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CH_10_b_the age of jackson

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  • 1. Chapter Ten THE AGE OF JACKSON
  • 2. THE AGE OF JACKSON
    • Andrew Jackson campaigns against John Quincy Adams in 1828
    • One of the most bitter elections in U.S. history
      • Jackson’s wife is publically criticized by Adams and his supporters
    • Jackson wins the election and ushers in a new age for the “common man” or “self-made man”
    • At this point in U.S. history, political parties had become a spectacle
      • National political conventions elected candidates
    • Defining Freedom
      • Party battles reflected the conflict between public and private definitions of freedom
      • The relationship of freedom to government power was crucial
  • 3.  
  • 4. ELECTION OF 1828
  • 5. WHIGS
    • Were considered the revised Federalist party
    • Most of the old Federalists joined
    • Considered the party of progress and prosperity
    • Promoted a strong federal government and believed it was necessary to promote liberty
    • Believed that the role of government was to promote the welfare of the people
    • Aligned with the North
    • Harrison and Tyler are the party’s only two elected Presidents
    • Party eventually dies because of slavery
    • Most defect to the new Republican Party
  • 6. DEMOCRATS
    • After 1830, becomes a coalition of farmers, city laborers, and Irish Catholics
    • Opposed elites, aristocrats, and the Bank of the United States
    • Favored expansion to the west
    • Opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society
    • Wanted to build up industry at the expense of the taxpayer
    • Supported a weak federal government
    • Championed individual and states' rights
      • Reduced expenditures
      • Reduced tariffs
      • Abolished the national bank
  • 7.  
  • 8. THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS
    • Jackson's first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law.
    • Tariff of 1828 (and 1832)
      • A continuation of the national tariff policy that resulted after the War of 1812 (boost business in the North by promoting American manufacturing over British competition)
    • South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government via nullification
      • Nullification is the concept that the power of state government could rule a law unconstitutional, therefore, a law could become null and void within the boundaries of the state
      • John C. Calhoun (Jackson's Vice President) led the charge for nullification and became a prominent theorist on the concept
        • He resigns as VP to run for Senate in order to better defend nullification
        • He later leaves the Democratic Party to join the Whigs
      • Essentially, the states created the Constitution, therefore, the states had the right to declare some aspects unconstitutional
      • Daniel Webster (a Northerner) argued that the people, not the states, created the Constitution
  • 9. THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS
    • South Carolina's politicians believed that the federal tariffs in conjunction with the economic downturn of the 1820s was responsible for the growing problems in South Carolina
    • The issue reaches a boiling point when South Carolina makes military preparations to resist federal authority
      • Congress passes a Force Bill to authorize Jackson to use military force against South Carolina if it resisted federal law
      • Also, a new treaty was negotiated that was satisfactory to South Carolina
    • The crisis ends with both sides finding reasons to believe they were victorious
  • 10. INDIAN REMOVAL
    • The expansion of cotton and slavery forced the relocation of Indians
    • Also, Jackson's personal hatred against Indians led him to insist upon calling on politicians to support the Indian Removal Acts
      • Indian Removal Act of 1830
    • The "Five Civilized Tribes"
      • Cherokee
      • Chickasaw
      • Choctaw
      • Creek
      • Seminole
    • The Indian Removal law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that civilized Indians could be assimilated into the American population
  • 11.  
  • 12. INDIAN REMOVAL
    • Indian responses to removal
      • Cherokees go to court to protect their rights ( Cherokee Nation v. Georgia; Worcester v. Georgia )
      • The Seminoles fought a war against removal (one of the tribes that Jackson particularly disliked)
      • John Ross led Cherokee resistance (resulted in the Trail of Tears)
      • Others argue for harmony between white Americans and Indians
  • 13. THE BANK WAR
    • The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution
      • A bank that was mostly privately owned, but supporting the needs of an entire nation
      • Nicolas Biddle (Pennsylvania) was the head of the bank
    • Jackson's distrust of the bank
      • Owed debts to banks in his youth
      • Was an ardent supporter of "hard money"; coinage
      • Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Second Bank of the United States as a result of his distrust and personal bias
      • Biddle threatened to compromise Jackson's reelection campaign as a result
    • Jackson's "Pet Banks"
      • Soft money and hard money advocates supported Jackson's veto
      • Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and deposited them into local "pet" banks
      • As a result, prices rose dramatically, but real wages declined
      • This sets up the perfect storm for the Panic of 1837
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Martin Van Buren becomes President (with Jackson’s help)
  • 16.
    • Martin Van Buren
    • Andrew Jackson’s hand-picked successor
    • First president to be born an American citizen
    • Democratic Party
    • Continued most of Jackson’s policies; kept all but one of Jackson’s cabinet members
    • “ Independent Treasury Plan”
      • Public funds were passed from the National to State level
      • Gave the Treasury control of all federal funds
      • Plan did not work as Whigs were gaining ground at the local level
      • Later repealed in 1841
    • Van Buren advocated lower tariffs and free trade, all in an attempt to maintain the Southern Democrats
  • 17. THE PANIC OF 1837
    • Origins
      • Essentially is caused by a speculative fever
      • Lots of money had been loaned to the U.S. by Great Britain
      • A ton of U.S. crops failed during 1837 and the money was lost
      • Great Britain demands repayment, Southerners cannot pay back
      • Southerners’ credit levels and agriculture bomb as a result.
    • Results
      • 5 year depression
      • Failure of many banks
      • Record high unemployment
      • Whigs blame Van Buren for the panic, but he inherited it
        • Jackson’s economic policies were an issue
        • His refusal to reinstate the Second Bank of the United States
        • Coinage Act (everything must be paid in gold and silver to the government)
  • 18.
    • Anti-Van Buren Propaganda (circa 1837)