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HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
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HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
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HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
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HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes
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HIST_1301_Chapter_2_Notes

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  • 1. Chapter Two EARLY ENGLISH AMERICA (1590 TO 1675)
  • 2. SPANISH COLONIZATION IN 1600
    • Spain was the only empire to have successful colonies at the turn of the 17 th century
      • However, the defeat of the Spanish Armada and a surge in Dutch trade made expansion and colonial reinforcement difficult
    • Issues in North America
      • The Spanish believed that the New World was of no value
      • They realized that they overestimated how much gold and silver was actually there
      • However, they still held on to New Mexico and Florida believing that they would find fortunes similar to the Aztec Empire in Central America
        • Catholic missionaries were sent to both locations and started more than 50 missions
        • The missionaries believed the Native Americans would readily adopt European dress, customs, food, and farming methods.
      • In the North, the Spanish crown grew tired of funding poor expeditions and proposed that all who wished to colonize the North use their own funding
  • 3. SPANISH COLONIZATION IN 1600
    • Interaction with Native Americans
      • Spanish and Native Americans frequently intermingled, leading to a class of Spanish citizens known as Mestizos
        • Half Spanish, Half Native American
      • The Spanish crown took this seriously, gave the Mestizos a decent amount of rights as Spanish citizens
      • They also began a series of preventative measures to ensure Spanish explorers and colonists did not further exploit Native Americans
  • 4. ENGLISH COLONIZATION IN IRELAND
    • The British’s involvement in Ireland cost the empire an enormous amount of money that could have been used to fund expeditions to the New World
    • Religious Justification
      • The British needed to subdue the Catholic threat in Ireland in order to protect Protestant rule in England
      • Sort of a passive-aggressive of showing force against the Spanish/Catholic threat
    • Pacification Approaches
      • Military conquest, slaughter of civilians, seizure of land
      • England sought to conquer, not absorb the ethnic Catholic Irish
    • English writers at the time frequently compared the ethnic Irish to Native Americans
      • Why?
  • 5.  
  • 6. ENGLISH COLONIZATION IN IRELAND
    • The English easily confused liberty with license
      • The Irish were “too free” (sound similar to their views towards the Native Americans?)
      • If the Irish did not convert to Protestantism, they were problematic barbarians and had to be dealt with appropriately
      • Convert to the ‘correct religion’ or be annihilated
    • This mentality is important because it gets transplanted wholesale to North America with English colonization
    • Why did the English give up on annihilating Ireland?
      • Queen Elizabeth I turned their attention to North America
      • After defeating the Spanish Armada, they scrambled to stake their claims in the New World
  • 7. ENGLAND’S MOTIVES FOR EXPANSION
    • Spreading Protestantism
      • The quintessential P.R. reasoning
      • Anti-Catholicism was the norm in England and they wanted to do anything to stop Catholicism in the rest of the world
      • Furthermore, it was a win-win situation if they could destroy Catholicism and Spain at the same time
    • The 5 Gs
      • Gold, Glory, God, Greed, and Gold
      • National glory, profit, and missionary zeal
    • Trade
      • The English knew the Spanish were fighting a losing battle looking for mineral wealth in North America
      • They believed the best way to make a fortune was to exploit resources in North America, make goods, and trade!
    • Dealing with the English social crisis
  • 8. ENGLAND’S SOCIAL CRISIS
    • England’s decline economy (brought on by frequent drought and war) led to an increasing number of poor that strained the economy and led to a social crisis
    • Population grew from 3 million in 1550 to 4 million in 1600
      • A significant change for the time
    • “ Enclosure movement”
      • Rich landlords wanted to make a profit by raising sheep to expand wool trade
      • They introduced modern farming techniques such as crop rotation and as a result, they evicted small farmers and took away common land
      • (common land was communal land that was frequently used by poor, subsistent, farmers)
      • This caused thousands of unemployed farmers to flood the cities in search of jobs
        • Crime rates rise as a result
    • The English crown did little to alleviate the problem
      • Henry VIII stated those without jobs could be whipped, branded, forced into military service, or executed
  • 9. ENGLAND’S SOCIAL CRISIS
    • Elizabeth I offered two solutions:
      • Force vagrants and vagabonds to accept any job offered
      • Go to America!
