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    HIST_1301_Chapter_1_Notes HIST_1301_Chapter_1_Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter One
      • Natives of Asian descent traveled here during the Ice Age over the land bridge between Asia and North America
      • Roughly 15,000 to 40,000 years ago
      • Some historians believed they traveled via boat through the Bering Sea (near the Arctic Ocean)
      • An estimated 8 to 10 million came to North America via the Bering Strait
      • Built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems
      • Geologic and climate changes killed off large game (mammoths) and forced Indians to grow crops and hunt smaller game
      • North American Indians lacked literacy, wheeled vehicles, metal tools, and scientific knowledge
      • Significant agricultural centers at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico and Cahokia, Illinois
      • They died off by the time the Europeans arrived in N.A.
      • The Anasazi Indians were the largest tribe in the Northwest
      • Other significant tribes were the Hoh, Maka, and Quiluete
      • Adena-Hopewell
      • Largest civilization in the Eastern part of the United States
      • (along the Mississippi River Valley)
      • Known as the Mound Builders
      • Series of semi-circular mound built around 3500 near present-day
      • Poverty Point
      • This was a center of trade along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
      • Iroquois
      • Natives of the Eastern United States woodlands (Great Lakes area)
      • Had a powerful and specific language
      • Diets of corn, squash, beans (also fished and hunted)
      • Iroquois Confederacy
      • Frequently warred with other tribes and formed loose alliances with other tribes
      • This was an important component of the “wilderness promotes democracy” theory by Frederick Jackson Turner in the late 1800s
      • “ The history of America went from savagery to industry”
      • This confederacy was a prime example of the beginning of this phenomenon
      • South American Indian societies were grander in scale than their North American counterparts
      • S.A. Indians were literate, had scientific knowledge, and knew how to navigate long-distance
      • The Mayan civilization was the largest (near present-day Mexico City)
      • The Aztec civilization was prominent in Central America
      • Had an advanced calendar system and was notable for their penchant for human sacrifice and cannibalism
      • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521 after one failed attempt and a small pox epidemic
      • An Animistic Religion
      • Blending of the natural and supernatural
      • Spirits inhabited various inanimate objects, animals, ceremonies related to farming, the four seasons, and hunting
      • Land was communal and tied closely with religious worship
      • Indian Culture
      • Men were primarily responsible for hunting, fishing, and protection
      • Men typically lived with the wife’s family after marriage
      • Strong matrilineal connections
      • Women had the right to divorce men
      • Iroquois women served in politics as clan leaders
      • Women in the Eastern U.S. tended to crops and children primarily
      • They also were gatherers, cooked meals, and sometimes built homes
      • Generally thought Indians lacked genuine religion; seen as savages
      • Thought Indians were not “using” all of their land and did not have property claims
      • In the European view: No property deed, no right to land
      • Viewed Indian men as savages who were mentally and spiritually weak
      • Often seen as abusers who mistreated Indian women
      • Europeans believed the idea of freedom was alien to Indian society
      • Ironically, the Europeans believed the Indians were “too free” because they did not have laws that conformed with European society
      • European ideals of freedom were based on:
      • Personal Independence
      • Ownership of private property
      • People governed under a set of laws
      • Fusion of religion and politics
      • Obedience to Christ meant freedom from sin (religious views)
      • Obedience to laws mean freedom in the European political/social mentality
      • Women had little to no rights and had to be obedient to their husbands
      • Freedom was a function of social class
      • For the masses: Limited freedom and “obedience” was the cost of a well-ordered society
      • For the rich: “Masterless men” enjoyed liberties that the majority did not
      • The Portuguese began exploration before 1492
      • Prince Henry the Navigator established an exploration school in 1420
      • Had new technology such as the caravel, compass, cannons, and
      • quadrant.
