CH_12_an age of reform


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CH_12_an age of reform

  1. 1. An Age of Reform<br />Chapter 12<br />
  2. 2. Utopian Communities (about 1840)<br />
  3. 3. Reform Communities – Overview<br /><ul><li>Roughly 100 reform and/or Utopian communities were established before the Civil War
  4. 4. Goals of these communities:
  5. 5. Reorganize society on a cooperative basis
  6. 6. Restore social harmony
  7. 7. Believed that the world exhibited too much individualism
  8. 8. Narrow the gap between the rich and poor
  9. 9. A backlash to growing industrialization
  10. 10. Socialism and Communism become ideas that work their way into these communities’ beliefs
  11. 11. Groups
  12. 12. Temperance Movement
  13. 13. Shakers
  14. 14. Transcendentalists
  15. 15. Oneida
  16. 16. Owenites</li></li></ul><li>Temperance Movement Propaganda<br />
  17. 17. The Temperance Movement<br /><ul><li>American Temperance Society – founded in 1826
  18. 18. Efforts to redeem habitual drunkards
  19. 19. By 1830, it claimed to have redeemed hundreds of thousands of American drunkards
  20. 20. “Washingtonians” – group of men who quit drinking alcohol and convinced others to follow suit
  21. 21. The Temperance Movement eventually gains hundreds of thousands of followers and leads to the Prohibition Movement in the 1900s
  22. 22. Became a badge of respectability to the Northern middle class
  23. 23. Opponents saw this as an attack on freedom (Catholics)</li></li></ul><li>Shakers<br />
  24. 24. The Shakers<br /><ul><li>Most successful of the religious reform communities
  25. 25. Had close to 5,000 members in the 1840s
  26. 26. Settlements from Maine to Kentucky
  27. 27. Had a significant impact on those outside their community
  28. 28. Very successful economically
  29. 29. Believed that men and women were spiritually equal
  30. 30. God had a “dual personality”
  31. 31. Abandoned private property and traditional family life
  32. 32. Also took an oath of celibacy
  33. 33. Men and women lived in separate dormitories
  34. 34. Ate in communal dining halls
  35. 35. Got the name “Shakers” by their frenzied dancing, always separated by sexes</li></li></ul><li>Immanuel Kant and Transcendentalism<br /><ul><li>American transcendentalism is rooted in Kant’s philosophy and German idealism
  36. 36. Seen as an alternative to Locke and the Unitarian church of the Revolutionary era
  37. 37. Kant, “all knowledge transcendental which is concerned not with objects but with our mode of knowing objects”
  38. 38. Key Principle:
  39. 39. Defining experience based on the inner, spiritual, or mental essence of the human
  40. 40. Sort of a backlash to rational thinking, the rise of urbanization, and growth of industry</li></li></ul><li>Transcendentalism in the United States<br /><ul><li>Americans unfamiliar with strict German philosophy, relied primarily on English and French commentators
  41. 41. Thomas Carlyle
  42. 42. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  43. 43. Victor Cousin
  44. 44. Very familiar with English Romanticism (partially why we later see the outgrowth of Romanticism in the United States)
  45. 45. Transcendental Club
  46. 46. Founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 8 September 1936
  47. 47. Published The Dial
  48. 48. “Transcendentalists” was originally a pejorative term, suggesting their position was beyond sanity and reason
  49. 49. Became a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture, and philosophy until the late 1850s
  50. 50. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature
  51. 51. Henry David Thoreau, Walden
  52. 52. American transcendentalist principle:
  53. 53. “ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions”</li></li></ul><li>Oneida Community<br /><ul><li>Founder, John Noyes
  54. 54. Preached that he and his followers had become so perfect that they had achieved “sinlessness”
  55. 55. Abandoned private property, traditional marriage, and lived in a dictatorial community in New York</li></li></ul><li>Owenites<br /><ul><li>Robert Owen, most important secular communitarian
  56. 56. Owen promoted communitarianism as a peaceful means for ensuring workers received the wages they deserved