      • (The ‘unruly poor’ was highly encouraged to venture to the New World to find riches)
    • Propaganda campaigns
      • The crown and colonizing companies appealed to the poor by stating they could become “Masterless Men” in the New World
      • A man could control his own labor, gain independence from the English “man”, and own land.
      • Thomas Moore’s Utopia describes this in detail and encouraged the ‘unruly poor’ to go to America to escape the inequities of Europe
  • 10. ENGLAND’S INITIAL PUSH TO AMERICA
    • How many people left?
      • Between 1600 and 1700, over half a million people left England
      • Sustained immigration was vital for a colony’s success (and survival)
      • Lower class “unruly poor” and indentured servants represented 2/3 of those that left England
      • Indentured servants did not enjoy liberties while under contract (essentially another form of slavery)
    • Dealing with Land
      • Land was the basis of liberty for the English
      • It was also a source of wealth and power for colonial officials
      • Taking land from Native Americans was needed to expand the English crown’s mission
  • 11. ENGLAND’S INITIAL PUSH TO AMERICA
    • Interaction with Native Americans
      • Bottom line: English wanted Native American land at any cost
      • This sparked over a century of frequent, bloody warfare between colonists and Native Americans
      • The English knew how to fight and had superior weapons
        • This gave this another sense of ‘authority’ over the savages
      • Unlike the Spanish, the English could care less for how the Native Americans were treated
      • English interaction essentially reshaped Indian society and culture
      • The English also transformed the natural environment by fencing in land and introducing disease, crops, and livestock
    • Paradox of colonial land entitlement:
      • The English recognized Native American sovereignty to land based on their occupancy on that land
      • However, the English forcibly took the land surrounding the Native Americans based on vacuum domicilium (land not actively in use by the natives was up for grabs)
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. ENGLISH COLONIES
    • Roanoke (Failure)
    • Jamestown
      • 1 st attempt – Failure
      • 2 nd attempt – Success
    • Virginia
    • Maryland
      • Structural success
      • Religious/Cultural failure
    • Plymouth (limited success)
    • Massachusetts Bay
    • Rhode Island Connecticut
  • 15. ROANOKE
  • 16. ROANOKE
    • Sir Walter Raleigh (English pirate) sent 100 colonists to set up a colonial base on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina.
      • Why? He wanted to keep pressure on Spanish ships in the area
    • The initial push to colonize was abandoned and most of first 100 returned to England
    • In 1586, he sent another 100 colonists to try to establish a permanent colony
      • Those 100 disappeared when a supply ship came in 1590
      • More than likely, they assimilated with the local Indian tribes
      • The only evidence left was the word “Croatoan” scrawled on a tree
    • Raleigh quickly lost his enthusiasm for colonization and gave up
    • Moral of the story: England really needed to plan better before attempting to colonize
  • 17.  
  • 18. JAMESTOWN
  • 19. JAMESTOWN
    • The first successful English colony (1607)
    • The colony was located in the middle of a swamp in present-day Jamestown, Virginia
      • They thought it was safe from Spanish attack
    • Big mistake from the beginning
      • There were no riches to be found in the swamp
      • However, there were many mosquitos
        • Led to malaria and typhoid fever
      • Local resources were non-existent
      • The colonists did not want to work or trade with anyone
      • None of the original settlers were farmers
        • Occupations: blacksmith, jeweler, goldsmith, perfumer, and indentured servants
  • 20.  
  • 21. JAMESTOWN
    • In the first year, disease and lack of food killed over 50 of the original 104 settlers
    • 400 more settlers came the next year
    • After the winter of 1610, only 65 settlers remained
      • Basically, 1 in 10 survived
      • Most died of starvation and disease
    • Moral of the story:
      • This is similar to Roanoke
      • Failure to plan and take advantage of economic resources
      • Very poor planning on the type of laborers that were sent over initially
      • Geographic planning was not the greatest either
  • 22. JAMESTOWN RELIGIOUS SERVICE
  • 23. JOHN SMITH
  • 24. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH SAVES JAMESTOWN
    • Tough, professional soldier that saved Jamestown by instilling martial law
      • Also a statutory rapist
      • Made everyone an ‘employee’ of the colony
    • Death penalty for all
      • Rape, adultery, theft, lying, slander against the company or crown, blasphemy, laziness, stealing an ear of corn, etc.
