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Ch 9 10_era of good feelings
 

Ch 9 10_era of good feelings

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    Ch 9 10_era of good feelings Ch 9 10_era of good feelings Presentation Transcript

    • Western Expansion The conclusion of the War of 1812 allows Americans opportunity to concentrate on:  Securing the contested borders of the United States  Developing the country‟s vast resources for long-term economic viability The United States grew drastically in geographic size and power in the years after the War of 1812  The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the country
    • Western Expansion Most of the “American West” from 1800-1820 was still east of the Mississippi River Technology lead to the development and settlement of the frontier  Railroads opened the frontier to remote settlements and linked economic markets  Telegraphs introduced a revolutionary means of communication through Morse Code  Telegraph lines running parallel to railroad tracks became common in the 19th century
    • Western Expansion Steamboats began to occupy the rivers of the United States  Dramatically increases the speed of shipping  Lowered the expense of commercial transactions  Villages and towns form near the Mississippi and Ohio River as a result
    • Western Expansion Americans increasingly relied upon each other in large groups to:  Clear land  Build houses, barns, and other forms of shelter  Establish communities Stories from frontier explorers often prompted large groups of settlers to venture west in search of fertile farmland and various other expansionist goals
    • Western Expansion Often, Americans settled without regard to national boundaries and without respect to treaties made with Native Americans  This was a catalyst for the War of 1812 as Americans often ventured into Canada near the Great Lakes area The U.S. Army led by Andrew Jackson frequently led frequent expeditions into Spanish-controlled Florida leading the Spanish to renounce their claim to Florida in 1819  Part of the agreement was America would renounce any claims to Texas that were stipulated in the Louisiana Purchase
    • Economic Independence So far, Americans have fought two wars with Britain; what did we gain from each war?  The Revolutionary War – Americans win political independence  The War of 1812 – Americans win economic independence Essentially, the War of 1812 leaves America in an opportunistic situation in which the country is no longer tied to Britain or Europe for economic survival
    • One-Party Rule As the Democratic-Republican Party faced no opposition after the Hartford Convention, the Dem/Rep party gradually took on Federalist measures it deemed necessary for economic expansion During the “Era of Good Feelings,” Congress passed bills known as the “American System”:  The Protective Industrial Tariff  The Second Bank of the United States  The “American System‟s” internal infrastructure improvements
    • The “American System” The “American System” was a mercantilist economic plan very much rooted in Federalist Alexander Hamilton‟s economic plan that he promoted during Washington‟s first term in office Although the plan enjoyed only marginal success in the “Era of Good Feelings,” the plan‟s agenda would later become a tenant of the Whig Party in the 1830s  Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were ardent supporters The plan later becomes known as the “Monkey System” as Whigs often promoted sectional economic interdependence that led to a disproportionate amount of federal aid to one section of the country
    • The Protective Industrial Tariff During the War of 1812, Britain began manufacturing industrial goods at a rapid pace After the war, Britain attempted to sell off their surplus to the U.S. at highly discounted rates U.S. factories in the Northeast were producing the same goods, but could not compete with Britain‟s discounted rates The tariff, which was Federalist to an extent, was passed to ensure:  Factories in the Northeast were not undercut by British imports by imposing import taxes at a rate of 20-25% As a result, this tariff sets a standard for how America will react to economic competition for the next 100 years
    • The Second Bank of the U.S. The Second Bank was chartered in 1816; five years after the First Bank‟s charter expired  The 2nd Bank was based on the Hamiltonian model that was utilized with the 1st Bank during Washington and Adams‟ presidencies  Virtually all the same congressmen that chose not to renew the 1st Bank before the War of 1812 voted to establish the 2nd Bank Why?
