CH_20_The Roaring Twenties

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CH_20_The Roaring Twenties

  1. 1. Chapter 20
  2. 2. Prosperity and its Limits  The business of America was business  The automobile industry was the backbone of American prosperity  Stimulated the expansion of steel, rubber, and oil  Road construction; it virtually helped all sectors of the economy  Businessmen like Henry Ford and engineers like Herbert Hoover were cultural heroes
  3. 3. Prosperity and its Limits  A New Society  Consumerism was rampant; salespeople, advertisements  Any way to satisfy Americans’ psychological desires and everyday needs (do we still think this way)  Americans spending more money on leisure; vacations, movies, and sporting events (the rise of Baseball as the American pastime)
  4. 4. Prosperity and its Limits  A New Society  Americans considered their standard of living as a “sacred acquisition” (Pride always comes before a fall)  Rise of the middle class led to the disproportion of wealth; it’s no surprise this ended in a market crash; everyone has money to speculate with now
  5. 5. Prosperity and its Limits  Limits of Prosperity  Increased production and wealth was distributed unequally  1929, over 40 percent of the population still lived in poverty (almost a kickback to the Gilded Age, but with a focus on consumerism; these patterns keep repeating)
  6. 6. Prosperity and its Limits  Limits of Prosperity  Farmers definitely didn’t share in the prosperity; California started to receive many of the displaced farmers; the “Dust Bowl” was beginning due to poor crop rotation and over farming  Prohibition led to a stellar increase in crime; youths in America became enamored with an obsessive interest in the mafia and bootleggers ○ Prohibition could be seen as a monumental failure of progressive reform; gangsters, racketeering, and bootlegging became an extremely profitable business and by 1933, FDR repealed the amendment
  7. 7. Prosperity and its Limits  The Decline of Labor  Nativism, Americanism, and industrial freedom were used as weapons against labor unions ○ Propaganda linked unionism and socialism as examples of the evil influence of foreigners of ‘pure, free’ American life ○ During the 1920s, labor unions lost around 2 million members
  8. 8. Prosperity and its Limits  Women’s Freedom  Female liberation spread after the passage of women’s suffrage ○ They were greatly influenced by advertising and mass entertainment ○ Sex becomes a marketing tool ○ This new freedom only lasted while the woman was single; married life was still about the same as before
  9. 9. Prosperity and its Limits  Women’s Freedom  “Flappers” – drank, smoked, and demanded sex with the same gusto that was traditionally reserved for men; these were single, young women ○ The greatest change in family life was the discovery of adolescence ○ The automobile became a fear for parents as they worried about their children having premarital sex and engaging in vice ○ Teenage sons and daughters no longer had to work and could engage in excitement of a consumer oriented lifestyle ○ Sex became the all-encompassing obsession for young men and women
  10. 10. Progressivism Gives Way to Republicanism  Numerous publications such as Public Opinion and The Phantom Public criticized progressives’ hope of applying intelligence to social problems in a mass democracy  Voter turnout declined dramatically in the 1920s; mostly due to people’s preoccupation with consumerism  Republicans quickly gained control and pro-business ethos ruled the 1920s (here’s the Gilded Age again)  Lower taxes  Higher tariffs  Anti-Unionism  Supreme Court remains very conservative
  11. 11. The Harding Scandals  Warren G. Harding’s administration quickly became one of the most corrupt in American history, however, most of the country liked him  Harding cared little for ethics and surrounded himself with cronies that used their office to further their own private gain
  12. 12. The Harding Scandals  Teapot Dome Scandal  Bribery scandal during Harding’s administration  Harding transferred the Naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, WY, Elk Hills, and Buena Vista, CA to the Department of the Interior in 1921  Dept. of Interior Secretary; Albert B. Fall leased (without competitive bidding) the Teapot Dome field to an oil operator named Sinclair and the field in Elk Hills to Edward L. Doheny
  13. 13. The Harding Scandals  Teapot Dome Scandal  The Senate conducted an investigation and found out that Doheny lent Fall $100k interest free and under the table; Sinclair lent Fall another large sum of money on his retirement; Senate indicted Fall for bribery and conspiracy to accept bribes  Oil fields returned to US Government property in 1927 after a SC decision
  14. 14. Economic Diplomacy  Foreign affairs were a reflection on the close relationship between business and government in the 1920s  Most foreign policy was conducted through private business exchange and relationships over governmental diplomacy in the twenties  Bankers loaned Germany an enormous amount of money
  15. 15. Economic Diplomacy  US Government acted similarly to the Gilded Age officials in the Spanish American war by dispatching soldiers to the Caribbean when a change in regime threatened American economic interests  Little concern for legitimate government in Latin America at this time
  16. 16. Civil Liberties in the 1920s  Free Mob  As wartime repression continued after the war ended, Europeans quickly began to view America as a repressive cultural wasteland  Actors adopting the Hays code
  17. 17. Civil Liberties in the 1920s  “Clear and Present Danger” Clause  SC Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes questioned this as the SC gave the concept of civil liberties a devastating blow when it ruled that situations such as “shouting fire in a theater” that does not have a fire is a danger to the safety of citizens and is not protected by the First Amendment (1919 Ruling)
  18. 18. Civil Liberties in the 1920s  “Clear and Present Danger” Clause  Overall, this blurred the lines between what is considered appropriate communication, disorderly conduct, and seditious  ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) was established in 1920  The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [...] The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.