    • New policies in Jamestown
      • Head-right system
        • 50 acres of land for whoever pays their way over to Jamestown
      • Established House of Burgesses and instilled new liberties
        • However, the company could veto anything it wanted
      • Established slavery in the colony in 1619
    • Overall, the ends justify the means
      • Jamestown survives by John Smith’s near totalitarian management
  • 25.  
  • 26. VIRGINIA COLONY
    • Founded in 1607 after England realized they could make a profit off of selling tobacco (the “stinking weed”
      • Ironically, King James I considered tobacco “harmful to the brain and dangerous to the lungs”
      • However, he did not have any problem with selling it to make a profit
      • Tobacco later becomes the ‘cure-all’ for medicinal purposes in the 17 th century
    • By 1624, 200,000 pounds were grown and exported
    • By 1680, 15 million pounds were grown and exported
    • Essentially, tobacco becomes the new gold for English in North America
    • The tobacco boom was partially responsible for the establishment of colonial government in Virginia
      • This led to rich immigrants coming to stake their claim in Virginia
      • Eventually, a social and political elite was established
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. VIRGINIA COLONY
    • Social Conditions
      • Men outnumbered women 6 to 1
      • Virtually no stable family life as most single men were out to “strike it rich” on tobacco
      • At this point, it was better to be a single woman and keep an independent legal identity
      • However, most married women received “dower’s rights”
        • 1/3 of their husband’s estate upon his death
    • Slavery in the colony
      • The number of slaves slowly climbed during the mid-17 th century
        • 1623 – 23 of 1200 Virginians were black
        • 1660 – 900 of 24,000
      • Before 1660, blacks were able to acquire freedom and land (similar to indentured servitude)
      • Some freedmen became very wealthy and had property rights similar to whites
  • 31. MARYLAND
  • 32. MARYLAND
    • Established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
      • Land grants and governmental authority was organized under a single individual who had “full, free, and absolute power” over the colony; only answered to the King
      • Most of the land was carved up from sections of Northern Virginia
    • Maryland was the second Chesapeake Bay colony and developed like Virginia
    • Tobacco became the dominate economic commodity
  • 33. MARYLAND
    • Colonial Structure
      • Essentially a return to the Middle Ages
      • Calvert wanted Maryland to be a feudal domain where land was divided out into manors and the owners paid Calvert
      • Any person who brought 5 laborers received 2000 acres
      • Calvert believed representative government did not work
        • Ordinary people should have nothing to do with politics and government
    • Colonial Structure Loophole
      • Calvert’s charter provided for “all privileges, franchise, and liberties to all Englishmen”
      • This was vague enough to leave the government limited by its own law
      • This was also a good recipe for conflict
  • 34.  
  • 35. MARYLAND
    • Religion and Conflict
      • Calvert was a Catholic and fully expected Maryland to be a haven for his downtrodden Catholic brethren (particularly the wealthy)
      • He imagined Maryland as a Catholic utopia where Protestants and Catholics could work together in peace and harmony
      • However, Protestants quickly outnumbered Catholics
      • The rich Catholics never showed up and Protestants gained enough strength to overthrow Catholic influence in Maryland by 1655
    • Overall
      • Maryland had a different foundation, but ended up like Virginia
        • Tobacco plantations, some religious radicals, and mostly Protestant
      • Structural success
      • Religious/Cultural failure
  • 36. PLYMOUTH BAY COLONY
  • 37. PLYMOUTH BAY COLONY
    • Pilgrims
      • Primarily religious separatists that fled England to Holland because of their animosity toward the Church of England
      • They wanted nothing to do with the Church of England
      • After staying in Holland, they believed their children were too influenced by the English, Dutch, and Satan
      • They decided to go to the Virginia Colony
      • However, they landed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts in 1620 aboard the Mayflower
    • Mayflower Compact
      • All adult men aboard the Mayflower signed a compact indicating that they would obey “just and equal laws” enacted by representatives of their choosing
      • Why is this important?
