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CH_22_World War II

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    CH_22_World War II CH_22_World War II Presentation Transcript

    • America and World War II (1941 – 1945)
      Chapter 22
    • Good Neighbor Policy
      US continued to dominate Latin America politically and economically
      Beginning to rely less on direct military intervention
      FDR differs from his predecessors by substituting cooperation for coercion
      “US would be a good neighbor to Latin America”
      However, domination of this area would remain unchallenged
      The Monroe Doctrine still lived on in many ways
    • U.S. Isolationism
      Business-minded people in America did not want to give up profitable overseas markets like Germany and Japan just because Europe was hacked off
      US refuses to recognize the Soviet Union and quarrels with England and France over repayment of loans they had received in World War I
    • U.S. Isolationism
      US was too afraid to get involved in another “meaningless war” after World War I
      Neutrality Acts typified the 1930s as the US was gripped with depression and scared to commit to its allies in Europe
    • War in Europe
      Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939
      For nearly two years, Britain stood virtually alone in fighting Germany
      Battle of Britain
      First major campaign in World War II
      Fought entirely by air forces
      Britain prevailed against almost overwhelming odds
      Germany’s loss was the significant and was one of the first turning points in the war
      FDR wanted to help Britain, but public support limited him
    • The Road to Intervention
      FDR runs for an unprecedented third term as he pushes the country to “keep someone with experience” in office if the US gets brought into the war (1940)
      Lend Lease Act (1941)
      US begins shipments of war material to Great Britain
      Also freezes Japanese assets
    • The Road to Intervention
      Atlantic Charter
      FDR signs on with his good friend, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
      The blueprint for the world after WWII; sets the foundation for international treaties and organizations that would bring the world back to its feet economically
    • War Breaks Out in Europe
      Germany invades Poland on 1 September 1939
      German Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) appeared unstoppable
      It was definitely getting Britain’s attention
      For almost two years, Britain is alone in the fight against German aggression
      FDR wants to help Britain, but public opinion in the US greatly limited him during this time period
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Japan had long been interested in an Asian empire and occupied Korea and key parts of Manchuria before 1920
      When Japan sought to gain supremacy in China, the US protested with the “Open Door Policy”
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Open Door Policy
      Basically stated that the US and all European nations could trade with China, free to use their treaty ports
      Within the spheres of influence in China
      China’s power as a nation is declining during this period
      The theory had been that trade was a basic right of all nations, even though sovereign countries could counter with isolationist attitudes
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Open Door Policy
      Isolationism would essentially be unnatural for trade and communication; based in the arguments of John Locke
      Ironic as the US had no problem promoting isolationism during the Great Depression
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy
      Leads to the Washington Conference in 1922
      The conference again declares the independence of China via the Open Door Policy; helped through the “Nine Power Treaty”
      Yet the treaty lacked any enforcement regulations
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy
      Japan violated these agreements by seizing Manchuria, but the US did not respond
      After war breaks out in Europe, the US begins to realize where Japan stands…taking sides with the fascists
      US responds by limiting exports to Japan
      Strategic materials such as oil
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy
      This did not restrain Japan, but make the country angry
      So, they side with Germany and Italy
      Push further into Indochina
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      The US response – end all trade with Japan
      Sounds a lot like how we got into the War of 1812
      Japan tries to negotiate with the US
      Plan B was to attack if their demands were not granted
    • U.S. Relations with Japan
      The US response – end all trade with Japan
      Japan wanted a large stake in China for restoration of normal trade patterns
      The US demanded that Japan withdraw its troops
      Negotiation fails and Japan attacks
    • Pearl Harbor
      December 7, 1941
      “FDR’s Date that Will Live in Infamy”
      This attack in the Pacific greatly changes Americans’ minds about neutrality
      everyone’s angry and ready to go to war
    • Pearl Harbor
      FDR finally asks for a declaration of war
      The US suffered significant early defeats after entering the war because the country was unprepared for a naval and air war halfway across the world
    • The War in the Pacific
      The first few months of American involvement witnessed an unbroken string of military disasters
      The tide turned with the battles at Coral Sea and Midway
      May and June 1942
    • D-Day
      6 June 1944
      Allied invasion of Normandy, France (Operation Neptune)
      2 phases of Allied attack
      Air assault by the Americans, British, and French shortly after midnight
      Amphibious landing of Allied infantry and armored divisions on the coast of Normandy, France at 0630
    • D-Day
      Significance
      The absolute largest amphibious invasion of all time (175,000 troops)
      195,700 Naval personnel involved overall
      Established the much needed second front in Western Europe
      A majority of the fighting was fought initially in North Africa and Italy
    • The Home Front
      Mobilizing the War
      World War II transformed the role of the national government
      The government built housing for war workers and forced civilian industries to retool for war production
    • The Home Front
      Business and War
      FDR offered incentives to business to spur production
      Low interest loans
      Tax concessions
      Contracts with guaranteed profits
      Americans produced an astonishing amount of wartime goods and utilized science and technology
    • The Home Front
      Business and War
      The West Coast emerged as a focus of military-industrial production
      Nearly 2 million Americans moved to California for jobs in defense-related industries
      The South remained very poor despite the influx of manufacturing
    • The Home Front
      Labor in Wartime
      Organized labor entered a three-sided arrangement with government and business that allowed union membership to soar to unprecedented levels
      Unions became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during World War II
    • The Four Freedoms
      To FDR, the Four Freedoms expressed deeply held American values worthy of being spread worldwide
    • The Four Freedoms
      Freedom of Speech
      Gold standard for the Constitution (democracy)
      Freedom of Religion
      Gold standard for the critique of the Holocaust
      Even though most Americans and politicians at the time considered it a farce and could not believe humans would treat each other so poorly
    • Freedom of Speech
    • The Four Freedoms
      Freedom from Want
      The gold standard for economic policies for the rest of the 20th century
      Elimination of barriers to international trade
      Protecting the standard of living from falling after the war
      Freedom from Fear
      The gradual disarmament of the entire world
      Help prevent tyranny (Italy, Germany) from happening again
      “human security” paradigm
      the gradual shift from the collective to the individual, Rockwell’s painting shows this very well
    • Freedom from Want
    • Freedom from Fear
    • The Fifth Freedom
      The war witnessed a burst of messages marketing advertisers’ definition of freedom
      The emergence of free enterprise
    • Taxes v. Bonds
    • Investments in Bonds
    • Audience
      Slogans
      Ideas
      Energy & Capital
      The War Effort and Propaganda
    • Propaganda
    • Changes in Wartime Production
    • Rubber
    • Gas Rationing
    • Scrap Metal
    • Scrap Metal
    • Sugar
    • More Sugar Concerns
    • Christmas 1942
    • Gum
      Lingerie
      Grease
      Juke Boxes
      Toasters
      Blenders
      Cars
      Toothpaste
      Shoes
      Coffee
      Kettles
      Nylon hose
      Erasers
      Glass jars
      Tin cans
      Tea
      Examples of other random items
    • A few pessimistic views
    • Right to work.
