CH_8_The Federalist Republic


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CH_8_The Federalist Republic

  3. 3. PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON <ul><li>He was the only president elected unanimously by the Electoral College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists took advantage of his image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was a hero with the ego and power of Napoleon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New York City was the temporary national capitol </li></ul><ul><li>Washington’s relationship with Congress was based on trial and error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He often showed up to Congress without announcing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bill of Rights was drafted during his first term in office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison was the chief proponent of the bill </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON <ul><li>Washington’s First Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mixture of Federalists and Anti-Federalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President: John Adams (Federalist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson (Anti-Federalist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton (Federalist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of War: Henry Knox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General: Edmund Randolph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the major arguments occurred between Adams, Jefferson, and Hamilton </li></ul>
  5. 5. PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON <ul><li>Census of 1790 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted to see how the electoral college and representatives needed to be shifted based on population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically, the North began to focus on industry and textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The South focused and tied itself to cotton production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall, the total population in the U.S. was slightly under 4 million </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ALEXANDER HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN <ul><li>Hamilton’s long range goal for the U.S. was to be a major commercial and military power </li></ul><ul><li>His economic plan had 5 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create creditworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a new national debt (pay off the old one) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a bank of the United States (based off of Britain’s model) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bank would be privately owned and work closely with the government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Madison though it would only benefit the rich </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson did not think it was constitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax producers of whiskey to fund the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to the Whiskey Rebellion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose tariffs and subsides </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ALEXANDER HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN <ul><li>The creation of the U.S. bank becomes the catalyst for Hamilton and Madison’s political split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madison joins Jefferson as an Anti-Federalist and attacks Hamilton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton’s bank plan (and overall plan) depended on the U.S. developing a strong, working relationship with Britain (which most did not want) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents believed that Americans should concentrate on moving westward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington asked Hamilton to find a legitimate reason to support the bank idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton came up with the idea of implied powers </li></ul></ul></ul>Alexander Hamilton
  8. 8. IMPLIED POWERS <ul><li>Falls under the “Elastic Clause” in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets the government create “necessary and proper” programs/laws and retain them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: The FBI, the CIA, the Air Force, and the national bank system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the “general welfare clause” or the “necessary and proper” clause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hamilton asserted “The sovereign duties of the government implied the right to use adequate means to an end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically….can you justify it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although the U.S. Government is sovereign to certain objects, it is impossible to tell all the means it should/can use </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the “Elastic Clause” lets you take a more liberal approach to the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not have to be spelled out word for word for it to be legal! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. IMPLIED POWERS <ul><li>Washington was happy with Hamilton’s interpretation and signed the bank bill into law </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson threw a fit over the bank bill and the “necessary and proper” clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, he invokes it in 1803 to justify the Louisiana Purchase </li></ul></ul>Thomas Jefferson
  10. 10. THE JEFFERSON-HAMILTON BARGAIN <ul><li>Jefferson used his influence in the South to oppose Hamilton’s economic plan initially </li></ul><ul><li>The South finally accepted Hamilton’s plan after he promised to move the new national capitol further south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Maryland and Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nation’s capitol was built in a similar location to Jamestown; a swamp. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION <ul><li>Initially, Americans rejoiced when the French Third Estates abolished noble privileges and formed a constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the rejoicing quickly ended when thousands of French citizens were executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French Revolution became increasing radical (and bloody) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1793, France goes to war with Britain again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Washington declares American Neutrality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of staying out of entangling alliances with Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. needed to remain neutral because U.S. commerce was tied to both Britain and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington sought to trade non-military goods without tension from either side </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION <ul><li>Washington issues the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to encourage Americans not to take sides in the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans ignored this and teamed up with French pirates to harass the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a result, the British began boarding U.S. ships and seizing goods bound for France </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. and Britain are destined for another war </li></ul>
