Ch 9 10_era of good feelings


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Ch 9 10_era of good feelings

  1. 1. Western Expansion The conclusion of the War of 1812 allows Americans opportunity to concentrate on:  Securing the contested borders of the United States  Developing the country‟s vast resources for long-term economic viability The United States grew drastically in geographic size and power in the years after the War of 1812  The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the country
  2. 2. Western Expansion Most of the “American West” from 1800-1820 was still east of the Mississippi River Technology lead to the development and settlement of the frontier  Railroads opened the frontier to remote settlements and linked economic markets  Telegraphs introduced a revolutionary means of communication through Morse Code  Telegraph lines running parallel to railroad tracks became common in the 19th century
  3. 3. Western Expansion Steamboats began to occupy the rivers of the United States  Dramatically increases the speed of shipping  Lowered the expense of commercial transactions  Villages and towns form near the Mississippi and Ohio River as a result
  4. 4. Western Expansion Americans increasingly relied upon each other in large groups to:  Clear land  Build houses, barns, and other forms of shelter  Establish communities Stories from frontier explorers often prompted large groups of settlers to venture west in search of fertile farmland and various other expansionist goals
  5. 5. Western Expansion Often, Americans settled without regard to national boundaries and without respect to treaties made with Native Americans  This was a catalyst for the War of 1812 as Americans often ventured into Canada near the Great Lakes area The U.S. Army led by Andrew Jackson frequently led frequent expeditions into Spanish-controlled Florida leading the Spanish to renounce their claim to Florida in 1819  Part of the agreement was America would renounce any claims to Texas that were stipulated in the Louisiana Purchase
  6. 6. Economic Independence So far, Americans have fought two wars with Britain; what did we gain from each war?  The Revolutionary War – Americans win political independence  The War of 1812 – Americans win economic independence Essentially, the War of 1812 leaves America in an opportunistic situation in which the country is no longer tied to Britain or Europe for economic survival
  7. 7. One-Party Rule As the Democratic-Republican Party faced no opposition after the Hartford Convention, the Dem/Rep party gradually took on Federalist measures it deemed necessary for economic expansion During the “Era of Good Feelings,” Congress passed bills known as the “American System”:  The Protective Industrial Tariff  The Second Bank of the United States  The “American System‟s” internal infrastructure improvements
  8. 8. The “American System” The “American System” was a mercantilist economic plan very much rooted in Federalist Alexander Hamilton‟s economic plan that he promoted during Washington‟s first term in office Although the plan enjoyed only marginal success in the “Era of Good Feelings,” the plan‟s agenda would later become a tenant of the Whig Party in the 1830s  Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were ardent supporters The plan later becomes known as the “Monkey System” as Whigs often promoted sectional economic interdependence that led to a disproportionate amount of federal aid to one section of the country
  9. 9. The Protective Industrial Tariff During the War of 1812, Britain began manufacturing industrial goods at a rapid pace After the war, Britain attempted to sell off their surplus to the U.S. at highly discounted rates U.S. factories in the Northeast were producing the same goods, but could not compete with Britain‟s discounted rates The tariff, which was Federalist to an extent, was passed to ensure:  Factories in the Northeast were not undercut by British imports by imposing import taxes at a rate of 20-25% As a result, this tariff sets a standard for how America will react to economic competition for the next 100 years
  10. 10. The Second Bank of the U.S. The Second Bank was chartered in 1816; five years after the First Bank‟s charter expired  The 2nd Bank was based on the Hamiltonian model that was utilized with the 1st Bank during Washington and Adams‟ presidencies  Virtually all the same congressmen that chose not to renew the 1st Bank before the War of 1812 voted to establish the 2nd Bank Why?
