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CH_20_The Roaring Twenties

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  • 1. The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression
    Chapter 20
  • 2.
  • 3. Prosperity and its Limits
    The business of America was business
    The automobile industry was the backbone of American prosperity
    Stimulated the expansion of steel, rubber, and oil
    Road construction; it virtually helped all sectors of the economy
    Businessmen like Henry Ford and engineers like Herbert Hoover were cultural heroes
  • 4. Prosperity and its Limits
    A New Society
    Consumerism was rampant; salespeople, advertisements
    Any way to satisfy Americans’ psychological desires and everyday needs (do we still think this way)
    Americans spending more money on leisure; vacations, movies, and sporting events (the rise of Baseball as the American pastime)
  • 5. Prosperity and its Limits
    A New Society
    Americans considered their standard of living as a “sacred acquisition” (Pride always comes before a fall)
    Rise of the middle class led to the disproportion of wealth; it’s no surprise this ended in a market crash; everyone has money to speculate with now
  • 6. Prosperity and its Limits
    Limits of Prosperity
    Increased production and wealth was distributed unequally
    1929, over 40 percent of the population still lived in poverty (almost a kickback to the Gilded Age, but with a focus on consumerism; these patterns keep repeating)
  • 7. Prosperity and its Limits
    Limits of Prosperity
    Farmers definitely didn’t share in the prosperity; California started to receive many of the displaced farmers; the “Dust Bowl” was beginning due to poor crop rotation and over farming
    Prohibition led to a stellar increase in crime; youths in America became enamored with an obsessive interest in the mafia and bootleggers
    Prohibition could be seen as a monumental failure of progressive reform; gangsters, racketeering, and bootlegging became an extremely profitable business and by 1933, FDR repealed the amendment
  • 8.
  • 9. Prosperity and its Limits
    The Decline of Labor
    Nativism, Americanism, and industrial freedom were used as weapons against labor unions
    Propaganda linked unionism and socialism as examples of the evil influence of foreigners of ‘pure, free’ American life
    During the 1920s, labor unions lost around 2 million members
  • 10. Prosperity and its Limits
    Women’s Freedom
    Female liberation spread after the passage of women’s suffrage
    They were greatly influenced by advertising and mass entertainment
    Sex becomes a marketing tool
    This new freedom only lasted while the woman was single; married life was still about the same as before
  • 11. Prosperity and its Limits
    Women’s Freedom
    “Flappers” – drank, smoked, and demanded sex with the same gusto that was traditionally reserved for men; these were single, young women
    The greatest change in family life was the discovery of adolescence
    The automobile became a fear for parents as they worried about their children having premarital sex and engaging in vice
    Teenage sons and daughters no longer had to work and could engage in excitement of a consumer oriented lifestyle
    Sex became the all-encompassing obsession for young men and women
  • 12.
  • 13. Progressivism Gives Way to Republicanism
    Numerous publications such as Public Opinion and The Phantom Public criticized progressives’ hope of applying intelligence to social problems in a mass democracy
    Voter turnout declined dramatically in the 1920s; mostly due to people’s preoccupation with consumerism
    Republicans quickly gained control and pro-business ethos ruled the 1920s (here’s the Gilded Age again)
    Lower taxes
    Higher tariffs
    Supreme Court remains very conservative
  • 14. The Harding Scandals
    Warren G. Harding’s administration quickly became one of the most corrupt in American history, however, most of the country liked him
    Harding cared little for ethics and surrounded himself with cronies that used their office to further their own private gain
  • 15.