  • 38. SIGNING OF THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT
  • 39. PLYMOUTH BAY COLONY
    • The Mayflower Compact is the first written frame of government that transferred to the United States
    • Society
      • The Pilgrims wanted to build a society based on the early Christian saints that was founded on government based on consent
      • Voting would not be restricted to only male church members
      • Land would be common, but could be divided among settlers
    • Initial Problems
      • They faced a similar situation to Jamestown; starvation
        • They arrived 6 weeks before winter with no food or animals
        • Half of the settlers died that first winter
      • Squanto and a band of Native Americans taught the Pilgrims where to fish, plant corn, and helped them form an alliance with a local chief
      • In the autumn of 1621, the Plymouth settlers invited their Native American allies for a feast of Thanksgiving (harvest festival)
    • Plymouth remained independent until 1691 when it was absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay colony
  • 40. PILGRIMS
  • 41. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
  • 42. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • Chartered in 1629 by Puritans (another religious separatist group) from England
      • Puritans were upset over the Protestant reformation, but were still very nationalistic toward England
      • They believed the best way to remedy the religious issues was to create a perfect society in the New World that England could model itself after
      • They believed religion was complex and they wanted to create a Bible Commonwealth governed by “moral liberty”
        • Moral liberty kept the Puritans close knit and prompted more families to come to the colony
      • They essentially wanted to be the “City on a Hill” to serve as a prime example for how religious life should be
      • King Charles I granted the Puritans charter while he decided to rule England without Parliament’s consent
        • Another one of the various reasons why Charles got the axe (literally)
    • Massachusetts Bay became the second great English colony
  • 43.  
  • 44. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • Religion, Politics, and Law
      • Law revolved around a combination of English Common Law, Biblical Law, and statutes fit to specific colonial needs
      • They allowed for slaves however
      • Statutes were created to instill a sense of fear with potential offenders
        • They would rather scare than carry out harsh punishments
      • Puritans organized into self-governing towns with no large-scale colonial government
        • Think of the states without a federal government (or the Articles of Confederation)
      • Each town had a Congregational Church and a school
        • Harvard College was created in 1636 to train ministers
      • Church government was decentralized, but full church membership was required to vote in elections
      • Church and colonial governments were closely connected
  • 45.  
  • 46. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • Economy
      • Per capita, wealth was pretty evenly distributed (significantly better than Virginia)
      • The economy was primarily centered on farming
        • Fishing and timber exportation were large industries though
      • A merchant class that traded with England rose gradually
        • This did not bode well for some of the most conservative Puritans
        • Merchants that continually clashed with Puritan authorities left to establish Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  • 47. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • Family Life
      • Structurally patriarchal
      • Women were expected to be subordinate to their husbands at all times
      • True freedom for Puritan women meant submission to authority
      • Reasoning:
        • Biblical in nature
        • Eve was the evil temptress that caused man to fall into sin
      • However, women were allowed full church membership and could divorce
  • 48. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • Liberty
      • Liberty was defined by social class
      • A rigid hierarchal structure that was justified by God’s will
      • Bodies of Liberties set the rights for free speech, assembly, and equal protection for all
        • Basically, liberties were decided by a body of men
        • No true sense of “natural rights” just yet
      • Ministers were forbidden from holding political office
  • 49. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PURITANS AND PILGRIMS?
    • Puritans
      • Wanted to fix and reform the Church of England
      • They felt it was worth salvaging and wanted to use their utopian colony to lead by example
      • They believed the Church had too many trappings of Catholic influence, but it could be remedied
    • Pilgrims
      • They were the true separatists
      • They had enough of the Church of England and wanted nothing to do with it
  • 50. RHODE ISLAND
  • 51. RHODE ISLAND
    • Founded by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
      • Williams was a young, liberal Puritan minister that preached any citizen should be able to practice whatever religion they choose
        • Believed in separation of church and state
      • Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged all Puritan ministers of preaching falsely
        • Believed she was directly inspired by the Holy Sprit
        • This did not make her popular with most Puritans
        • Put on trial for sedition and banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony
    • Both wanted to create a society based on true religious toleration
  • 52. Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson
  • 53. RHODE ISLAND
    • Government
      • Separation of church and state
      • Participation in government by all male property owners
        • An early view of voter’s rights expressed in the Constitution
    • Overall, Rhode Island is probably the best example of religious freedom and democratic government in the early colonies
    • Religious toleration
      • Did the treatment of Hutchinson and Williams go against Puritan’s ideal of religious freedom?