    • The Second Bank of the U.S. The U.S. faced severe inflation and in some cases was almost unable to finance military operations during the War of 1812  After the war, the credit and borrowing status of the U.S. was at its lowest point since the Revolutionary War Without political opposition, the Dem/Reps easily created the 2nd Bank as they realized that central management was needed in the aftermath of the war  Ironically, the 2nd Bank‟s charter was still very Federalist in tone
    • The Second Bank of the U.S.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • Internal Improvements Congress passes a number of federal subsides to establish better transportation networks within the country Roads and canals become crucial to the development of commerce Better infrastructure lowered shipping costs and subsequently linked small farmers to larger markets
    • Internal Improvements Examples:  The National Road connected the Potomac River to the Ohio River  The Erie Canal connected Lake Erie to New York City  Completed in 1825 and made New York City another major trading port alongside Philadelphia  Typified how state funding would be used for internal improvements  Federal funding initially provided a larger percentage of the cost than state funding
    • Election of 1816James Monroe (D/R)Elec. Vote: 183States: 16Pop. Vote:76,592 (68.2%)Rufus King (Fed.)Elec. Vote: 34States: 3Pop. Vote: 34,740(30.9%)
    • President James Monroe President Madison‟s hand- picked successor for the executive office Presided over the “Era of Good Feelings” after his election in 1816  Primarily called this because of the Dem/Rep‟s lack of political opposition during this period Monroe‟s goal was to preserve national harmony and expand economically at all costs
    • Panic of 1819 America‟s first great economic crisis  This causes the “Era of Good Feelings” to end with a screeching halt as Monroe does nothing during the crisis Explanations for the crisis:  Growing sectional divisions within the country led to great economic disparity  The 2nd Bank of the U.S.‟s closure of “wildcat” banks  America‟s first experience with boom-bust cycles common to virtually all modern economies  International issues: European demand for American food supplies declined as Europe recovered from the Napoleonic Wars
    • Growing Sectionalism Sectionalism: References the various social structures, political views, economies, and cultural values that hindered the notion of a strong sense of nationalism and federalism within the United States  Economic historian Charles Beard argued that the economic disparity that existed between the “rich” North and a “poor” South before the Civil War was a primary cause of the conflict
    • Growing Sectionalism Most historians tend to disagree with the economic determinism thesis today  The North and South had complementary economies that were reliant upon each other  The North and South both had their share of “economic disparity” before the Civil War  The rich and affluent in the North pave the way for the Gilded Age of the 1880s  The rich and affluent in the South withstand the economic catastrophe of the Confederacy and Reconstruction era and pave the way for slow industrialization in the South after 1880
    • Growing Sectionalism Sections of the United States  The South – experiences tremendous development as cotton production increased (Virginia, Maryland)  The Deep South – population virtually triples as opportunists migrate from both the Northeast and Upper South (Mississippi, Georgia, and parts of Louisiana)  The Northwest – the fastest growing region as many young people migrated here in hopes of better economic opportunity (Great Lakes area to the „real‟ NW; OR/WA)  The Northeast – known for major manufacturing development and factories, particularly the textile industry (New York, Massachusetts)
    • The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 Private banks in the southern and western parts of the U.S. began printing money without much regard to the amount of gold on reserve  Times were good while these sections of the U.S. were selling food and other supplies to a depressed Europe immediately after the Napoleonic Wars “Wildcat” banks typically issued more paper money than gold on hand  Basically, the money to gold ratio was very skewed
    • The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 The 2nd Bank began to forcibly close these banks in 1818 due to increasing inflation  The 2nd Bank would withdraw large sums of paper money from “wildcat” banks and attempt to cash the paper money in for gold  The “wildcat” banks would not be able to produce enough gold to meet the amount of paper money presented  As a result, the “wildcat” banks would be forced into default
    • The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 Although this practice is fiscally sound to prevent hyper-inflation, the American people in the south and west readily blamed the 2nd Bank instead of the individual “wildcat” banks The Panic and the 2nd Bank‟s actions contribute to sectional divisions in the country  The North gained a reputation as a group of rich aristocrats that attempted to financially control the South through the 2nd Bank  This mentality prevails into the 1830s and 1840s despite the fact that this was an isolated occurrence
