HIST_1301_Ch_1
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  • 1. Chapter One
  • 2.
    • Natives of Asian descent traveled here during the Ice Age over the land bridge between Asia and North America
    • Roughly 15,000 to 40,000 years ago
    • Some historians believed they traveled via boat through the Bering Sea (near the Arctic Ocean)
    • An estimated 8 to 10 million came to North America via the Bering Strait
    THE BERING STRAIT
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems
    • Geologic and climate changes killed off large game (mammoths) and forced Indians to grow crops and hunt smaller game
    • North American Indians lacked literacy, wheeled vehicles, metal tools, and scientific knowledge
    • Significant agricultural centers at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico and Cahokia, Illinois
    • They died off by the time the Europeans arrived in N.A.
    • The Anasazi Indians were the largest tribe in the Northwest
    • Other significant tribes were the Hoh, Maka, and Quiluete
    NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  • 5.
    • Adena-Hopewell
    • Largest civilization in the Eastern part of the United States
    • (along the Mississippi River Valley)
    • Known as the Mound Builders
    • Series of semi-circular mound built around 3500 near present-day
    • Poverty Point
    • This was a center of trade along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
    NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  • 6. GRAVE CREEK MOUND (WV)
  • 7.
    • Iroquois
    • Natives of the Eastern United States woodlands (Great Lakes area)
    • Had a powerful and specific language
    • Diets of corn, squash, beans (also fished and hunted)
    • Iroquois Confederacy
    • Frequently warred with other tribes and formed loose alliances with other tribes
    • This was an important component of the “wilderness promotes democracy” theory by Frederick Jackson Turner in the late 1800s
    • “ The history of America went from savagery to industry”
    • This confederacy was a prime example of the beginning of this phenomenon
    THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • South American Indian societies were grander in scale than their North American counterparts
    • S.A. Indians were literate, had scientific knowledge, and knew how to navigate long-distance
    • The Mayan civilization was the largest (near present-day Mexico City)
    • The Aztec civilization was prominent in Central America
    • Had an advanced calendar system and was notable for their penchant for human sacrifice and cannibalism
    • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521 after one failed attempt and a small pox epidemic
    SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  • 10. AZTEC CALENDAR
  • 11.
    • An Animistic Religion
    • Blending of the natural and supernatural
    • Spirits inhabited various inanimate objects, animals, ceremonies related to farming, the four seasons, and hunting
    • Land was communal and tied closely with religious worship
    INDIAN RELIGION AND CULTURE
  • 12.
    • Indian Culture
    • Men were primarily responsible for hunting, fishing, and protection
    • Men typically lived with the wife’s family after marriage
    • Strong matrilineal connections
    • Women had the right to divorce men
    • Iroquois women served in politics as clan leaders
    • Women in the Eastern U.S. tended to crops and children primarily
    • They also were gatherers, cooked meals, and sometimes built homes
    INDIAN RELIGION AND CULTURE
  • 13.
    • Generally thought Indians lacked genuine religion; seen as savages
    • Thought Indians were not “using” all of their land and did not have property claims
    • In the European view: No property deed, no right to land
    • Viewed Indian men as savages who were mentally and spiritually weak
    • Often seen as abusers who mistreated Indian women
    • Europeans believed the idea of freedom was alien to Indian society
    • Ironically, the Europeans believed the Indians were “too free” because they did not have laws that conformed with European society
    EUROPEAN VIEWS OF INDIANS
  • 14.
    • European ideals of freedom were based on:
    • Personal Independence
    • Ownership of private property
    • People governed under a set of laws
    • Fusion of religion and politics
    • Obedience to Christ meant freedom from sin (religious views)
    • Obedience to laws mean freedom in the European political/social mentality
    • Women had little to no rights and had to be obedient to their husbands
    • Freedom was a function of social class
    • For the masses: Limited freedom and “obedience” was the cost of a well-ordered society
    • For the rich: “Masterless men” enjoyed liberties that the majority did not
    EUROPEAN IDEALS OF FREEDOM
  • 15.
    • The Portuguese began exploration before 1492
    • Prince Henry the Navigator established an exploration school in 1420
    • Had new technology such as the caravel, compass, cannons, and
    • quadrant.
    • The goal: make travel along the African coast as efficient as possible
    • Objectives:
    • Explore the African coastline to find a better route to the Indies
    • Make cash from trading in the Indies
    PORTUGUESE EXPANSION
  • 16.
    • “ New Monarchs” Movement
    • Portugal, Spain, England, and France fell into this movement that stressed economic gain through exploration over constant warfare
    • Additionally the notion of “God and Country” began tied with this movement
    • Results:
    • The Portuguese establish trading posts along the west coast of Africa
    • They begin colonizing the African Islands on the Atlantic
    • Establish sugar plantations and begin the Atlantic Slave Trade
    PORTUGUESE EXPANSION
  • 17.  
  • 18.
    • Slavery in Africa
    • Slavery existed as a form of labor in Africa before Europeans became interested
    • Warfare was common due to influence from the Islamic empires
    • (The rise and fall of Mali, Ghana, and Dahomey)
    • Wealthy war lords would take POWs as slaves and sell them
    • European Interest
    • Portugal was the first European nation to establish a trading empire in Africa
    • They traded textiles and guns for African slaves
    • Roughly 1000 slaves per year were traded along the Middle Passage initially
    • (Route from Europe to West Africa, to North America)
    • By 1800, 5 ½ million adults and 11 million children were transported as slaves
    • Europeans saw slavery as a great economic boon
    • They did not notice the social impact that slavery had in Africa
    • As a result, they transplanted the ‘economic mentality’ of slavery to the rest of Europe
    ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
  • 19.