  • 16. The Harding Scandals
    Teapot Dome Scandal
    Bribery scandal during Harding’s administration
    Harding transferred the Naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, WY, Elk Hills, and Buena Vista, CA to the Department of the Interior in 1921
    Dept. of Interior Secretary; Albert B. Fall leased (without competitive bidding) the Teapot Dome field to an oil operator named Sinclair and the field in Elk Hills to Edward L. Doheny
  • 17. The Harding Scandals
    Teapot Dome Scandal
    The Senate conducted an investigation and found out that Doheny lent Fall $100k interest free and under the table; Sinclair lent Fall another large sum of money on his retirement; Senate indicted Fall for bribery and conspiracy to accept bribes
    Oil fields returned to US Government property in 1927 after a SC decision
  • 18. Economic Diplomacy
    Foreign affairs were a reflection on the close relationship between business and government in the 1920s
    Most foreign policy was conducted through private business exchange and relationships over governmental diplomacy in the twenties
    Bankers loaned Germany an enormous amount of money
  • 19. Economic Diplomacy
    US Government acted similarly to the Gilded Age officials in the Spanish American war by dispatching soldiers to the Caribbean when a change in regime threatened American economic interests
    Little concern for legitimate government in Latin America at this time
  • 20. Civil Liberties in the 1920s
    Free Mob
    As wartime repression continued after the war ended, Europeans quickly began to view America as a repressive cultural wasteland
    Actors adopting the Hays code
  • 21. Civil Liberties in the 1920s
    “Clear and Present Danger” Clause
    SC Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes questioned this as the SC gave the concept of civil liberties a devastating blow when it ruled that situations such as “shouting fire in a theater” that does not have a fire is a danger to the safety of citizens and is not protected by the First Amendment (1919 Ruling)
  • 22. Civil Liberties in the 1920s
    “Clear and Present Danger” Clause
    Overall, this blurred the lines between what is considered appropriate communication, disorderly conduct, and seditious
    ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) was established in 1920
    The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [...] The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.
  • 23. Civil Liberties in the 1920s
    “Clear and Present Danger” Clause
    Holmes began to speak out against the infringement of civil liberties
    Went beyond political expression; became the “indispensible birthright of every free American”
  • 24. Fundamentalist Backlash
    Fundamentalism – literal interpretation of the Bible; rural people believing in this took their religion with them to the cities
    Evangelical Protestants feeling threatened by the decline of traditional values and increased visibility of Catholicism and Jews because of immigration (fueled by nativism)
    This becomes the Klan’s official religious faction in Texas and in the South at large
  • 25. Fundamentalist Backlash
    Fundamentalists went on a campaign to rid Protestant denominations of modernism (evolution)
    They supported prohibition, while most others viewed it as a denial of individual freedom
    The press viewed them as backwards, backcountry bigots
  • 26. The Scopes Trial
    ACLU gets involved with the clash between fundamentalism and evolution (and the legality of it)
    John Scopes, a biology teacher from Dayton, TN (who teaches evolution), agrees to be participate in this experiment (gets arrested) and tried for teaching evolution in public school (against TN statutes)
  • 27.
  • 28. The Scopes Trial
    This became the hallmark case of the tensions between fundamentalists and modernists (two very different definitions of freedom)
    Clarence Darrow (a renowned labor lawyer defended Scopes)
    William Jennings Bryan aided the state as an expert in the Bible
    Classic moment where Bryan talks of the inerrancy of the Bible and Darrow questions him about the book of Joshua (stopping the sun and moon)
    Everyone nationally realizes what a circus this has become and sees the fallacies with fundamentalists
  • 29. John T. Scopes
  • 30. The Scopes Trial
    Even though Scopes loses and is made to pay a fine (paid by the ACLU), fundamentalists think they gain ground, but in reality, isolate a great part of the nation from their cause for many years
    The connection between Republicans and fundamentalists helps lead to the decline of the Republican party during the Depression
  • 31.
  • 32. Clarence Darrow
    William Jennings Bryan
  • 33. A combination of the following:
    American Nationalism
    Lingering racial tensions
    Millennialism and the Klan
    Remnants of World War I millennialism identified Germany with the devil; victory would dawn a new and beautiful world
    When this Utopian hope did not appear, the Klan comes in saying more work has to be done
    Klan millennialism identified a world of sin filled with Catholics, Jews, and racial tensions that destroyed the “white Utopian dream”
    Another “dark side of Progressivism”
    Why Does the Klan Return?
  • 34. Resurrected in Stone Mountain, Georgia during the winter of 1915
    Their goal: exist as a “patriotic, secret, social, benevolent order”
    “Colonel” William Joseph Simmons is credited as the founder
    His father was an officer in the Klan of the 1860s
    Converted to Christianity and became a Methodist minister
    Very influential public speaker and frequented fraternal orders
    The Return of the Klan
  • 35. William Joseph Simmons
  • 36. Klan Ideology
    White supremacy
    100 percent “Americanism” and patriotism
    Anti-Catholicism, anti-Semitism, anti-immigration
    For the “purity of womanhood”
    However, a women’s order of the Klan develops ironically
    Protestant, fundamentalist ideals
    Prohibition was key
    The Return of the Klan
  • 37. Systematic recruitment
    “Kleagles” (recruiters) targeted upper class citizens of importance first
    Middle class members readily joined because of the prestige of belonging to an organization with the upper class
    Lower class citizens were recruited to fill quotas and sell chapter memberships
    Membership gave these citizens some feeling of superiority and importance
    The Return of the Klan
  • 38. Membership Requirements
    Caucasian ethnicity
    Native-born American
    Believe in 100 percent “Americanism”
    Pay a $10 initiation fee
    Connection to the Masons
    Often, recruiters were Masons also
    They typically recruited lower class Masons who shared anti-Catholic sentiment
    Officially, Masons denied any connection
    The Return of the Klan
  • 39.