    • The Monroe Doctrine Spain‟s colonies in Latin American began to rebel against colonial authority in the early 1880s  Begins a period of declining colonialism in Europe during the 19th century The U.S. responded favorably to the new nations and extended support Attempting to stave off increased independence from colonial areas, France made it known that they intended to fight off any rebel nations  Basically, France was attempting to pick up area and influence that Spain was rapidly losing
    • The Monroe Doctrine The United States and Great Britain did not like the idea of French involvement in Latin America  Both countries pledged to fight (diplomatically and militarily, if needed) against “French aggression” John Quincy Adams (future president and son of John Adams) convinced President Monroe to exert diplomatic authority by issuing a strong piece of foreign legislation
    • The Monroe Doctrine The policy which becomes known as the “Monroe Doctrine” set out to prove:  America‟s growing influence in the Western Hemisphere  America‟s desire for Europe to leave the Western Hemisphere alone Essentially, America wanted to draw a “line in the sand” that Europe would respect
    • The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine indicates:  America‟s growing confidence  America‟s promise to Europe that they will stay out of European affairs in the Eastern Hemisphere  Also requests that Europe stay out of the Western Hemisphere  America‟s promise to help new and existing nations in the Western Hemisphere fight off tyranny and colonial oppression from European powers if necessary This doctrine becomes the most important document in foreign policy until the Progressive Era (1900-1920)  Also begins a long period of American involvement in Latin America
    • Cotton and Slavery The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793  Revolutionizes the processing of cotton by aiding the process of removing seeds from cotton  Further cements the necessity of cotton production in the South and the need for slave labor to continue the economic viability of the South‟s economy
    • The Cotton Kingdom A boom economy results as the demand for cotton grows  The textile industries in the Northeast, England, and France greatly contribute to this boom  Basically, the South was getting rich growing and exporting cotton internally and internationally To meet the demand in production, a demand for slaves results Overall, the South becomes dependent on cotton demand and slave labor to maintain their economic viability
    • The State of Slavery Before 1820 Of the original thirteen colonies:  7 had become free states  6 remained slave states States added to the Union  4 more free states  5 more slave states Total  11 free states  11 slave states
    • The State of Slavery Before 1820 Why do the numbers matter?  In the House of Representatives, the North had a larger population than the South despite the 3/5‟s Compromise  However, no bill can pass in the Senate if the Southern slave states band together (which they typically did) What does this mean?  An anti-slavery bill could pass in the House, but would be blocked in the Senate  A bill allowing “popular sovereignty” for slavery in all states was dead in the water either way Overall, the Southern states were afraid that they could not protect their interests if another free state was added to the Union
    • The Missouri Compromise In 1819, Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state  A bill was introduced in Congress that stated Missouri could only enter the Union if they gradually abolished slavery on a time-table set by Congress  A heated debate results over the bill and almost forces the nation into civil war Fortunately, Maine applies for admission as a free state shortly after Missouri
    • The Missouri Compromise The Compromise  Missouri could enter the Union as a slave state  Maine could enter the Union as a free state  Slavery would be banned in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36, 30 degree boundary The Missouri Compromise temporarily saved the U.S. from civil war  Thomas Jefferson remarks that this issue was a “fire bell in the night” and had the potential to destroy the Union
    • Ratio of Free/Slave States (1789-1858)
    • Three Faces ofSectionalism in the U.S.Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Daniel WebsterKentucky South Carolina Massachusetts
    • Henry Clay Westerner from Kentucky Interested in the West, but had a broad nationalistic vision that helped him draw compromise from Federalists and Dem/Reps Ran a very lucrative law practice before becoming involved with politics Architect of two compromises that save the Union from civil war  Missouri Compromise  Compromise of 1850 Ran for president numerous times, but failed to be elected  However, he had an illustrious career as Speaker of the House, Secretary of State, and U.S. Senator from Kentucky
    • John C. Calhoun Dem/Rep. from South Carolina Brilliant lawyer and studied the Constitution thoroughly  Very effective in backing his arguments with Constitutional theory One of the strongest voices for states‟ rights and the pro-slavery faction A prominent voice that leads the southern U.S. to secession in the 1850s
    • Daniel Webster Federalist and later National Republican from Massachusetts Rose to prominence by advocating for Northern shipping interests Later becomes the preeminent Constitutional scholar on the Marshall Court  Thinks like a Federalist, but has a strong nationalist philosophy similar to Hamilton Well-known for his speaking and debating abilities He and Henry Clay worked together to prevent civil war by promoting a strong nationalist agenda