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HIST_1302_CH_16 HIST_1302_CH_16 Presentation Transcript

  • The Gilded Age
  • The Second Industrial Revolution
    Railroads essentially cause the Second Industrial Revolution and become the country’s first big business
    Stimulated the post-war national economy and marketplace
    National rail network
    Promoted by federal loans, standardization, and state aid
    Helped contribute to mass production, distribution, and mass marketing of goods
  • Railroad Shipping
  • The Second Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Economy
    By 1913, the United States produced 1/3 of the world’s industrial output
    The 1880 census indicated that a majority of the U.S. workforce was engaged in non-farming jobs (for the first time)
    Financing industrialization became an industry in itself
    Pittsburgh and Chicago begin to grow as a result
  • The Second Industrial Revolution:Inventions
    Nikola Tesla
    Wireless communications;
    Induction motor
    Thomas Edison
    Electric power distribution;
    Light bulb
    A.G. Bell
    Metal Detector
  • The Second Industrial Revolution
    Railroads and Politics
    Became a major political issue through the end of the century
    Regulation was a hotly debated issue
    However, most people did not want to interfere with progress
    Eventually, the Supreme Court ruled that railroad regulatory commissions were legal
    Interstate Commerce Act of 1877 allowed for a commission to hear complaints against railroad companies accused of charging outrageous rates
  • Big Business
    Competition and Consolidation
    Depression plagued the economy between 1873 and 1897
    Businesses engaged in cutthroat competition
    To avoid competition, large businesses battled to control entire industries
    Between 1897 and 1904, 4,000 business consolidated into larger corporations
    Many of these large corporations became monopolies
  • Big Business
    Andrew Carnegie and Steel Manufacturing
    Worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad
    By the 1890s, Carnegie dominated the steel industry
    Used vertical integration
    Buy everything that can be used to take a product from raw material to finished
    His whole life was focused on success
    Also generously gave back to society
  • Big Business
    John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
    Ran a trust that bought everyone else in the oil industry out by purchasing stocks
    Rockefeller slowly consolidated the oil business
    Lowered costs by paying attention to minute details
    Focused on production and marketing aspects of the oil industry
    Utilized horizontal integration
    Buy everyone else out in the same industry
  • Big Business
    Factory conditions
    35,000 factory and mining workers were killed each year in work related accidents
    Highest rate in the industrial world
    Many skilled laborers had their jobs taken by machines
    Workers had few protections from mistreatment on the job
    Economic insecurity was a fact of life
    Long work hours
    No workers’ compensation
  • Class Stratification
    Class divisions became more visible
    The rich get richer
    The poor get poorer
    Many wealthy American gave up their old lives to pursue an aristocratic lifestyle
    Consumerism and consumption of goods became the key to this new form of freedom
  • Class Stratification
    The working class lived in terrible conditions
    12 hour work days; 7 days a week
    1 of 115 workers died in work related accidents
    1 in 8 were injured on the job
    182,000 children under 16 were employed in the mining or manufacturing industries
    Almost the population of Waco
  • The American West
    Farming boomed; more land came into cultivation in the 30 years after the Civil War than the previous 2 and ½ centuries of American history combined; one of the reasons why we have issues during the 1930s with the Dust Bowl; over farming
    A great deal of the farming burden fell on women
    Caused in part by the push by “Redeemers” in the South who celebrated the end of Reconstruction and wanted to bring industrialization and economic improvements to the South by the expansion of population and rail networks
  • The American West
    Bonanza farms
    Powell stated that the arid region of the West would require large-scale irrigation projects and cooperative, communal farming
    Millions of farmers moving to the west to seek crop bonanzas and a new way of life; by 1900, the west was settled and it held 30% of the national population
    Small farms tuned in and realized that they had to appeal to a national and international market (beginning of the international American identity)
    Didn’t help the problems as crop production increased, prices fell, small farmers suffered greatly difficulties in the last quarter of the 1900s
  • The American West
    Mining Boom and Bust
    California in 1849 was the big mining boom state
    Boom came to an end during the 1890s
    Western mines contributed millions to the economy, helped finance the Civil War, supported industrialization, changed relative value of gold (leaving room for the amount of silver to change)
    Mining populations were primarily based of men; sounds a lot like early colonial Virginia (men outnumbered women 2:1)
    After towns became unprofitable, mining ventures moved on leaving Indian reservations, hills, and ghost towns
  • The American West
    The ‘real’ West; the Cowboys
    Cowboys became a symbol of a life of freedom on the open range; no big cities issues to get you down
    They governed themselves (like miners) and typically weren’t as violent as Old West films portray.
    Short lived phenomena, on the way out by 1880s; cattle trails becoming local; regional only; many cowboys switched to raising sheep
  • The American West
    New Farming Methods
    Barbed wire; fence in the wilderness!
    Mechanical technology
    What happens to the farmer?