  • 40. Key Biblical verse to their ideology: Romans 12:1
    “I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, Holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.
    Basically, they appealed to strict separation of justification and sanctification in the Holy Spirit
    Klan Ritual
  • 41. “Naturalization” into the Invisible Empire
    The inductee moves around various points in the “Klavern” (meeting house) and listens to various Protestant infused Klan passages
    The inductee swears allegiance to the Klan
    The final ritual was very similar to a Protestant baptism
    Lastly, the inductee was ‘knighted’ into the Invisible Empire
    Klan Ritual
  • 42.
  • 43. The Klan officially returns to Texas in 1920
    Establishment of the “Sam Houston Klan No. 1” in Houston amidst fears of future race riots
    In less than 2 years, the Klan had roughly 90,000 members in Texas
    Provinces in Houston, San Antonio, Waco, Fort Worth, and Dallas
    Dr. Hiram Wesley Evans, Grand Titan of the Dallas Klan emerges as a key leader in the Texas Klan
    Later becomes the Imperial Wizard of the national Klan
    The Ku Klux Klan in Texas
  • 44. Hiram Wesley Evans
    Grand Dragon of the Texas Klan
  • 45. Waco Klan’s “Watermelon Social” for Friends and Supporters, 1923
  • 46. In 1921, over 1000 recruits were initiated into Waco’s Saxet Klan no. 33
    Prominent Waco Judge Edwin J. Clark formed the Waco chapter and declared himself Grand Titan in 1921
    Membership included law enforcement, major businessmen, and members of the legal and judicial system
    Evans attempted to persuade legal officials to join their “national law enforcement program”
    The Klan would often offer monetary assistance for fugitive bounties
    Protestant ministers were often approached for membership also
    Most in McLennan County did not officially join, but sometimes supported their ideals in sermons
    The Klan Comes to Waco
  • 47. Klan Parade in Waco, 1923
  • 48. 13th Street at Bosque Boulevard: Site of the 1920s Waco Klan Klavern
  • 49. In the fall of 1921, numerous Klan parades and events took place in Central Texas
    The Waco Klan set out to parade in Lorena in October 1921
    Over 4000 citizens attended
    The County Attorney and McLennan County Sheriff Bob Buchanan felt that law enforcement needed to present to prevent riots
    The Lorena Riot
  • 50. Origins of the Riot
    The Sheriff wanted to know the identities of one of the Klan leaders
    The Klansmen refused to reveal their identities
    Buchanan attempts to unmask a Klansmen
    Shots are fired
    The Sheriff and his deputies are forced to defend themselves
    Buchanan is shot under the right arm
    Prominent laundryman Louis Crow is stabbed (later dies)
    Deputies and a Waco policeman receive knife wounds
    The Lorena Riot
  • 51.
  • 52. Aftermath
    The City of Lorena and disgruntled citizens publish a reprimand against the sheriff in the Waco Times Herald
    Sheriff Buchanan is charged with murder of Louis Crow
    It is later refused for prosecution by the County Attorney
    The Lorena Riot
  • 53. Aftermath
    Buchanan is later sued by the widow of Crow in civil court
    The case is dropped because the court cannot secure an impartial jury in McLennan County
    Buchanan and others who opposed the Klan easily lose county elections of 1922 largely because of the event
    The Lorena Riot
  • 54. “Klan Candidates” in McLennan County, 1922
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. The “Waco Agreement”
    Earle Bradford Mayfield
    Robert Lee Henry
  • 58. Robert Henry, Sterling Strong, and Earle Mayfield were considered the Klan political triumvirate in 1922
    Each were competing for the Democratic party bid for an open U.S. Senate seat
    The Klan’s influence was growing at a rapid pace with the Democratic party
    Over 100,000 Klan-influenced votes were at stake
    The issue: Which candidate does the Klan pick to recognize as the “official” Klan candidate?