  19. 19. Civil Liberties in the 1920s  “Clear and Present Danger” Clause  Holmes began to speak out against the infringement of civil liberties  Went beyond political expression; became the “indispensible birthright of every free American”
  20. 20. Fundamentalist Backlash  Fundamentalism – literal interpretation of the Bible; rural people believing in this took their religion with them to the cities  Evangelical Protestants feeling threatened by the decline of traditional values and increased visibility of Catholicism and Jews because of immigration (fueled by nativism)  This becomes the Klan’s official religious faction in Texas and in the South at large
  21. 21. Fundamentalist Backlash  Fundamentalists went on a campaign to rid Protestant denominations of modernism (evolution)  They supported prohibition, while most others viewed it as a denial of individual freedom  The press viewed them as backwards, backcountry bigots
  22. 22. The Scopes Trial  ACLU gets involved with the clash between fundamentalism and evolution (and the legality of it)  John Scopes, a biology teacher from Dayton, TN (who teaches evolution), agrees to be participate in this experiment (gets arrested) and tried for teaching evolution in public school (against TN statutes)
  23. 23. The Scopes Trial  This became the hallmark case of the tensions between fundamentalists and modernists (two very different definitions of freedom)  Clarence Darrow (a renowned labor lawyer defended Scopes)  William Jennings Bryan aided the state as an expert in the Bible  Classic moment where Bryan talks of the inerrancy of the Bible and Darrow questions him about the book of Joshua (stopping the sun and moon)  Everyone nationally realizes what a circus this has become and sees the fallacies with fundamentalists
  24. 24. John T. Scopes
  25. 25. The Scopes Trial  Even though Scopes loses and is made to pay a fine (paid by the ACLU), fundamentalists think they gain ground, but in reality, isolate a great part of the nation from their cause for many years  The connection between Republicans and fundamentalists helps lead to the decline of the Republican party during the Depression
  26. 26. Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan
  27. 27.  A combination of the following:  Progressivism  Fundamentalism  American Nationalism  Nativism  Lingering racial tensions  Millennialism and the Klan  Remnants of World War I millennialism identified Germany with the devil; victory would dawn a new and beautiful world ○ When this Utopian hope did not appear, the Klan comes in saying more work has to be done  Klan millennialism identified a world of sin filled with Catholics, Jews, and racial tensions that destroyed the “white Utopian dream” ○ Another “dark side of Progressivism” Why Does the Klan Return?