  13. 14. JAY’S TREATY <ul><li>This was the solution to the increasing tension between the British and Americans </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay wanted to get the British to evacuate their forts in North America, pay for slaves taken during the Revolutionary War, end impressments (seizing U.S. sailors to serve in the British navy), reopen the British West Indies for trade, and compensate the U.S. for recent shipping losses in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton somehow tips off the British that John Jay was coming to negotiate and that he would easily compromise </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay was met by the British who drove a hard bargain </li></ul><ul><li>He did manage to secure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British withdrawal from North America, compensation for recent shipping losses, and the reopening of the British West Indies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington and the Senate were extremely irritated at both Jay and Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The treaty was barely ratified </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. JAY’S TREATY <ul><li>Public perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American citizens viewed the treaty as an outrage when it was disclosed to the media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The resentment over the approval of Jay’s treaty leads to the growth of political and party factions in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federalists used the treaty as an example of how the Anti-Federalists (Republicans) are traitors and would easily sell the country out to the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Anti-Federalists (Republicans) used the treaty to indicate how the Federalists could not keep their mouths shut and subsequently caused the U.S. to lose potential trade rights </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. THE WHISKEY REBELLION <ul><li>In the western part of Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, many of the farmers protested the whiskey tax (passed in Hamilton’s economic bill) and refused to pay it </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1794, the issue reached a boiling point when a tax collector was shot at and had his house burned down by angry farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Washington sent 1300 militia men to western Pennsylvania and they ensured that the tax was enforced </li></ul><ul><li>This incident is significant as it showed the government had power and would not tolerate armed resistance to federal policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was nothing like Shays’ Rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson spins the incident and asserts that the rebellion was fabricated by the Federalists as an excuse to building a large standing army in peace time </li></ul>
  17. 18. THE FEDERALIST PARTY <ul><li>The party of Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>They should have been named the “Nationalists,” but Federalists stuck after the Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Favored commercial development </li></ul><ul><li>Favored a national banking system </li></ul><ul><li>Favored high tariffs to promote local products </li></ul><ul><li>Favored strong central government based on a loose “elastic” interpretation of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadening federal authority whenever necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom was based on deference to authority </li></ul>
  18. 19. THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY <ul><li>The old Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>The party of Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in a strict “rigid” interpretation of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is what it is” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A very literalist interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposed a strong central government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readily exercised 10 th Amendment rights (power to the states instead of the federal government) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Republicans believed that Hamilton’s economic plans infringed upon states’ rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They also believed Hamilton was a despot and wanted way too much power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed that freedom was based on retention of state authority </li></ul>
  19. 20. ELECTION OF 1796 John Adams Thomas Jefferson
  20. 21. THE ELECTION OF 1796 <ul><li>Washington steps down after two terms in office (sets the custom) </li></ul><ul><li>This was a very difficult election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Adams was elected President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson elected Vice President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposing parties in the same cabinet again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adams was a very skilled diplomat, but also a stubborn and rude individual who refused almost all help from his cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>He and Jefferson never consulted each other after the first few days of his presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, they became great friends in their old age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adams’ presidency is one crisis after another </li></ul>
  21. 22. ELECTION OF 1796
  22. 23. THE “QUASI WAR” AND XYZ AFFAIR <ul><li>France cut off diplomatic relations with the U.S. shortly after Adams was elected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A dictatorial executive board ruled France and instigates what became known as the “Quasi War” after French ships fired on American merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France used Jay’s Treaty as an excuse to proclaim that the U.S. was now consorting with its enemy, Britain </li></ul><ul><li>French and U.S. diplomats meet to resolve the issue in an event that becomes known as the “XYZ Affair” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Frenchmen (known only as X,Y, and Z) essentially try to bribe a peace try from the Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted: 50,000 pounds sterling, $10 million loan from the U.S., a $250,000 personal bribe to Talleyrand (a prominent French diplomat), and a formal apology from President Adams </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. THE “QUASI WAR” AND XYZ AFFAIR <ul><li>The U.S. gives the French an option similar to Jay’s Treaty, but the French do not accept </li></ul><ul><li>Adams releases news of the XYZ Affair about a month after it occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-French