      Right to fair pay.
      Right to adequate food.
      Right to security.
      Right to live in a society of free enterprise.
      Right to come and go.
      Right to speak or be silent.
      Right to equality before the law.
      Right to rest.
      Right to an education.
      A New Bill of Rights?
    • Right to work, if you are white.
      Right to fair pay, if you are male.
      Right to adequate food, if you register for and comply with food rationing programs.
      Right to security, if you were not drafted.
      Right to live in a society of free enterprise, if one excludes the government’s price and wage ceilings and orders that halted production on all the common items one needs to live.
      Right to come and go, if the person does not need new shoes, more gasoline, decent tires, a new car, or a new bicycle.
      Right to speak or be silent, as long as one speaks positively about the war, and is silent about the legitimacy of rationing claims.
      Right to equality before the law, if it is “Separate but Equal” before the law.
      Right to rest, but only on Christmas Day.
      And a right to an education, if the cotton is not in bloom and ready to be picked by child laborers.
      Realities
    • Women at War
      Women in 1944 made up over 1/3 of the civilian labor force
      New opportunities opened up for married women and mothers
      Women’s work during the war was viewed by men and the government as temporary
      The advertisers’ “world of tomorrow” rested on a vision of family-centered prosperity
    • The American Dilemma
      Patriotic Assimilation
      World War II created a vast melting pot, especially for European immigrants and their children
      Roosevelt promoted pluralism as the only source of harmony in a diverse society
      Government and private agencies eagerly promoted group equality as the definition of Americanism and a counterpoint to Nazism
    • The American Dilemma
      Patriotic Assimilation
      By the war’s end, racism and nativism had been stripped of its intellectual respectability
      However, intolerance hardly disappeared from American life
    • The American Dilemma
      Asian-Americans in Wartime
      Asian-Americans’ war experience was filled with paradox
      Chinese exclusion was abolished
      Japanese were viewed by American as a detested foe
      The American government viewed every person of Japanese ethnicity as a potential spy
    • The American Dilemma
      Japanese-American Internment
      The military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order 9066
      Internment revealed how easily war can undermine basic freedoms
      Hardly anyone spoke out against internment
      The courts refused to intervene
      The government marketed war bonds to the internees and drafted them into the army
    • Blacks and the War
      The wartime message of freedom ushered a major transformation in the status of blacks
      The war spurred a movement of black population from the rural South to the cities of the North and West
      Detroit race riot
      During the war, over 1 million blacks served in the armed forces
      Black soldiers sometimes had to give up their seats on railroad cars to accommodate Nazi prisoners of war
    • Birth of the Civil Rights Movement
      The war years witnessed the birth of the modern civil rights movement
      March on Washington
      Black labor leader A. Philip Randolph called for the march in July 1941
      Executive Order 8802
      Prohibited government contractors from engaging in employment discrimination based on race, color, or national origin
    • Birth of the Civil Rights Movement
      The Double V
      The double-V meant that victory over Germany and Japan must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home
      What the Negro Wants
      During the war, a broad political coalition on the left called for an end to racial inequality in America
      The status of blacks becomes an issue at the forefront of enlightened liberalism
      CIO unions made significant efforts to organize black workers and win access to skilled positions
      The South reacts by attempting to preserve white supremacy
    • The End of the War
      The Atomic Bomb
      One of the most momentous decisions ever confronted by an American president fell to Harry Truman
      The bomb was a practical realization of the theory of relativity
      The Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb
    • The End of the War
      The Dawn of the Atomic Age
      On 6 August 1945, an American bomber dropped an atomic bomb that detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
      Because of the enormous cost in civilian lives, the use of the bomb remains controversial
      Allied military forces reasoned the use of the bomb saved roughly half a million Allied soldiers’ lives
      The dropping of the atomic bombs was the logical culmination of the war World War II had been fought
      A total threat requires a total response