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CH_12_an age of reform
 

CH_12_an age of reform

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    CH_12_an age of reform CH_12_an age of reform Presentation Transcript

    • An Age of Reform
      Chapter 12
    • Utopian Communities (about 1840)
    • Reform Communities – Overview
      • Roughly 100 reform and/or Utopian communities were established before the Civil War
      • Goals of these communities:
      • Reorganize society on a cooperative basis
      • Restore social harmony
      • Believed that the world exhibited too much individualism
      • Narrow the gap between the rich and poor
      • A backlash to growing industrialization
      • Socialism and Communism become ideas that work their way into these communities’ beliefs
      • Groups
      • Temperance Movement
      • Shakers
      • Transcendentalists
      • Oneida
      • Owenites
    • Temperance Movement Propaganda
    • The Temperance Movement
      • American Temperance Society – founded in 1826
      • Efforts to redeem habitual drunkards
      • By 1830, it claimed to have redeemed hundreds of thousands of American drunkards
      • “Washingtonians” – group of men who quit drinking alcohol and convinced others to follow suit
      • The Temperance Movement eventually gains hundreds of thousands of followers and leads to the Prohibition Movement in the 1900s
      • Became a badge of respectability to the Northern middle class
      • Opponents saw this as an attack on freedom (Catholics)
    • Shakers
    • The Shakers
      • Most successful of the religious reform communities
      • Had close to 5,000 members in the 1840s
      • Settlements from Maine to Kentucky
      • Had a significant impact on those outside their community
      • Very successful economically
      • Believed that men and women were spiritually equal
      • God had a “dual personality”
      • Abandoned private property and traditional family life
      • Also took an oath of celibacy
      • Men and women lived in separate dormitories
      • Ate in communal dining halls
      • Got the name “Shakers” by their frenzied dancing, always separated by sexes
    • Immanuel Kant and Transcendentalism
      • American transcendentalism is rooted in Kant’s philosophy and German idealism
      • Seen as an alternative to Locke and the Unitarian church of the Revolutionary era
      • Kant, “all knowledge transcendental which is concerned not with objects but with our mode of knowing objects”
      • Key Principle:
      • Defining experience based on the inner, spiritual, or mental essence of the human
      • Sort of a backlash to rational thinking, the rise of urbanization, and growth of industry
    • Transcendentalism in the United States
      • Americans unfamiliar with strict German philosophy, relied primarily on English and French commentators
      • Thomas Carlyle
      • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
      • Victor Cousin
      • Very familiar with English Romanticism (partially why we later see the outgrowth of Romanticism in the United States)
      • Transcendental Club
      • Founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 8 September 1936
      • Published The Dial
      • “Transcendentalists” was originally a pejorative term, suggesting their position was beyond sanity and reason
      • Became a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture, and philosophy until the late 1850s
      • Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature
      • Henry David Thoreau, Walden
      • American transcendentalist principle:
      • “ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions”
    • Oneida Community
      • Founder, John Noyes
      • Preached that he and his followers had become so perfect that they had achieved “sinlessness”
      • Abandoned private property, traditional marriage, and lived in a dictatorial community in New York
    • Owenites
      • Robert Owen, most important secular communitarian
      • Owen promoted communitarianism as a peaceful means for ensuring workers received the wages they deserved
      • Women’s rights and education were very important to this community
    • Abolitionism in the United States
      Black Abolitionists
      • Played a leading role in the anti-slavery movement
      • Frederick Douglass
      • Wrote a bestselling autobiography about his life as a slave
      • Met with President Lincoln during the Civil
      • Advocate for emancipation, women’s suffrage, and civil rights
      • Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin
      • Gave the abolitionist movement a very human appeal; based on the life of a fugitive slave named Josiah Henson
      Abolitionism and Race
      • The movement was integrated, but whites attempted to place blacks in secondary positions
      • Launched legal and political battles against slavery in the South
      • Blacks developed a unique understand of freedom beyond their white allies
      • Often attacked the intellectual foundation of slavery
    • Abolitionism in the United States
      Reactions to Abolitionism
      • Northerners
      • Some attacked abolitionists because they felt it threatened the solidarity of the Union
      • Interfering with profits in manufacturing that relied on slave labor for raw materials
      • Afraid of overturning white supremacy
      • Southerners
      • Afraid of overturning an economic system
      • Afraid of overturning a way of life
      • Afraid of overturning white supremacy
      • Mob attacks against abolitionists convinced many northerners that abolition was incompatible with the democracy ideals of the U.S. (specifically white males)
      • The point of contention for abolitionists became a battle over the right to debate slavery openly without fear of violence
      • Became known as the “gospel of freedom”
    • Abolitionism in the United States
      Forms of Abolitionism
      • Colonization
      • American Colonization Society
      • Gradual abolition of slavery and settlement of black Americans in Africa
      • Similar to Indian removal; America is based on a white society
      • Black Americans adamantly opposed this
      • Insisted they were Americans too
      • President Lincoln proposes this during the Civil War
      • Militant Abolitionism
      • Demanded immediate abolition
      • Believed that slavery was sinful and a violation of the Declaration of Independence
      • However, most were pacifists and rejected violence
      • Most were just trying to convince slave owners to give up their slaves
    • The Origins of Feminism
    • Origins of Feminism
      Women in the Public Sphere
      • Became instrumental to the abolition movement
      • Feminism became an international movement in the 1840s
      • The public sphere was open in ways government and party politics were not
      • Women lectured in public about abolition
      • Grimke sisters
      • Frances Wright
      • Maria Stewart
      • Grimke sisters argued that women should be involved in:
      • Assemblies
      • Lectures
      • Demonstrations
      Women’s Rights
      • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucreita Mott organize the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
      • Raised the issue of women’s suffrage for the first time
      • Rejected the idea of women’s sphere being in the home
      • Declaration of Sentiments
      • Condemned the structure of inequality for women in America
      • This movement posed a fundamental challenge to society’s central beliefs
    • Origins of Feminism
      Feminism’s connection with Abolitionism
      The Slavery of Sex
      • This concept empowered women to challenge male authority and their own subordination
      • Marriage and slavery became a powerful tool for feminists
      Social Freedom
      • Women should enjoy the rights to:
      • Regulate their sexual activity
      • Protection from violence from their husbands
      • Individual rights
      • Broaden their rights outside the home
      Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Women’s Emancipation