sentiment results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adams’ diplomacy narrowly beats out a declaration of war against France </li></ul><ul><li>The Federalists use the “Quasi War” and the “XYZ Affair” as reasoning to blame the Republicans for Jay’s Treaty and the problems they were facing with France </li></ul><ul><li>During the Quasi War, the U.S. began to build up a strong navy and army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton becomes pseudo-commander of the army, filling it with officials only loyal to him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He attempts to use this as a bargaining chip to influence Adams to declare war, but Adams was stubborn (and smart) enough to refuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The crisis ends with the British allied with the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were both attempting to get French ships to stop harassing them in the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS <ul><li>Series of four laws passed to silence and seek vengeance on the Republicans during the Quasi-War </li></ul><ul><li>This was easily Adams’ most controversial aspect of his administration </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization Act of 1798 – lengthened residency requirements form 5 to 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Enemies Act – established procedures for jailing and deporting citizens of an enemy nation in times of war </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Act – allowed the president to deport any non-U.S. citizen at any time, for any reason (had a period of 2 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition Act – made it a punishable offense to speak against the government (Adams and the Federalists) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans saw this as a clear infringement upon the Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS <ul><li>Resolutions formed by Jefferson and Madison to oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madison wrote the Virginia Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These resolutions did little to further constitutional theory on the rights to states to oppose federal legislation </li></ul><ul><li>However, it went a long way for Madison and Jefferson to prove the distinct political differences between the Federalists and Republicans </li></ul>
  26. 27. THE ELECTION OF 1800
  27. 28. THE ELECTION OF 1800 <ul><li>Called the “Revolution of 1800” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two opposing parties (Federalists and Republicans) transition power without bloodshed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federalists did not stand a chance after Adams’ term in office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives breaks the tie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson becomes President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burr becomes Vice President </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson becomes the first President to live in Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The city was vacant and agrarian at this point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson wanted it to stay that way </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. THE ELECTION OF 1800 <ul><li>Jefferson’s Party Split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burr’s faction breaks with Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burr decides to run for New York Governor in 1804 with Federalist support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton becomes irritated with Burr’s newfound Federalist tendencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton and Burr get into a duel and Burr kills Hamilton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson institutes a system that hires the most competent person for government offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of the former method of changing with every president </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson becomes pestered by supporters, but hires the best without regard for party lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This becomes known as the “Spoils System” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. 12 TH AMENDMENT <ul><li>Due to the problems in the elections of 1796 and 1800, an amendment was created to stipulate that a President and Vice President must be elected together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of situations like Adams v. Jefferson, Jefferson v. Burr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, this amendment did not alter the Electoral College in any fashion </li></ul>
  30. 32. JUDICIAL REVIEW <ul><li>Jefferson became irritated with Chief Justice John Marshall’s insistence that the Supreme Court possessed the right to Judicial Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson wanted to impeach many people in the government he did not like </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case dealing with the appointment of last minute “midnight” judges from the Adams administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marbury was promised a commission, goes to collect it, and finds out that James Madison “loses it” a few times, then denies it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This case becomes the basis for judicial review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court rules that the Judiciary Act (the act that gave power to the Supreme Court) was in fact, unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ironically, this S.C. action proved that Judicial Review worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was the first time the Supreme Court declared something unconstitutional also </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE <ul><li>France was going broke attempting to pay for all of Napoleon’s wars, so they decide to sell their portion of North America for $15 million </li></ul><ul><li>The agreement stipulated that all French and Indians in the area sold should be extended rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French should also become U.S. citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson saw the potential to expand and bought quickly </li></ul><ul><li>This is ironic due to Jefferson’s hatred of the Federalists’ use of “implied powers” when dealing with the Hamilton bank </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson essentially bolstered the power of the President greatly in the 19 th century </li></ul>