  28. 28.  Resurrected in Stone Mountain, Georgia during the winter of 1915  Their goal: exist as a “patriotic, secret, social, benevolent order”  “Colonel” William Joseph Simmons is credited as the founder  His father was an officer in the Klan of the 1860s  Converted to Christianity and became a Methodist minister  Very influential public speaker and frequented fraternal orders The Return of the Klan
  29. 29. William Joseph Simmons
  30. 30.  Klan Ideology  White supremacy  100 percent “Americanism” and patriotism  Anti-Catholicism, anti-Semitism, anti-immigration  For the “purity of womanhood” ○ However, a women’s order of the Klan develops ironically  Protestant, fundamentalist ideals ○ Prohibition was key The Return of the Klan
  31. 31.  Systematic recruitment  “Kleagles” (recruiters) targeted upper class citizens of importance first  Middle class members readily joined because of the prestige of belonging to an organization with the upper class  Lower class citizens were recruited to fill quotas and sell chapter memberships ○ Membership gave these citizens some feeling of superiority and importance The Return of the Klan
  32. 32.  Membership Requirements  Caucasian ethnicity  Native-born American  Protestant  Believe in 100 percent “Americanism”  Pay a $10 initiation fee  Connection to the Masons  Often, recruiters were Masons also  They typically recruited lower class Masons who shared anti-Catholic sentiment  Officially, Masons denied any connection The Return of the Klan
  33. 33.  Key Biblical verse to their ideology: Romans 12:1  “I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, Holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.  Basically, they appealed to strict separation of justification and sanctification in the Holy Spirit Klan Ritual
  34. 34.  “Naturalization” into the Invisible Empire  The inductee moves around various points in the “Klavern” (meeting house) and listens to various Protestant infused Klan passages  The inductee swears allegiance to the Klan  The final ritual was very similar to a Protestant baptism  Lastly, the inductee was ‘knighted’ into the Invisible Empire Klan Ritual
  35. 35.  The Klan officially returns to Texas in 1920  Establishment of the “Sam Houston Klan No. 1” in Houston amidst fears of future race riots  In less than 2 years, the Klan had roughly 90,000 members in Texas  Provinces in Houston, San Antonio, Waco, Fort Worth, and Dallas  Dr. Hiram Wesley Evans, Grand Titan of the Dallas Klan emerges as a key leader in the Texas Klan  Later becomes the Imperial Wizard of the national Klan The Ku Klux Klan in Texas
  36. 36. Hiram Wesley Evans Grand Dragon of the Texas Klan
  37. 37. Waco Klan’s “Watermelon Social” for Friends and Supporters, 1923
  38. 38.  In 1921, over 1000 recruits were initiated into Waco’s Saxet Klan no. 33  Prominent Waco Judge Edwin J. Clark formed the Waco chapter and declared himself Grand Titan in 1921  Membership included law enforcement, major businessmen, and members of the legal and judicial system  Evans attempted to persuade legal officials to join their “national law enforcement program”  The Klan would often offer monetary assistance for fugitive bounties  Protestant ministers were often approached for membership also  Most in McLennan County did not officially join, but sometimes supported their ideals in sermons The Klan Comes to Waco
  39. 39. Klan Parade in Waco, 1923
  40. 40. 13th Street at Bosque Boulevard: Site of the 1920s Waco Klan Klavern
  41. 41.  In the fall of 1921, numerous Klan parades and events took place in Central Texas  The Waco Klan set out to parade in Lorena in October 1921  Over 4000 citizens attended  The County Attorney and McLennan County Sheriff Bob Buchanan felt that law enforcement needed to present to prevent riots The Lorena Riot
  42. 42.  Origins of the Riot  The Sheriff wanted to know the identities of one of the Klan leaders  The Klansmen refused to reveal their identities  Buchanan attempts to unmask a Klansmen  Shots are fired  The Sheriff and his deputies are forced to defend themselves  Results  Buchanan is shot under the right arm  Prominent laundryman Louis Crow is stabbed (later dies)  Deputies and a Waco policeman receive knife wounds The Lorena Riot
  43. 43.  Aftermath  The City of Lorena and disgruntled citizens publish a reprimand against the sheriff in the Waco Times Herald  Sheriff Buchanan is charged with murder of Louis Crow ○ It is later refused for prosecution by the County Attorney The Lorena Riot
  44. 44.  Aftermath  Buchanan is later sued by the widow of Crow in civil court ○ The case is dropped because the court cannot secure an impartial jury in McLennan County  Buchanan and others who opposed the Klan easily lose county elections of 1922 largely because of the event The Lorena Riot
  45. 45. “Klan Candidates” in McLennan County, 1922
  46. 46. The “Waco Agreement” Robert Lee Henry Earle Bradford Mayfield
  47. 47.  Robert Henry, Sterling Strong, and Earle Mayfield were considered the Klan political triumvirate in 1922  Each were competing for the Democratic party bid for an open U.S. Senate seat  The Klan’s influence was growing at a rapid pace with the Democratic party  Over 100,000 Klan-influenced votes were at stake  The issue: Which candidate does the Klan pick to recognize as the “official” Klan candidate? The “Waco Agreement”