  • 54. RHODE ISLAND
    • Religious Toleration
      • Perhaps the Puritans had a very narrow view of what religious freedom meant
      • True religious tolerance violated the Puritans’ view of moral liberty
  • 55. CONNECTICUT
  • 56. CONNECTICUT
    • Founded in 1633
    • Puritanism was the only recognized religious organization and government model
    • The Bible became the absolute basis for law
      • Inerrancy of scripture
    • Indian Relations
      • Connecticut General Court punished anyone who chose to live with Indians
        • The wilderness was perceived as the harborage of Satan and the Native Americans were his minions
      • Colonists argued frequently over efficient ways to take land from the natives
        • Sometimes they traded or paid them
  • 57. CONNECTICUT
    • Pequot War
      • The white population in Connecticut grew rapidly
      • Conflict with natives became inevitable
      • The war was sparked by a fur trader that was killed by the Pequot Indians
        • They were a large tribe that controlled the fur trade and collected tribute from other Indian tribes
      • Angered by the death of the fur trade, Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay soldiers combined with neighboring Indians to massacre the Pequot tribe.
      • Over 500 men, women, and children died after their village was set on fire
      • After a few months, the tribe was virtually eliminated
        • Most were dead or sold into slavery
  • 58. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
    • Religion, Politics, and Freedom
      • By 1600, commoners in England were insisting that all Englishmen had certain rights that applied to everyone in the kingdom
        • This did not set well with the privileged social elite who believed rights were confined to those with money, influence, and power
      • The tradition of English liberties goes back to the Magna Carta passed by King John in the 1200s
        • Extension of certain liberties and rights to “all the free men of the realm”
        • This was not bad in the 1200s as the majority of England worked as serfs (another form of indentured servitude)
        • However, in 1600, many “free men” in England demanded that their liberties be respected
      • This caused friction between the King, Parliament, and the people
  • 59. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
    • What were the rights?
      • Right to oversee the King’s conduct (King is not above the law)
      • Right to revolt if the King grossly violated his authority
      • Right to subject the King to the rule of law
      • Right to own property
      • Right to security of their person (no illegal search and seizure, false imprisonment, etc.)
      • Habeas Corpus (cannot be held without being formally charged for a crime)
      • Right to face one’s accuser
      • Right to a trial by jury
  • 60. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
    • What sparked the war?
      • King Charles I wanted to impose taxes without Parliament’s consent
        • He also wanted to imprison political enemies
        • Worst of all…he wanted to make England a Catholic nation
      • Under the pretense of revolting against a King who grossly violated his authority, civil war broke out in 1642
      • Charles loses his head literally
      • Oliver Cromwell becomes the Lord Protector of England and the Commonwealth of England was founded
  • 61. THE ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH
    • The general definition of freedom called for the “common rights of all individuals”
      • Belief that freedom was the common heritage of all Englishmen
      • Belief that England was the world’s guardian of liberty (another justification for warfare)
      • They reasoned that the King of England ruled over a nation of free men
        • Very different from the idea that the King granted a nation of men freedom
    • The Colonies During the Commonwealth
      • England was too busy with it’s own issues to pay attention to the colonies
      • The New England colonies formed a confederation to serve as a means of protection against hostile natives
        • The British army was too busy
  • 62. THE ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH
    • What did Cromwell and the Commonwealth do for the colonies?
      • Took an aggressive stance for colonial expansion
      • Greatly promoted Protestantism
      • Promoted trade and commerce in the Western Hemisphere
    • End of the Commonwealth
      • Cromwell dies, his son is an inept ruler, and Charles II (Charles I’s son) gets reinstated to the throne
      • Charles II officially accepts the charter of Connecticut and Rhode Island during this period
  • 63. THE NAVIGATION ACTS
    • A series of acts passed to ensure that the Dutch did not interfere with England’s commercial empire
      • It was illegal to trade with anyone other than English citizens
    • Charles II figured this was the best way to confine colonial trade
    • Additional importation taxes increased the crown’s revenue and helped keep some English merchants from bankruptcy
    • However, these laws were fairly ineffective
      • Most colonial governors ignored the laws

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