HIST_1301_Chapter_3_Notes

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  • 1. Chapter Three CREATING ANGLO-AMERICA (1660-1750)
  • 2. KING PHILIP’S WAR
    • King Metacom “Philip” was an Indian leader that organized a series of raids throughout the Massachusetts Bay colony
      • More settlers were moving in and needing more farm land
      • They used force and violated several treaties to remove Metacom’s tribe from their land
    • At the same time, colonists were setting up “Praying Towns” throughout the area
      • These were towns that wanted to enforce English religion, customs, and laws upon natives without granting citizenship
      • The English used these towns as another excuse to encroach on their land
    • Metacom launched an offensive in 1675
      • They attacked 52 villages and 13 Praying Towns throughout Massachusetts Bay
      • This was the extent of his success
    • Metacom was quickly killed
  • 3.  
  • 4. KING PHILIP’S WAR
    • Reactions
      • The colonist’s counterattack in 1676 marked the end of Indian power in Massachusetts Bay
      • As a result, Indians in the area no longer trusted English colonists
      • In the future, small, insignificant Indian raids would often set off waves of paranoia in English settlements
    King Metacom
  • 5. ENGLAND’S COMMERCIAL EMPIRE
    • Commerce became the foundation of the new English empire
      • Elizabeth I was largely responsible for this
    • England wanted to become the biggest player in the Atlantic trade game
      • The first step was to solidify control of the eastern coast of North America
    • Charles II ruled over the colonists with an iron fist
    • After finding out that the colonists were not following the Navigation Acts, he tightened control
      • Appointed new colonial governors who would be loyal to the King
      • Created “dominions” over the colonies that would govern the colonies at large
        • Severely limited the law-making ability of the colonies
      • This became an early form of the “federal system” that we know today
  • 6.  
  • 7. NEW NETHERLAND (NY AND NJ)
    • The Dutch settled New Netherland in 1609 shortly after the voyages of Henry Hudson
    • The colony was property of the Dutch West Indies Co.
      • The New York area received very little attention and had a series of incompetent leaders
      • Immigrants were primarily from Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Africa (most had little loyalties to the Dutch)
    • The English took notice and began attacking New Amsterdam
      • They took control in 1664
      • The colonies (NY, NJ, Delaware, and Maine) became personal property of James II, the Duke of York
    • English began to occupy the area freely after learning how weak Dutch influence was in the colonies
    • The Dutch eventually surrendered the colonies, so they could retain their holdings in Africa, Asia, and South America
  • 8. NEW YORK
    • Government
      • The Duke of York introduced the “Duke’s Laws” which granted religious freedom and recognition of preexisting land titles (to those already in the colony)
      • However, the governor was appointed by the king
      • Power of the colonial government was chosen by the king
        • However, he did allow for local government control by the colonists
      • Colonists in New York demanded the same liberties as Englishmen under English Common Law
        • They finally were recognized in the Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1683
        • New York also established an elected assembly
    • By 1700, the Duke of York divided up 2 million acres of land to roughly 5 elite New York families
  • 9. NEW JERSEY
    • The land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers became New Jersey
    • The Duke of York sold this land to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
    • Carteret attempted to collect taxes from colonists, but gave up
    • He eventually sold half of his property to the Quakers
      • They put in a democratic government in West Jersey
  • 10. CAROLINA
  • 11. CAROLINA
    • Carolina was the first colony established after Charles II ascended the throne
    • Located between Virginia and Spanish Florida
      • The Treaty of Madrid made it possible for England to colonize this land
      • England used this as an opportunity to keep pressure on Spanish Florida and also prevent Spanish expansion
    • John Locke and Sir Anthony Cooper devised a radical plan of government
      • The majority of the governmental power would rest with the hereditary elite, but the rights of common landowners would be protected
    • Cooper appealed to farmers in Barbados to colonize Carolina
      • Numerous settlements sprung up around Charleston
      • Government largely failed on the Locke/Cooper model
      • Slaves were readily imported
  • 12. CAROLINA
    • A complicated feudal system resulted
      • Religious toleration and elected assemblies were included though
    • Overall, Carolina became a significant importer of slaves
      • The climate and soil allowed for numerous kinds of plant cultivation
  • 13. QUAKERS
    • Known also as the Religious Society of Friends
    • A Christian religious denomination that began in the early 17 th century
    • Principles
      • Each man and woman could communicate directly with God
      • Rejected the concept of predestination
      • Believers emitted an ‘inner light’
    • English authorities considered them anarchists and dangerous to society
      • They were persecuted heavily in the mid-17 th century
    • Regarding Liberty
      • Quakers believed that whites, blacks, and Indians were all entitled to liberty
      • They believed that religious freedom was a fundamental principle
      • They also had a strict moral code
        • William Penn attempted to use this as the foundation for his first government in Pennsylvania
  • 14.  
  • 15. PENNSYLVANIA
  • 16. PENNSYLVANIA
    • The last colony established in the 1600s
    • Pennsylvania was established to alleviate a 16,000 pound debt owed by the Stuarts (Charles II’s family) to William Penn’s late father
      • Penn got the land as a result
    • Penn envisioned a colony of harmony between colonists and Indians
      • Haven for spiritual freedom
    • Penn was a member of the Quakers and Society of Friends (SoF)
      • One of his primary motives was to establish a haven for those trying to escape religious persecution in Europe
    • Penn owned all of Pennsylvania’s land and sold it at very low prices
      • Very different because he did not grant land outright
  • 17. WILLIAM PENN
  • 18. PENNSYLVANIA
    • Land Owners
      • 600 people initially bought land from Penn (roughly ¾ of a million acres)
      • Most of the buyers were Quakers
      • Penn recruited immigrants from England, Ireland, Germany, and Wales
      • The population boomed
    • Government
      • A majority of the male population could vote
        • Males only had to own 50 acres of land to be eligible
      • Criminal laws were lax
        • Capital punishment for murder and treason only
      • Penn’s initial government was overly complicated
  • 19. PENNSYLVANIA
    • Philadelphia
      • Became a booming port city built on a grid system
      • Boasted wide roads and red brick homes
      • The city prospered because it was in the middle of the booming Atlantic trade route
      • Markets did well because of the grid system
    • Overall
      • Penn did not make a lot of money, but Pennsylvania was successful
      • He owned a wealthy colony, but eventually went broke and was thrown in debtor’s prison
      • He later marked the entire colony as a complete failure
  • 20. PHILADELPHIA’S GRID SYSTEM
  • 21. SLAVERY IN AMERICA
    • One of the primary reasons for the expansion of slavery in North America was the need for labor on tobacco plantations
    • Slavery in North America would be very different from slavery throughout history
      • Only a small portion of the 8-11 million African slaves sold came to America
      • By 1720, 1 in 5 in the Chesapeake Bay colonies was black
      • However, slavery expanded slower in North America due to expense and high mortality
    • The Middle Passage was the worst part of the journey through the Atlantic Slave Trade route
      • Space on ships was roughly the size of coffins
      • No bathrooms
      • Almost no food
  • 22. SLAVERY IN AMERICA
    • Race and Racism
      • These concepts did not exist at this point in history
      • The true battle was between Christians and barbarians, not white vs. black, etc.
        • Africans fit the mold for the typical English interpretation of barbarians
        • Africans were seen as alien in color, religion, and social practices
    • Why slaves over indentured servants or Indians?
      • Indentured servants were expensive
        • They eventually had to be paid off, given land, etc.
        • They were less willing to do hard labor on sugar and tobacco plantations
      • Disease and warfare killed off a great portion of the Indians
  • 23. SLAVERY IN AMERICA
    • Black Codes
      • Passed in Virginia for all tobacco growers
      • Ruled that any person who killed a slave while punishing them would not be tried in court
      • No black could strike a white
      • Slaves are slaves from birth to death
      • Slaves could not hold property, testify in court, etc.
      • Religious conversion did not warrant the freedom of a slave
    • Virginia and Maryland began referencing these codes in 1660
    • In cases where one part is free and the other is a slave, the offspring’s status would follow that of the mother
    • These restricts gave slaves a legitimate reason to consider rebellion
  • 24. SLAVERY IN AMERICA
    • Slave Resistance by Civil Disobedience
      • Broke tools
      • Slowed their work
      • Arson, theft, and murder (rare cases)
    • Who owned slaves in the South?