  33. 35. JEFFERSON AND FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS <ul><li>France and England are back at war again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This time, Napoleon is causing chaos in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. declares neutrality again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It becomes increasingly hard to remain neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England still occupies land in the Northwest and is violating maritime rights in the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson initially wants to punish England by cutting off trade, but many feel a lesser course of action is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>The Embargo of 1807 placed a ban on all exports from the U.S. to any country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This adversely affects the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens protest so much that Congress overturns the embargo and outlawed trade with both France and England until the war was over (the Non-Intercourse Act) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. JEFFERSON AND FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS <ul><li>New England really disliked the Non-Intercourse Act because of the region’s reliance upon trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson was forced to send in the army to uphold the trade restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(All of this is coming from a president who fervently disliked a standing army) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. MADISON’S PRESSURE FOR WAR <ul><li>James Madison is elected in 1808 after Jefferson decides not to run for a third term </li></ul><ul><li>Madison inherits the growing tensions between the U.S. and Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Macon’s Bill No. 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If either Britain or France decided to stop attacking “neutral” American ships, America would stop trading with the other “offending country” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This leads to a firestorm as Napoleon took advantage of the American’s ignorance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He promises to stop attacking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the U.S. agrees to stop trading with Britain, Napoleon goes back to harassing the “neutral” American ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is one of the biggest reasons for the War of 1812 </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. MADISON’S PRESSURE FOR WAR <ul><li>In response to Macon’s Bill, Britain attempts to convince a Native American leader named Tecumseh to unite all the Indian tribes and fight the Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Tecumseh’s efforts to unite the tribes fail. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians attempt to attack militias near remote settlements, but eventually fail </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans get word that the British supported the Indian attacks and become convinced that the British have begun invading the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>President Madison and Congress responds with a declaration of war against Britain on June 1, 1812 </li></ul>James Madison
  37. 39. THE WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>No one really knew at the time what the United States would gain out of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the nation was not prepared for war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Bank bill had expired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military funding was down (due to Jefferson’s insistence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite warnings, Madison pushes forward with war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War of 1812 is definitely not seen as a “good” or “just” war </li></ul><ul><li>The British have over 5,000 troops in Canada and win a series of Canadian invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Wins and losses on the mainland are thrown back and forth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitely a stalemate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, the U.S. Navy destroys the British fleet in almost every encounter </li></ul>
  38. 40. THE WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>The burning of Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British land in the Chesapeake Bay in August 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They attack and burn defenseless Washington D.C. to the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolley Madison (President Madison’s wife) escapes in a buggy with paintings of the former presidents </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. THE WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>The Battle of Baltimore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 13-14, 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Scott Key, an attorney, goes aboard a British ship to negotiate the release of American prisoners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He becomes a prisoner as the British refuse to let him leave during the bombing of Fort McHenry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this time, he sees the American flag waving in the early morning despite the bombing and the shelling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He writes a poem called “The Defense of Fort McHenry” that later becomes the “Star-Spangled Banner” </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. THE WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>The Battle of New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took place two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This battle is the first time future President Andrew Jackson makes a big appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had the battle been necessary, it would have been a huge bargaining chip for the Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They easily defeated the British </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. THE WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>The Treaty of Ghent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed on Christmas Eve 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Officially ends the War of 1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put diplomatic affairs back to the way they were before Britain and the U.S. began the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News of the treaty took weeks to spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary reason the Battle of New Orleans occurred </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 47. THE HARTFORD CONVENTION <ul><li>The Federalists hosted a conference to ascertain how to deal with the growing economic issues in New England (mainly trade restrictions) and what could be done in the event that America lost the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Secession from the Union was discussed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This later looks extremely bad for the Federalists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The convention was hosted after the Treaty of Ghent was signed </li></ul><ul><li>They met on the eve of the Battle of New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost two weeks after the war ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall, the Hartford Convention irrevocably ruined the Federalist party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treason, sedition, and secession becomes their party’s legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This ushers in the “Era of Good Feelings” </li></ul></ul>