    The “Waco Agreement”
  • 59. Raleigh Hotel, Waco, Texas
  • 60. The Solution:
    Four of the Texas Klan’s Grand Titans meet at the Raleigh Hotel in Waco (March 1922) to discuss which candidate will be officially recognized
    Three of the four Titans believe Mayfield should be the candidate
    Prominent Waco Judge (and Titan) Erwin Clark convinces the others to let the candidates run without interference of the Klan
    This becomes known as the “Waco Agreement”
    Clark was biased towards Henry though
    The “Waco Agreement”
  • 61. The agreement is later disregarded as it becomes apparent that Mayfield would draw better support from the Texas Klan in general
    Henry goes on a rampage denouncing the Klan publically throughout the state
    He loses the Democratic bid and retires from public office
    Mayfield wins the Senate seat by a landslide
    The Klan’s political influence reached its highest point
    Erwin Clark renounces his membership in the Klan and moves to Houston
    He dies a few years later under mysterious circumstances
    The “Waco Agreement”
  • 62. Hood or Bonnet?
    Felix D. Robertson
    “Ma” Ferguson
  • 63. Felix D. Robertson
    Brig. Gen. Jerome B.
    Brig. Gen. Felix H.
  • 64. After the election of Mayfield, the Texas Klan set its sights on the Governor’s office
    Their goal: successfully elect Felix D. Robertson
    His father and grandfather were both Confederate generals
    He was known as the no-compromising “Dollar-a-Mile” judge in Dallas
    At this point, Klan membership in Texas rose to 170,000
    They were now a well-organized minority that had significant influence and control of the Democratic party in Texas
    Hood or Bonnet
  • 65. Robertson’s Competition
    “Ma” Ferguson
    She and “Pa” ran a fierce anti-prohibitionist campaign against Robertson and used growing discontent against the Klan effectively
    By 1923, the Klan’s reign of violence was reaching its zenith
    Upper-class and middle-class citizenry who viewed the organization as another social club began to leave at a rapid pace
    The over-recruitment of lower-class citizenry was largely to blame for the surge in violence during the period
    Hood or Bonnet
  • 66. Pa Ferguson’s death blow to the Klan
    After the run-off Democratic primary began, Ferguson stepped up his campaign against Robertson and the Klan
    He struck a decisive blow after news of Imperial Wizard Evans and a black servant began to spread throughout the state
    Evans bought the servant a train ticket and allow him to occupy a “white-only” train car
    Ferguson widely publicized the incident and it cost Robertson between 50,000 and 100,000 votes
    As a result, Ma Ferguson decisively wins the primary and the governor’s office
    This marks the decline of the Klan in Texas at large
    By 1930, the organization effectively went underground
    Hood or Bonnet
  • 67. Cultural Pluralism
    A society that gloried in ethnic diversity rather than attempting to repress it
    New immigrants were the champions of this ideal
    They asserted the validity of cultural diversity and identified toleration of difference as a cornerstone of American freedom
    The Supreme Court supported this by striking down laws against Americanization (100 percent)
  • 68. The Harlem Renaissance
    1920s led to a resurgence of self-consciousness among black Americans; especially in northern ghettos (poorer areas)
    Harlem gains a reputation for the “capital” of black America
    Diverse music, art, and culture came out of this area during the 1920s
    Pushed for the “New Negro” to reject established stereotypes and place new, renewed black values in its place
  • 69. The Great Depression
    Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover enjoyed wide popularity because of their appeal to traditional American values
    News of Harding’s scandals did not come out until after his death
    Coolidge represented Americans reserve and prominence (monetarily)
    Hoover represents a self-made man who rises from adversity
  • 70. The Great Depression
    Election of 1928
    Hoover exemplifies the rise of a new era of American capitalism
    He easily defeats Alfred Smith of NY due to remnants of nativism that worked against his Catholic background
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74. The Great Depression
    Stock Market Crash
    Days before the crash, Hoover gives a speech about American progress and attributes it to businessmen and scientists; limitless potential
    The crash itself did not cause the Depression
    The global financial system was ill prepared to deal with the crash, causing a world-wide recession that changes the political and economic landscape of the entire world
    In 1932, the country hits rock bottom
  • 75.
  • 76. The Great Depression
    Coping with the Depression
    Hoover does virtually nothing; did not want to commit to anything; too afraid of losing his association with business
    Businessmen strongly opposed federal aid to the unemployed (need to pull themselves up by their own bootstraps)
    When Hoover did act, it made the situation worse; he had no clue with how to deal with this problem
    The situation gets so dire that Americans began to call the ramshackle tenements “Hoovervilles”