      • The goal: make travel along the African coast as efficient as possible
      • Objectives:
      • Explore the African coastline to find a better route to the Indies
      • Make cash from trading in the Indies
      • “ New Monarchs” Movement
      • Portugal, Spain, England, and France fell into this movement that stressed economic gain through exploration over constant warfare
      • Additionally the notion of “God and Country” began tied with this movement
      • Results:
      • The Portuguese establish trading posts along the west coast of Africa
      • They begin colonizing the African Islands on the Atlantic
      • Establish sugar plantations and begin the Atlantic Slave Trade
      • Slavery in Africa
      • Slavery existed as a form of labor in Africa before Europeans became interested
      • Warfare was common due to influence from the Islamic empires
      • (The rise and fall of Mali, Ghana, and Dahomey)
      • Wealthy war lords would take POWs as slaves and sell them
      • European Interest
      • Portugal was the first European nation to establish a trading empire in Africa
      • They traded textiles and guns for African slaves
      • Roughly 1000 slaves per year were traded along the Middle Passage initially
      • (Route from Europe to West Africa, to North America)
      • By 1800, 5 ½ million adults and 11 million children were transported as slaves
      • Europeans saw slavery as a great economic boon
      • They did not notice the social impact that slavery had in Africa
      • As a result, they transplanted the ‘economic mentality’ of slavery to the rest of Europe
      • Essentially, Spain got jealous of Portugal’s economic boom and had to get involved
      • Spain had recently gotten over the Spanish Reconquista (pushed the Moors out of Spain) and wanted desperately to become a big economic power
      • The Spanish Reconquista was the only successful crusade
      • The goal of the Reconquista was to purge Spain of Islamic factions
      • Basically, they ordered all Muslims to convert to Catholicism or get out
      • By the end of the 1400s, Spain was sending numerous explorers to find a way to the Indies
      • Christopher Columbus
      • Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Europe
      • Did not buy into the theory that the world was
      • flat
      • Persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his journeys
      • Landed in Hispaniola in 1942; began colonizing a year later
      • After four trips, he refused to believe he did not reach China
      • However, he found a new world full of gold and
      • silver
      • He died in disgrace and poverty
      • Ironically, he made Spain very rich
      • Amerigo Vespucci
      • Sailed along the coast of South America around 1500
      • He received the credit for discovering the New World
      • Essentially took Columbus’s claim
      • Vasco da Gama
      • Actually found a passage to the Indies
      • Sailed around the southern tip of Africa
      • Cape of Good Hope
      • His claim was largely ignored because Europe was too busy staking a claim in the New World
    • Amerigo Vespucci Vasco da Gama
      • Spanish used a system called the “Encomienda system” for receiving land grants and commission cuts on all the Indian villages that were sacked
      • Basically, the Spanish crown granted a person a partial of land and a
      • number of natives that they would “look after” and use as labor
      • The Catholic Church was very influential in this system
      • Power flowed from the King to the Council of the Indies to Viceroys to local officials (overall, it was an effective chain of command)
      • Gold and silver mining was the primary economic source in Spanish America
      • Mercantilism
      • The economic theory Spain used in Spanish America
      • Basically, the prosperity of a nation is based upon its supply of capital (gold, silver, trade value) and the global volume of international trade is static
      • Positive balance of trade with other nations is expected at all times
      • Encourage exports and discourage imports (using tariffs and subsidies)
      • The Royal Fifth
      • A tax used by the King of Spain in Spanish America
      • The King received 1/5 profit on all taxable goods produced in Spanish America
      • This helped him pay for the frequent and prolonged wars Spain got involved with
      • Spain and Portugal were both Catholic countries involved in exploration
      • The Catholic Church played a large role in the administration of
      • the colonies
      • Appealing to a higher power made conquest look legitimate
      • A conflict arose over the two countries’ claims in South America
      • The Catholic Church stepped in and set a line of demarcation
      • Portugal took everything east of the line
      • Spain took everything west of the line
      • Both countries agreed to Christianize the native ‘savages’ after the treaty was signed
      • Spain goes a step further and calls for all “inferiors” to convert to Christianity
      • Results:
      • Native Americans put an animistic twist on Christianity
      • Along with the transfer of religion, small pox and other diseases were transferred to the natives
      • France got interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
      • The French did not honor treaties with the Catholic nations
      • France was an odd case religiously
      • Structurally Catholic, but a large portion of the population was
      • Protestant
      • Martin Luther’s 95 theses (Halloween 1517) and Calvin’s theory of predestination fueled the conflict between Protestants and Catholics
      • Exploration Goals:
      • The French wanted to find gold and a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean
      • Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608
      • Helped establish an empire from the St.
      • Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and
      • down the Mississippi River
      • The French adopted a humane policy toward the Indians
      • All they wanted was trade
      • However, they brought disease and depleted animals for the fur trade
      • The first French colonists were the Huguenots (a Protestant variation)
      • All of their settlements failed due to famine, native attacks, or Spanish invasions
      • Overall, initial French colonization efforts were weak
      • England became interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
      • Religiously, England was thoroughly Protestant because of Henry VIII’s marriage issues and his daughter, Elizabeth I’s push for Protestantism
      • Elizabeth executed her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots
      • for numerous assassination attempts
      • This upset King Phillip II of Spain and he sent the Spanish navy to invade Britain in 1588
    • COMPARISONS Traditional Henry VIII Post-Modern Henry VIII
      • The English “Sea Dogs” (pirates) and the navy easily defeated the illustrious Spanish Armada on a very foggy day
      • The British knew the English Channel
      • much better than the Spanish
      • The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave the English a valid claim to the New World
      • English pirates like Sir Francis Drake discovered San Francisco
      • Sir Walter Raleigh founded the
      • Roanoke Colony in North Carolina
      • which later mysteriously disappeared
      • In 1600, there were no English settlements in the New World
      • The 5 G’s
      • Gold, God, Glory, Greed, Gold (in that order)
      • Essentially sums up what all European nations were after
      • Claims of abundant gold and silver drove warriors, sailors, and other ambitious men to seek glory while serving the Church
      • A true win-win situation for God and Country
      • National glory and religious mission went hand in hand
      • Native Americans really did not buy into this
      • However, Europeans believed souls that could be saved could make a great labor force