He thought his Fourteen Points would prevail during the peace talks
    Ultimately, they did not
  • 57. The Treaty of Versailles
    Peace treaty for World War I
    Wilson attends with Great Britain and France’s leaders
    The terms of agreement definite are not what he wanted
    The victors take a much harsher policy towards Germany
    Germany has to pay back all the war debt
    Has to acknowledge they are completely responsible for the war
  • 58.
  • 59. The Treaty of Versailles
    Wilson’s language of self-determination and hope does not apply to Britain and France’s point of view
    Wilson has to accept these terms in order to convince France and Britain regarding his “League of Nations”
    Got support to add this into the conditions of the treaty
  • 60. Wilson’s League of Nations
    Goal: “Making the world safe for democracy”
    Wilson saw this as the holiest of goals and the greatest potential legacy
    Opponents saw it as a way for America to lose its freedom of action in times of war
    Too much legislation and red tape to go through in order to act when needed
    The League of Nations is essentially a precursor to the United Nations
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. The Red Scare
    Alarmed by the violent acts of a few anarchists and Communists after World War I, the government resorted to the illegal roundups of innocent people and forcible deportation of aliens
    Lasted roughly a year and a half
    The government’s actions encouraged lynchings and other forms of terrorism against radicals and immigrants (blacks were still included)
  • 64. The Red Scare
    The Secretary of Labor eventually secures the release of political prisoners arrested in the witch hunt
    This effectively causes the Red Scare to collapse
    Makes a resurgence in the 1950s with McCarthyism
    Republican Warren G. Harding won the 1920 election by promising a return to “normalcy”
    Everyone was getting tired of the Progressives, Democrats, and the Red Scare
  • 65. The Red Scare
    The Red Scare quickly subsided, but nativism, bigotry, and fear of foreign influence left its mark on the country well into the 1920s
    Legal restrictions on immigrants increased