    • Essentially, Spain got jealous of Portugal’s economic boom and had to get involved
    • Spain had recently gotten over the Spanish Reconquista (pushed the Moors out of Spain) and wanted desperately to become a big economic power
    • The Spanish Reconquista was the only successful crusade
    • The goal of the Reconquista was to purge Spain of Islamic factions
    • Basically, they ordered all Muslims to convert to Catholicism or get out
    • By the end of the 1400s, Spain was sending numerous explorers to find a way to the Indies
    SPANISH EXPANSION
  • 20.
    • Christopher Columbus
    • Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Europe
    • Did not buy into the theory that the world was
    • flat
    • Persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his journeys
    • Landed in Hispaniola in 1942; began colonizing a year later
    • After four trips, he refused to believe he did not reach China
    • However, he found a new world full of gold and
    • silver
    • He died in disgrace and poverty
    • Ironically, he made Spain very rich
    NOTABLE EXPLORERS
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Amerigo Vespucci
    • Sailed along the coast of South America around 1500
    • He received the credit for discovering the New World
    • Essentially took Columbus’s claim
    • Vasco da Gama
    • Actually found a passage to the Indies
    • Sailed around the southern tip of Africa
    • Cape of Good Hope
    • His claim was largely ignored because Europe was too busy staking a claim in the New World
    NOTABLE EXPLORERS
  • 23. Amerigo Vespucci Vasco da Gama
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • Spanish used a system called the “Encomienda system” for receiving land grants and commission cuts on all the Indian villages that were sacked
    • Basically, the Spanish crown granted a person a partial of land and a
    • number of natives that they would “look after” and use as labor
    • The Catholic Church was very influential in this system
    • Power flowed from the King to the Council of the Indies to Viceroys to local officials (overall, it was an effective chain of command)
    • Gold and silver mining was the primary economic source in Spanish America
    SPANISH COLONIZATION
  • 26.
    • Mercantilism
    • The economic theory Spain used in Spanish America
    • Basically, the prosperity of a nation is based upon its supply of capital (gold, silver, trade value) and the global volume of international trade is static
    • Positive balance of trade with other nations is expected at all times
    • Encourage exports and discourage imports (using tariffs and subsidies)
    • The Royal Fifth
    • A tax used by the King of Spain in Spanish America
    • The King received 1/5 profit on all taxable goods produced in Spanish America
    • This helped him pay for the frequent and prolonged wars Spain got involved with
    SPANISH COLONIZATION
  • 27.
    • Spain and Portugal were both Catholic countries involved in exploration
    • The Catholic Church played a large role in the administration of
    • the colonies
    • Appealing to a higher power made conquest look legitimate
    • A conflict arose over the two countries’ claims in South America
    • The Catholic Church stepped in and set a line of demarcation
    • Portugal took everything east of the line
    • Spain took everything west of the line
    • Both countries agreed to Christianize the native ‘savages’ after the treaty was signed
    • Spain goes a step further and calls for all “inferiors” to convert to Christianity
    • Results:
    • Native Americans put an animistic twist on Christianity
    • Along with the transfer of religion, small pox and other diseases were transferred to the natives
    TREATY OF TORDESILLAS (1494)
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • France got interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
    • The French did not honor treaties with the Catholic nations
    • France was an odd case religiously
    • Structurally Catholic, but a large portion of the population was
    • Protestant
    • Martin Luther’s 95 theses (Halloween 1517) and Calvin’s theory of predestination fueled the conflict between Protestants and Catholics
    • Exploration Goals:
    • The French wanted to find gold and a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean
    FRENCH COLONIZATION
  • 30.
    • Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608
    • Helped establish an empire from the St.
    • Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and
    • down the Mississippi River
    • The French adopted a humane policy toward the Indians
    • All they wanted was trade
    • However, they brought disease and depleted animals for the fur trade
    • The first French colonists were the Huguenots (a Protestant variation)
    • All of their settlements failed due to famine, native attacks, or Spanish invasions
    • Overall, initial French colonization efforts were weak
    FRENCH COLONIZATION
  • 31.
    • England became interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
    • Religiously, England was thoroughly Protestant because of Henry VIII’s marriage issues and his daughter, Elizabeth I’s push for Protestantism
    • Elizabeth executed her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots
    • for numerous assassination attempts
    • This upset King Phillip II of Spain and he sent the Spanish navy to invade Britain in 1588
    ENGLISH COLONIZATION
  • 32. COMPARISONS Traditional Henry VIII Post-Modern Henry VIII
  • 33.
    • The English “Sea Dogs” (pirates) and the navy easily defeated the illustrious Spanish Armada on a very foggy day
    • The British knew the English Channel
    • much better than the Spanish
    • The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave the English a valid claim to the New World
    • English pirates like Sir Francis Drake discovered San Francisco
    • Sir Walter Raleigh founded the
    • Roanoke Colony in North Carolina
    • which later mysteriously disappeared
    • In 1600, there were no English settlements in the New World
    ENGLISH COLONIZATION
  • 34.
    • The 5 G’s
    • Gold, God, Glory, Greed, Gold (in that order)
    • Essentially sums up what all European nations were after
    • Claims of abundant gold and silver drove warriors, sailors, and other ambitious men to seek glory while serving the Church
    • A true win-win situation for God and Country
    • National glory and religious mission went hand in hand
    • Native Americans really did not buy into this
    • However, Europeans believed souls that could be saved could make a great labor force
    WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED?