Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply




Published in Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter One
  • 2.
    • Natives of Asian descent traveled here during the Ice Age over the land bridge between Asia and North America
    • Roughly 15,000 to 40,000 years ago
    • Some historians believed they traveled via boat through the Bering Sea (near the Arctic Ocean)
    • An estimated 8 to 10 million came to North America via the Bering Strait
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems
    • Geologic and climate changes killed off large game (mammoths) and forced Indians to grow crops and hunt smaller game
    • North American Indians lacked literacy, wheeled vehicles, metal tools, and scientific knowledge
    • Significant agricultural centers at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico and Cahokia, Illinois
    • They died off by the time the Europeans arrived in N.A.
    • The Anasazi Indians were the largest tribe in the Northwest
    • Other significant tribes were the Hoh, Maka, and Quiluete
  • 5.
    • Adena-Hopewell
    • Largest civilization in the Eastern part of the United States
    • (along the Mississippi River Valley)
    • Known as the Mound Builders
    • Series of semi-circular mound built around 3500 near present-day
    • Poverty Point
    • This was a center of trade along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
  • 7.
    • Iroquois
    • Natives of the Eastern United States woodlands (Great Lakes area)
    • Had a powerful and specific language
    • Diets of corn, squash, beans (also fished and hunted)
    • Iroquois Confederacy
    • Frequently warred with other tribes and formed loose alliances with other tribes
    • This was an important component of the “wilderness promotes democracy” theory by Frederick Jackson Turner in the late 1800s
    • “ The history of America went from savagery to industry”
    • This confederacy was a prime example of the beginning of this phenomenon
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • South American Indian societies were grander in scale than their North American counterparts
    • S.A. Indians were literate, had scientific knowledge, and knew how to navigate long-distance
    • The Mayan civilization was the largest (near present-day Mexico City)
    • The Aztec civilization was prominent in Central America
    • Had an advanced calendar system and was notable for their penchant for human sacrifice and cannibalism
    • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521 after one failed attempt and a small pox epidemic
  • 11.
    • An Animistic Religion
    • Blending of the natural and supernatural
    • Spirits inhabited various inanimate objects, animals, ceremonies related to farming, the four seasons, and hunting
    • Land was communal and tied closely with religious worship
  • 12.
    • Indian Culture
    • Men were primarily responsible for hunting, fishing, and protection
    • Men typically lived with the wife’s family after marriage
    • Strong matrilineal connections
    • Women had the right to divorce men
    • Iroquois women served in politics as clan leaders
    • Women in the Eastern U.S. tended to crops and children primarily
    • They also were gatherers, cooked meals, and sometimes built homes
  • 13.
    • Generally thought Indians lacked genuine religion; seen as savages
    • Thought Indians were not “using” all of their land and did not have property claims
    • In the European view: No property deed, no right to land
    • Viewed Indian men as savages who were mentally and spiritually weak
    • Often seen as abusers who mistreated Indian women
    • Europeans believed the idea of freedom was alien to Indian society
    • Ironically, the Europeans believed the Indians were “too free” because they did not have laws that conformed with European society
  • 14.
    • European ideals of freedom were based on:
    • Personal Independence
    • Ownership of private property
    • People governed under a set of laws
    • Fusion of religion and politics
    • Obedience to Christ meant freedom from sin (religious views)
    • Obedience to laws mean freedom in the European political/social mentality
    • Women had little to no rights and had to be obedient to their husbands
    • Freedom was a function of social class
    • For the masses: Limited freedom and “obedience” was the cost of a well-ordered society
    • For the rich: “Masterless men” enjoyed liberties that the majority did not
  • 15.
    • The Portuguese began exploration before 1492
    • Prince Henry the Navigator established an exploration school in 1420
    • Had new technology such as the caravel, compass, cannons, and
    • quadrant.
    • The goal: make travel along the African coast as efficient as possible
    • Objectives:
    • Explore the African coastline to find a better route to the Indies
    • Make cash from trading in the Indies
  • 16.
    • “ New Monarchs” Movement
    • Portugal, Spain, England, and France fell into this movement that stressed economic gain through exploration over constant warfare
    • Additionally the notion of “God and Country” began tied with this movement
    • Results:
    • The Portuguese establish trading posts along the west coast of Africa
    • They begin colonizing the African Islands on the Atlantic
    • Establish sugar plantations and begin the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 17.  
  • 18.
    • Slavery in Africa
    • Slavery existed as a form of labor in Africa before Europeans became interested
    • Warfare was common due to influence from the Islamic empires
    • (The rise and fall of Mali, Ghana, and Dahomey)
    • Wealthy war lords would take POWs as slaves and sell them
    • European Interest
    • Portugal was the first European nation to establish a trading empire in Africa
    • They traded textiles and guns for African slaves
    • Roughly 1000 slaves per year were traded along the Middle Passage initially
    • (Route from Europe to West Africa, to North America)
    • By 1800, 5 ½ million adults and 11 million children were transported as slaves
    • Europeans saw slavery as a great economic boon
    • They did not notice the social impact that slavery had in Africa
    • As a result, they transplanted the ‘economic mentality’ of slavery to the rest of Europe
  • 19.