      • 5% of the upper class owned slaves, held large tracts of land, and did not do labor with their slaves
      • Middle Class – worked with their slaves and owned smaller portions of land
      • Lower Class – did not own slaves and were lucky to own a horse
  • 25. BACON’S REBELLION
  • 26. BACON’S REBELLION
    • Nathaniel Bacon was a young planter that was bent on gaining power and becoming one of the ‘elite planters’ in Virginia
    • He gained a following by promising freedom and land those who joined him
      • He said that the colonial government was robbing and cheating everyone
      • He also called for the removal of all Indians and lower taxes
    • Specifically, Bacon was angry at Virginia Governor William Berkeley
      • Berkeley ran a corrupt government for 30 years in an alliance with Virginia’s wealthiest tobacco planters (Bacon was not invited to the club)
      • He gave them the best land grants, leaving new planters little choice on the land they received
      • He also did not want to forcibly take Indian lands
  • 27. GOV. WILLIAM BERKELEY
  • 28. BACON’S REBELLION
    • The conflict began with a minor confrontation between Indians and settlers on the western frontier
      • Bacon was furious and began to raid Indian and settlers’ villages
      • Declared a traitor by Berkeley
      • Indians were his primary target, but settlers became collateral damage
    • Bacon proceeded to march on Jamestown and burn it to the ground
      • Became the de facto ruler of Virginia for a short time after he ran the governor off
    • Control was finally restored after British warship came
    • Overall, he effectively pushed the Indians out of the Chesapeake Bay
  • 29. BACON’S CASTLE
  • 30. BACON’S REBELLION
    • Threats of Civil War
      • Bacon’s Rebellion served as a rude awakening for many of the colonial elite
      • The elite previously did not think the non-elite would attempt to revolt
      • This was essentially a struggle between economic classes
      • The elite slowly realized they had to improve their image and show some concern for the poor
      • Essentially, this was a perfect example of the danger of many land-less freemen in a society controlled by a few elite
        • Resembles Early Marxism
  • 31. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
    • Also called the Revolution of 1688
    • It essentially established Parliamentary supremacy (over monarch supremacy) and secured a Protestant succession to the throne after Charles II
    • Charles II’s successor, James II was not very popular and thought about converted England back to Catholicism (bad idea)
      • However, Parliament did not worry too much as the throne would have passed to his daughter, Mary, a Protestant, and the wife of William of Orange
      • The conflict began when James II had a son (which would potentially turn England Catholic again)
    • Parliament forced James II into exile and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William to ascend the throne
    • Is this really a revolution or a Dutch take-over?
  • 32. JAMES II
  • 33. WILLIAM AND MARY
  • 34. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
    • Why is it called the glorious revolution?
      • It was a bloodless revolution
      • Glorious because it was the first revolution England had without constant warfare
        • Remember the English Civil War?
    • How did the revolution affect the colonies?
      • Massachusetts Bay finally annexes Plymouth Bay
        • A new charter that tolerated religious freedom was developed
      • Some colonists became angry when the crown instituted a Lord of Trade to oversee the colonies
      • James II created a ‘super-colony’ called the Dominion of New England before his departure
        • Basically all the colonies were viewed as one contiguous unit
        • This made them easier to administrate
  • 35. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND
  • 36. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND
    • During the 17 th century, over 350 New Englanders were accused of witchcraft
      • Over 200 in Salem, Massachusetts alone
      • Virtually no one was accused in the South; this was truly a Northern phenomenon
    • Who was accused?
      • Typically, older, outcast women were the primary targets
      • They usually were post-menopausal, did not have sons, had economic autonomy, and were single
      • Economic autonomy alone gave men a reason to envy this women to some degree
    • In Salem, an Indian slave woman named Tituba was blame for the outbreak of witchcraft
      • Led to hysteria
      • 14 women and 5 men were executed as a result
    • What ends the hysteria
      • The governor’s wife eventually gets accused of witchcraft
      • Thus, the governor believe the hysteria had gone too far and ended the numerous trials
  • 37. TITUBA
  • 38. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN NORTH AMERICA
    • Large scale migration began to drain England as everyone started to come to North America
      • England began efforts to stop emigration
    • Over 145,000 Scots and Scots-Irish migrated to the colonies
    • Germans
      • Over 110,000 migrated
      • They represented the largest group of immigrants
      • They tended to travel in families and greatly enhanced the ethnic and religious diversity of the colonies
  • 39. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN NORTH AMERICA
    • Liberties that attracted settlers
      • Land availability
      • Lack of a military draft
      • Little restraints on economic opportunity
    • Regional diversity
      • The colonial backcountry was the fastest growing region
      • Farmers in the Middle Colonies enjoyed an especially high standard of living
      • Pennsylvania became known as the best “poor man’s country”
    • European competition
      • By the mid-18 th century, France had roughly 10,000 settlers left
        • Spain had less than 14,000 (mostly in Texas and Florida)