  57. 57. Women’s rights and education were very important to this community</li></li></ul><li>Abolitionism in the United States<br />Black Abolitionists<br /><ul><li>Played a leading role in the anti-slavery movement
  58. 58. Frederick Douglass
  59. 59. Wrote a bestselling autobiography about his life as a slave
  60. 60. Met with President Lincoln during the Civil
  61. 61. Advocate for emancipation, women’s suffrage, and civil rights
  62. 62. Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  63. 63. Gave the abolitionist movement a very human appeal; based on the life of a fugitive slave named Josiah Henson</li></ul>Abolitionism and Race<br /><ul><li>The movement was integrated, but whites attempted to place blacks in secondary positions
  64. 64. Launched legal and political battles against slavery in the South
  65. 65. Blacks developed a unique understand of freedom beyond their white allies
  66. 66. Often attacked the intellectual foundation of slavery</li></li></ul><li>Abolitionism in the United States<br />Reactions to Abolitionism<br /><ul><li>Northerners
  67. 67. Some attacked abolitionists because they felt it threatened the solidarity of the Union
  68. 68. Interfering with profits in manufacturing that relied on slave labor for raw materials
  69. 69. Afraid of overturning white supremacy
  70. 70. Southerners
  71. 71. Afraid of overturning an economic system
  72. 72. Afraid of overturning a way of life
  73. 73. Afraid of overturning white supremacy
  74. 74. Mob attacks against abolitionists convinced many northerners that abolition was incompatible with the democracy ideals of the U.S. (specifically white males)
  75. 75. The point of contention for abolitionists became a battle over the right to debate slavery openly without fear of violence
  76. 76. Became known as the “gospel of freedom”</li></li></ul><li>Abolitionism in the United States<br />Forms of Abolitionism<br /><ul><li>Colonization
  77. 77. American Colonization Society
  78. 78. Gradual abolition of slavery and settlement of black Americans in Africa
  79. 79. Similar to Indian removal; America is based on a white society
  80. 80. Black Americans adamantly opposed this
  81. 81. Insisted they were Americans too
  82. 82. President Lincoln proposes this during the Civil War
  83. 83. Militant Abolitionism
  84. 84. Demanded immediate abolition
  85. 85. Believed that slavery was sinful and a violation of the Declaration of Independence
  86. 86. However, most were pacifists and rejected violence
  87. 87. Most were just trying to convince slave owners to give up their slaves</li></li></ul><li>The Origins of Feminism<br />
  88. 88. Origins of Feminism<br />Women in the Public Sphere<br /><ul><li>Became instrumental to the abolition movement
  89. 89. Feminism became an international movement in the 1840s
  90. 90. The public sphere was open in ways government and party politics were not
  91. 91. Women lectured in public about abolition
  92. 92. Grimke sisters
  93. 93. Frances Wright
  94. 94. Maria Stewart
  95. 95. Grimke sisters argued that women should be involved in:
  96. 96. Assemblies
  97. 97. Lectures
  98. 98. Demonstrations</li></ul>Women’s Rights<br /><ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucreita Mott organize the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
  99. 99. Raised the issue of women’s suffrage for the first time
  100. 100. Rejected the idea of women’s sphere being in the home
  101. 101. Declaration of Sentiments
  102. 102. Condemned the structure of inequality for women in America
  103. 103. This movement posed a fundamental challenge to society’s central beliefs</li></li></ul><li>Origins of Feminism<br />Feminism’s connection with Abolitionism<br />The Slavery of Sex<br /><ul><li>This concept empowered women to challenge male authority and their own subordination
  104. 104. Marriage and slavery became a powerful tool for feminists</li></ul>Social Freedom<br /><ul><li>Women should enjoy the rights to:
  105. 105. Regulate their sexual activity
  106. 106. Protection from violence from their husbands
  107. 107. Individual rights
  108. 108. Broaden their rights outside the home</li></ul>Elizabeth Cady Stanton<br />
  109. 109. Women’s Emancipation<br />