    • Essentially, Spain got jealous of Portugal’s economic boom and had to get involved
    • Spain had recently gotten over the Spanish Reconquista (pushed the Moors out of Spain) and wanted desperately to become a big economic power
    • The Spanish Reconquista was the only successful crusade
    • The goal of the Reconquista was to purge Spain of Islamic factions
    • Basically, they ordered all Muslims to convert to Catholicism or get out
    • By the end of the 1400s, Spain was sending numerous explorers to find a way to the Indies
  • 20.
    • Christopher Columbus
    • Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Europe
    • Did not buy into the theory that the world was
    • flat
    • Persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his journeys
    • Landed in Hispaniola in 1942; began colonizing a year later
    • After four trips, he refused to believe he did not reach China
    • However, he found a new world full of gold and
    • silver
    • He died in disgrace and poverty
    • Ironically, he made Spain very rich
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Amerigo Vespucci
    • Sailed along the coast of South America around 1500
    • He received the credit for discovering the New World
    • Essentially took Columbus’s claim
    • Vasco da Gama
    • Actually found a passage to the Indies
    • Sailed around the southern tip of Africa
    • Cape of Good Hope
    • His claim was largely ignored because Europe was too busy staking a claim in the New World
  • 23. Amerigo Vespucci Vasco da Gama
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • Spanish used a system called the “Encomienda system” for receiving land grants and commission cuts on all the Indian villages that were sacked
    • Basically, the Spanish crown granted a person a partial of land and a
    • number of natives that they would “look after” and use as labor
    • The Catholic Church was very influential in this system
    • Power flowed from the King to the Council of the Indies to Viceroys to local officials (overall, it was an effective chain of command)
    • Gold and silver mining was the primary economic source in Spanish America
  • 26.
    • Mercantilism
    • The economic theory Spain used in Spanish America
    • Basically, the prosperity of a nation is based upon its supply of capital (gold, silver, trade value) and the global volume of international trade is static
    • Positive balance of trade with other nations is expected at all times
    • Encourage exports and discourage imports (using tariffs and subsidies)
    • The Royal Fifth
    • A tax used by the King of Spain in Spanish America
    • The King received 1/5 profit on all taxable goods produced in Spanish America
    • This helped him pay for the frequent and prolonged wars Spain got involved with
  • 27.
    • Spain and Portugal were both Catholic countries involved in exploration
    • The Catholic Church played a large role in the administration of
    • the colonies
    • Appealing to a higher power made conquest look legitimate
    • A conflict arose over the two countries’ claims in South America
    • The Catholic Church stepped in and set a line of demarcation
    • Portugal took everything east of the line
    • Spain took everything west of the line
    • Both countries agreed to Christianize the native ‘savages’ after the treaty was signed
    • Spain goes a step further and calls for all “inferiors” to convert to Christianity
    • Results:
    • Native Americans put an animistic twist on Christianity
    • Along with the transfer of religion, small pox and other diseases were transferred to the natives
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • France got interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
    • The French did not honor treaties with the Catholic nations
    • France was an odd case religiously
    • Structurally Catholic, but a large portion of the population was
    • Protestant
    • Martin Luther’s 95 theses (Halloween 1517) and Calvin’s theory of predestination fueled the conflict between Protestants and Catholics
    • Exploration Goals:
    • The French wanted to find gold and a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean
  • 30.
    • Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608
    • Helped establish an empire from the St.
    • Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and
    • down the Mississippi River
    • The French adopted a humane policy toward the Indians
    • All they wanted was trade
    • However, they brought disease and depleted animals for the fur trade
    • The first French colonists were the Huguenots (a Protestant variation)
    • All of their settlements failed due to famine, native attacks, or Spanish invasions
    • Overall, initial French colonization efforts were weak
  • 31.
    • England became interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth
    • Religiously, England was thoroughly Protestant because of Henry VIII’s marriage issues and his daughter, Elizabeth I’s push for Protestantism
    • Elizabeth executed her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots
    • for numerous assassination attempts
    • This upset King Phillip II of Spain and he sent the Spanish navy to invade Britain in 1588
  • 32. COMPARISONS Traditional Henry VIII Post-Modern Henry VIII
  • 33.
    • The English “Sea Dogs” (pirates) and the navy easily defeated the illustrious Spanish Armada on a very foggy day
    • The British knew the English Channel
    • much better than the Spanish
    • The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave the English a valid claim to the New World
    • English pirates like Sir Francis Drake discovered San Francisco
    • Sir Walter Raleigh founded the
    • Roanoke Colony in North Carolina
    • which later mysteriously disappeared
    • In 1600, there were no English settlements in the New World
  • 34.
    • The 5 G’s
    • Gold, God, Glory, Greed, Gold (in that order)
    • Essentially sums up what all European nations were after
    • Claims of abundant gold and silver drove warriors, sailors, and other ambitious men to seek glory while serving the Church
    • A true win-win situation for God and Country
    • National glory and religious mission went hand in hand
    • Native Americans really did not buy into this
    • However, Europeans believed souls that could be saved could make a great labor force