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    HIST_1301_Chapter_3_Notes HIST_1301_Chapter_3_Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Three CREATING ANGLO-AMERICA (1660-1750)
      • King Metacom “Philip” was an Indian leader that organized a series of raids throughout the Massachusetts Bay colony
        • More settlers were moving in and needing more farm land
        • They used force and violated several treaties to remove Metacom’s tribe from their land
      • At the same time, colonists were setting up “Praying Towns” throughout the area
        • These were towns that wanted to enforce English religion, customs, and laws upon natives without granting citizenship
        • The English used these towns as another excuse to encroach on their land
      • Metacom launched an offensive in 1675
        • They attacked 52 villages and 13 Praying Towns throughout Massachusetts Bay
        • This was the extent of his success
      • Metacom was quickly killed
      • Reactions
        • The colonist’s counterattack in 1676 marked the end of Indian power in Massachusetts Bay
        • As a result, Indians in the area no longer trusted English colonists
        • In the future, small, insignificant Indian raids would often set off waves of paranoia in English settlements
      King Metacom
      • Commerce became the foundation of the new English empire
        • Elizabeth I was largely responsible for this
      • England wanted to become the biggest player in the Atlantic trade game
        • The first step was to solidify control of the eastern coast of North America
      • Charles II ruled over the colonists with an iron fist
      • After finding out that the colonists were not following the Navigation Acts, he tightened control
        • Appointed new colonial governors who would be loyal to the King
        • Created “dominions” over the colonies that would govern the colonies at large
          • Severely limited the law-making ability of the colonies
        • This became an early form of the “federal system” that we know today
      • The Dutch settled New Netherland in 1609 shortly after the voyages of Henry Hudson
      • The colony was property of the Dutch West Indies Co.
        • The New York area received very little attention and had a series of incompetent leaders
        • Immigrants were primarily from Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Africa (most had little loyalties to the Dutch)
      • The English took notice and began attacking New Amsterdam
        • They took control in 1664
        • The colonies (NY, NJ, Delaware, and Maine) became personal property of James II, the Duke of York
      • English began to occupy the area freely after learning how weak Dutch influence was in the colonies
      • The Dutch eventually surrendered the colonies, so they could retain their holdings in Africa, Asia, and South America
    • NEW YORK
      • Government
        • The Duke of York introduced the “Duke’s Laws” which granted religious freedom and recognition of preexisting land titles (to those already in the colony)
        • However, the governor was appointed by the king
        • Power of the colonial government was chosen by the king
          • However, he did allow for local government control by the colonists
        • Colonists in New York demanded the same liberties as Englishmen under English Common Law
          • They finally were recognized in the Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1683
          • New York also established an elected assembly
      • By 1700, the Duke of York divided up 2 million acres of land to roughly 5 elite New York families
      • The land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers became New Jersey
      • The Duke of York sold this land to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
      • Carteret attempted to collect taxes from colonists, but gave up
      • He eventually sold half of his property to the Quakers
        • They put in a democratic government in West Jersey
      • Carolina was the first colony established after Charles II ascended the throne
      • Located between Virginia and Spanish Florida
        • The Treaty of Madrid made it possible for England to colonize this land
        • England used this as an opportunity to keep pressure on Spanish Florida and also prevent Spanish expansion
      • John Locke and Sir Anthony Cooper devised a radical plan of government
        • The majority of the governmental power would rest with the hereditary elite, but the rights of common landowners would be protected
      • Cooper appealed to farmers in Barbados to colonize Carolina
        • Numerous settlements sprung up around Charleston
        • Government largely failed on the Locke/Cooper model
        • Slaves were readily imported
      • A complicated feudal system resulted
        • Religious toleration and elected assemblies were included though
      • Overall, Carolina became a significant importer of slaves
        • The climate and soil allowed for numerous kinds of plant cultivation
      • Known also as the Religious Society of Friends
      • A Christian religious denomination that began in the early 17 th century
      • Principles
        • Each man and woman could communicate directly with God
        • Rejected the concept of predestination
        • Believers emitted an ‘inner light’
      • English authorities considered them anarchists and dangerous to society
        • They were persecuted heavily in the mid-17 th century
      • Regarding Liberty
        • Quakers believed that whites, blacks, and Indians were all entitled to liberty
        • They believed that religious freedom was a fundamental principle
        • They also had a strict moral code
          • William Penn attempted to use this as the foundation for his first government in Pennsylvania
      • The last colony established in the 1600s
      • Pennsylvania was established to alleviate a 16,000 pound debt owed by the Stuarts (Charles II’s family) to William Penn’s late father
        • Penn got the land as a result
      • Penn envisioned a colony of harmony between colonists and Indians
        • Haven for spiritual freedom
      • Penn was a member of the Quakers and Society of Friends (SoF)
        • One of his primary motives was to establish a haven for those trying to escape religious persecution in Europe
      • Penn owned all of Pennsylvania’s land and sold it at very low prices
        • Very different because he did not grant land outright
      • Land Owners
        • 600 people initially bought land from Penn (roughly ¾ of a million acres)
        • Most of the buyers were Quakers
        • Penn recruited immigrants from England, Ireland, Germany, and Wales
        • The population boomed
      • Government
        • A majority of the male population could vote
          • Males only had to own 50 acres of land to be eligible
        • Criminal laws were lax
          • Capital punishment for murder and treason only
        • Penn’s initial government was overly complicated
      • Philadelphia
        • Became a booming port city built on a grid system
        • Boasted wide roads and red brick homes
        • The city prospered because it was in the middle of the booming Atlantic trade route
        • Markets did well because of the grid system
      • Overall
        • Penn did not make a lot of money, but Pennsylvania was successful
        • He owned a wealthy colony, but eventually went broke and was thrown in debtor’s prison
        • He later marked the entire colony as a complete failure
      • One of the primary reasons for the expansion of slavery in North America was the need for labor on tobacco plantations
      • Slavery in North America would be very different from slavery throughout history
        • Only a small portion of the 8-11 million African slaves sold came to America
        • By 1720, 1 in 5 in the Chesapeake Bay colonies was black
        • However, slavery expanded slower in North America due to expense and high mortality
      • The Middle Passage was the worst part of the journey through the Atlantic Slave Trade route
        • Space on ships was roughly the size of coffins
        • No bathrooms
        • Almost no food
      • Race and Racism
        • These concepts did not exist at this point in history
        • The true battle was between Christians and barbarians, not white vs. black, etc.
          • Africans fit the mold for the typical English interpretation of barbarians
          • Africans were seen as alien in color, religion, and social practices
      • Why slaves over indentured servants or Indians?
        • Indentured servants were expensive
          • They eventually had to be paid off, given land, etc.
          • They were less willing to do hard labor on sugar and tobacco plantations
        • Disease and warfare killed off a great portion of the Indians
      • Black Codes
        • Passed in Virginia for all tobacco growers
        • Ruled that any person who killed a slave while punishing them would not be tried in court
        • No black could strike a white
        • Slaves are slaves from birth to death
        • Slaves could not hold property, testify in court, etc.
        • Religious conversion did not warrant the freedom of a slave
      • Virginia and Maryland began referencing these codes in 1660
      • In cases where one part is free and the other is a slave, the offspring’s status would follow that of the mother
      • These restricts gave slaves a legitimate reason to consider rebellion
      • Slave Resistance by Civil Disobedience
        • Broke tools
        • Slowed their work
        • Arson, theft, and murder (rare cases)
      • Who owned slaves in the South?
        • 5% of the upper class owned slaves, held large tracts of land, and did not do labor with their slaves
        • Middle Class – worked with their slaves and owned smaller portions of land
        • Lower Class – did not own slaves and were lucky to own a horse
      • Nathaniel Bacon was a young planter that was bent on gaining power and becoming one of the ‘elite planters’ in Virginia
      • He gained a following by promising freedom and land those who joined him
        • He said that the colonial government was robbing and cheating everyone
        • He also called for the removal of all Indians and lower taxes
      • Specifically, Bacon was angry at Virginia Governor William Berkeley
        • Berkeley ran a corrupt government for 30 years in an alliance with Virginia’s wealthiest tobacco planters (Bacon was not invited to the club)
        • He gave them the best land grants, leaving new planters little choice on the land they received
        • He also did not want to forcibly take Indian lands
      • The conflict began with a minor confrontation between Indians and settlers on the western frontier
        • Bacon was furious and began to raid Indian and settlers’ villages
        • Declared a traitor by Berkeley
        • Indians were his primary target, but settlers became collateral damage
      • Bacon proceeded to march on Jamestown and burn it to the ground
        • Became the de facto ruler of Virginia for a short time after he ran the governor off
      • Control was finally restored after British warship came
      • Overall, he effectively pushed the Indians out of the Chesapeake Bay
      • Threats of Civil War
        • Bacon’s Rebellion served as a rude awakening for many of the colonial elite
        • The elite previously did not think the non-elite would attempt to revolt
        • This was essentially a struggle between economic classes
        • The elite slowly realized they had to improve their image and show some concern for the poor
        • Essentially, this was a perfect example of the danger of many land-less freemen in a society controlled by a few elite
          • Resembles Early Marxism
      • Also called the Revolution of 1688
      • It essentially established Parliamentary supremacy (over monarch supremacy) and secured a Protestant succession to the throne after Charles II
      • Charles II’s successor, James II was not very popular and thought about converted England back to Catholicism (bad idea)
        • However, Parliament did not worry too much as the throne would have passed to his daughter, Mary, a Protestant, and the wife of William of Orange
        • The conflict began when James II had a son (which would potentially turn England Catholic again)
      • Parliament forced James II into exile and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William to ascend the throne
      • Is this really a revolution or a Dutch take-over?
    • JAMES II
      • Why is it called the glorious revolution?
        • It was a bloodless revolution
        • Glorious because it was the first revolution England had without constant warfare
          • Remember the English Civil War?
      • How did the revolution affect the colonies?
        • Massachusetts Bay finally annexes Plymouth Bay
          • A new charter that tolerated religious freedom was developed
        • Some colonists became angry when the crown instituted a Lord of Trade to oversee the colonies
        • James II created a ‘super-colony’ called the Dominion of New England before his departure
          • Basically all the colonies were viewed as one contiguous unit
          • This made them easier to administrate
      • During the 17 th century, over 350 New Englanders were accused of witchcraft
        • Over 200 in Salem, Massachusetts alone
        • Virtually no one was accused in the South; this was truly a Northern phenomenon
      • Who was accused?
        • Typically, older, outcast women were the primary targets
        • They usually were post-menopausal, did not have sons, had economic autonomy, and were single
        • Economic autonomy alone gave men a reason to envy this women to some degree
      • In Salem, an Indian slave woman named Tituba was blame for the outbreak of witchcraft
        • Led to hysteria
        • 14 women and 5 men were executed as a result
      • What ends the hysteria
        • The governor’s wife eventually gets accused of witchcraft
        • Thus, the governor believe the hysteria had gone too far and ended the numerous trials
    • TITUBA
      • Large scale migration began to drain England as everyone started to come to North America
        • England began efforts to stop emigration
      • Over 145,000 Scots and Scots-Irish migrated to the colonies
      • Germans
        • Over 110,000 migrated
        • They represented the largest group of immigrants
        • They tended to travel in families and greatly enhanced the ethnic and religious diversity of the colonies
      • Liberties that attracted settlers
        • Land availability
        • Lack of a military draft
        • Little restraints on economic opportunity
      • Regional diversity
        • The colonial backcountry was the fastest growing region
        • Farmers in the Middle Colonies enjoyed an especially high standard of living
        • Pennsylvania became known as the best “poor man’s country”
      • European competition
        • By the mid-18 th century, France had roughly 10,000 settlers left
          • Spain had less than 14,000 (mostly in Texas and Florida)