  48. 48. Raleigh Hotel, Waco, Texas
  49. 49.  The Solution:  Four of the Texas Klan’s Grand Titans meet at the Raleigh Hotel in Waco (March 1922) to discuss which candidate will be officially recognized  Three of the four Titans believe Mayfield should be the candidate ○ Prominent Waco Judge (and Titan) Erwin Clark convinces the others to let the candidates run without interference of the Klan ○ This becomes known as the “Waco Agreement” ○ Clark was biased towards Henry though The “Waco Agreement”
  50. 50.  The agreement is later disregarded as it becomes apparent that Mayfield would draw better support from the Texas Klan in general  Henry goes on a rampage denouncing the Klan publically throughout the state  He loses the Democratic bid and retires from public office  Mayfield wins the Senate seat by a landslide  The Klan’s political influence reached its highest point  Erwin Clark renounces his membership in the Klan and moves to Houston  He dies a few years later under mysterious circumstances The “Waco Agreement”
  51. 51. Hood or Bonnet? Felix D. Robertson “Ma” Ferguson
  52. 52. Brig. Gen. Jerome B. Robertson Brig. Gen. Felix H. Robertson Felix D. Robertson
  53. 53.  After the election of Mayfield, the Texas Klan set its sights on the Governor’s office  Their goal: successfully elect Felix D. Robertson  His father and grandfather were both Confederate generals  He was known as the no-compromising “Dollar-a- Mile” judge in Dallas  At this point, Klan membership in Texas rose to 170,000  They were now a well-organized minority that had significant influence and control of the Democratic party in Texas Hood or Bonnet
  54. 54.  Robertson’s Competition  “Ma” Ferguson  She and “Pa” ran a fierce anti-prohibitionist campaign against Robertson and used growing discontent against the Klan effectively  By 1923, the Klan’s reign of violence was reaching its zenith  Upper-class and middle-class citizenry who viewed the organization as another social club began to leave at a rapid pace  The over-recruitment of lower-class citizenry was largely to blame for the surge in violence during the period Hood or Bonnet
  55. 55.  Pa Ferguson’s death blow to the Klan  After the run-off Democratic primary began, Ferguson stepped up his campaign against Robertson and the Klan  He struck a decisive blow after news of Imperial Wizard Evans and a black servant began to spread throughout the state ○ Evans bought the servant a train ticket and allow him to occupy a “white-only” train car  Ferguson widely publicized the incident and it cost Robertson between 50,000 and 100,000 votes  As a result, Ma Ferguson decisively wins the primary and the governor’s office  This marks the decline of the Klan in Texas at large  By 1930, the organization effectively went underground Hood or Bonnet
  56. 56. Cultural Pluralism  A society that gloried in ethnic diversity rather than attempting to repress it  New immigrants were the champions of this ideal  They asserted the validity of cultural diversity and identified toleration of difference as a cornerstone of American freedom  The Supreme Court supported this by striking down laws against Americanization (100 percent)
  57. 57. The Harlem Renaissance  1920s led to a resurgence of self- consciousness among black Americans; especially in northern ghettos (poorer areas)  Harlem gains a reputation for the “capital” of black America  Diverse music, art, and culture came out of this area during the 1920s  Pushed for the “New Negro” to reject established stereotypes and place new, renewed black values in its place
  58. 58. The Great Depression  Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover enjoyed wide popularity because of their appeal to traditional American values  News of Harding’s scandals did not come out until after his death  Coolidge represented Americans reserve and prominence (monetarily)  Hoover represents a self-made man who rises from adversity
  59. 59. The Great Depression  Election of 1928  Hoover exemplifies the rise of a new era of American capitalism  He easily defeats Alfred Smith of NY due to remnants of nativism that worked against his Catholic background
  60. 60. The Great Depression  Stock Market Crash  Days before the crash, Hoover gives a speech about American progress and attributes it to businessmen and scientists; limitless potential  The crash itself did not cause the Depression  The global financial system was ill prepared to deal with the crash, causing a world-wide recession that changes the political and economic landscape of the entire world  In 1932, the country hits rock bottom
  61. 61. The Great Depression  Coping with the Depression  Hoover does virtually nothing; did not want to commit to anything; too afraid of losing his association with business  Businessmen strongly opposed federal aid to the unemployed (need to pull themselves up by their own bootstraps)  When Hoover did act, it made the situation worse; he had no clue with how to deal with this problem  The situation gets so dire that Americans began to call the ramshackle tenements “Hoovervilles”

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