    Settlers eventually abandon their farms; become restless and angry (pre-cursor to the Populist movement)
    Complaining about declining crop prices, rail rates going up, and heavy mortgages
    The “Grange” takes on the issues as a lobby organization; far from their original goal as one that provided social, cultural, and educational opportunities
  • The West and Indians
    The true “last stand” for the Native Americas; rights as they knew it were about to be taken away
    Constant warfare between the Plains Indians and military occurred between 1850 and 1890
    US army launches a campaign against the Navajo
    One effective method of extermination: kill off the buffalo
    Only 30 million in 1800; nearly extinct by hunting in 1890
  • The West and Indians
    Land availability diminishing
    Homestead Act of 1862 – gave farmers public lands, roughly 160 acres, but that was too small
    Timber and Stone Act – help “civilize” Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada
    Land at $2.50 an acre
    Ten times the limit of the Homestead Act
    Railroads were making a killing because they’re buying it up at discounted rates
    Is it any wonder why the Indians got in the way?
  • The West and Indians
    1871, Congress eliminates the treaty system that dated back to the revolutionary war with the Indians
    Forced American assimilation on the Indians; no choice but to become American
    Dawes Act – attacked tribalism, essentially outlawing it in 1887
    The policy was one of biggest disasters for Indians; trying to promote them as small farmers
  • The West and Indians
    Indian Citizenship
    Must give up tribal identity and be assimilated into American culture
    However, no rights under the 14th and 15 amendments; thanks for playing, but no voting or citizenship rights
    Ghost Dance (Wounded Knee)
    American soldiers kill between 150 and 200 women and children Indians at Wounded Knee Creek in SD as they were taking part in a “Ghost Dance”
    Seen as primitive, backwards, etc.; something the white man should fear
  • Politics in the Gilded Age
    Absolute corruption in politics
    NYC Boss Tweed
    Business interests influencing the House and Senate
    US was an island of democracy that needed to help the ignorant nations of the world
    Democracy was definitely working; very close elections throughout the 1880s
    State and national elections always very close
    The Republican Party dominated national elections though
    Every Republican candidate was a Civil War veteran from 1868 - 1900
  • Politics in the Gilded Age
    Gilded Age presidents did little legislation except for big business; did not exert executive leadership at all
    Republican candidates for president had all fought in the Union army from 1868 to 1900
    Democrats dominated the South and Catholic votes
  • Economics in the Gilded Age
    The government ran on standby was ill prepared to deal with all the problems of rapid economic growth
    Tariff policy in constant debate
    Return to gold standard in 1879 (would soon start issues with the Populists)
    Interstate Commerce Commission
    Another oversight organization in the move toward regulation
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Building block for regulating big business in the 1900s
  • Social Darwinism
    Survival of the fittest in business, society, etc.; White people had to make a reason for why there were rich and why some were poor
    Contends that business tycoons deserve everything they get because “God is on their side” because they worked hard and they had money
    Just have to accept inequality in the world
    Failure to advance in society is likely because of your lack of wits and character
    Courts typically sided with business on everything; just another reflection of this mentality
  • The Social Gospel
    Walter Rauschenbusch insisted that freedom and spiritual development needed to be in harmony with an equalization of wealth and power
    Fits hand in hand with social Darwinism
    Acres of Diamonds speech; needed to have wealth in order to fulfill the duties of being a good Christian
    Alternative theories included socialism, communism (things going on in Russia at the time)
    Early introduction of socialism by Lawrence Gronlund’sCooperative Commonwealth
  • Jacob Riis
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Inequity in New York
  • Labor in the Gilded Age
    1877 Great Railroad Strike
    Demonstrated that labor rights/regulations would become an issue in the Gilded Age and beyond
    Knights of Labor
    Organized workers to improve social conditions in factories
    Conditions essential to liberty
    Labor raised the question whether meaningful freedom could exist in extreme economic inequality
  • Labor in the Gilded Age
    Middle-Class Reformers
    Alarmed by fear of class warfare and the growing concentration of wealth in a few
    The origins of Progressivism
    Henry George’s solution to the labor issue was a single tax
    George also rejected the traditional equation of liberty with ownership of land
  • Labor in the Gilded Age
    Lawrence Gronlund’sCooperative Commonwealth was the first book to popularize socialist concepts and ideas for an American audience
    It explained socialist concepts in common language
    Bellamy’s Utopia
    Edward Bellamy insisted that freedom was a social condition
    Freedom rested on societal interdependence, not autonomy
    Bellamy believed that material abundance made possible by industrial capitalism could be maintained while eliminating inequality
  • The Haymarket Affair
    On 1 May 1886, roughly 350,000 workers across the country demonstrated for 8 hours
    A riot ensued after a bomb killed a police officer on 4 May
    7 of the 8 men accused of plotting the Haymarket bombing were foreign-born
    Employers took the opportunity to use this incident against the labor movement
    Depicted the labor movement as dangerous, un-American, and prone to violence
    Also insisted that labor unions were controlled by foreign-born radicals