  11. 11. The Second Bank of the U.S. The U.S. faced severe inflation and in some cases was almost unable to finance military operations during the War of 1812  After the war, the credit and borrowing status of the U.S. was at its lowest point since the Revolutionary War Without political opposition, the Dem/Reps easily created the 2nd Bank as they realized that central management was needed in the aftermath of the war  Ironically, the 2nd Bank‟s charter was still very Federalist in tone
  12. 12. The Second Bank of the U.S.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  13. 13. Internal Improvements Congress passes a number of federal subsides to establish better transportation networks within the country Roads and canals become crucial to the development of commerce Better infrastructure lowered shipping costs and subsequently linked small farmers to larger markets
  14. 14. Internal Improvements Examples:  The National Road connected the Potomac River to the Ohio River  The Erie Canal connected Lake Erie to New York City  Completed in 1825 and made New York City another major trading port alongside Philadelphia  Typified how state funding would be used for internal improvements  Federal funding initially provided a larger percentage of the cost than state funding
  15. 15. Election of 1816James Monroe (D/R)Elec. Vote: 183States: 16Pop. Vote:76,592 (68.2%)Rufus King (Fed.)Elec. Vote: 34States: 3Pop. Vote: 34,740(30.9%)
  16. 16. President James Monroe President Madison‟s hand- picked successor for the executive office Presided over the “Era of Good Feelings” after his election in 1816  Primarily called this because of the Dem/Rep‟s lack of political opposition during this period Monroe‟s goal was to preserve national harmony and expand economically at all costs
  17. 17. Panic of 1819 America‟s first great economic crisis  This causes the “Era of Good Feelings” to end with a screeching halt as Monroe does nothing during the crisis Explanations for the crisis:  Growing sectional divisions within the country led to great economic disparity  The 2nd Bank of the U.S.‟s closure of “wildcat” banks  America‟s first experience with boom-bust cycles common to virtually all modern economies  International issues: European demand for American food supplies declined as Europe recovered from the Napoleonic Wars
  18. 18. Growing Sectionalism Sectionalism: References the various social structures, political views, economies, and cultural values that hindered the notion of a strong sense of nationalism and federalism within the United States  Economic historian Charles Beard argued that the economic disparity that existed between the “rich” North and a “poor” South before the Civil War was a primary cause of the conflict
  19. 19. Growing Sectionalism Most historians tend to disagree with the economic determinism thesis today  The North and South had complementary economies that were reliant upon each other  The North and South both had their share of “economic disparity” before the Civil War  The rich and affluent in the North pave the way for the Gilded Age of the 1880s  The rich and affluent in the South withstand the economic catastrophe of the Confederacy and Reconstruction era and pave the way for slow industrialization in the South after 1880
  20. 20. Growing Sectionalism Sections of the United States  The South – experiences tremendous development as cotton production increased (Virginia, Maryland)  The Deep South – population virtually triples as opportunists migrate from both the Northeast and Upper South (Mississippi, Georgia, and parts of Louisiana)  The Northwest – the fastest growing region as many young people migrated here in hopes of better economic opportunity (Great Lakes area to the „real‟ NW; OR/WA)  The Northeast – known for major manufacturing development and factories, particularly the textile industry (New York, Massachusetts)
  21. 21. The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 Private banks in the southern and western parts of the U.S. began printing money without much regard to the amount of gold on reserve  Times were good while these sections of the U.S. were selling food and other supplies to a depressed Europe immediately after the Napoleonic Wars “Wildcat” banks typically issued more paper money than gold on hand  Basically, the money to gold ratio was very skewed
  22. 22. The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 The 2nd Bank began to forcibly close these banks in 1818 due to increasing inflation  The 2nd Bank would withdraw large sums of paper money from “wildcat” banks and attempt to cash the paper money in for gold  The “wildcat” banks would not be able to produce enough gold to meet the amount of paper money presented  As a result, the “wildcat” banks would be forced into default
  23. 23. The 2nd Bank and the Panic of 1819 Although this practice is fiscally sound to prevent hyper-inflation, the American people in the south and west readily blamed the 2nd Bank instead of the individual “wildcat” banks The Panic and the 2nd Bank‟s actions contribute to sectional divisions in the country  The North gained a reputation as a group of rich aristocrats that attempted to financially control the South through the 2nd Bank  This mentality prevails into the 1830s and 1840s despite the fact that this was an isolated occurrence
  24. 24. The Monroe Doctrine Spain‟s colonies in Latin American began to rebel against colonial authority in the early 1880s  Begins a period of declining colonialism in Europe during the 19th century The U.S. responded favorably to the new nations and extended support Attempting to stave off increased independence from colonial areas, France made it known that they intended to fight off any rebel nations  Basically, France was attempting to pick up area and influence that Spain was rapidly losing
  25. 25. The Monroe Doctrine The United States and Great Britain did not like the idea of French involvement in Latin America  Both countries pledged to fight (diplomatically and militarily, if needed) against “French aggression” John Quincy Adams (future president and son of John Adams) convinced President Monroe to exert diplomatic authority by issuing a strong piece of foreign legislation
  26. 26. The Monroe Doctrine The policy which becomes known as the “Monroe Doctrine” set out to prove:  America‟s growing influence in the Western Hemisphere  America‟s desire for Europe to leave the Western Hemisphere alone Essentially, America wanted to draw a “line in the sand” that Europe would respect
  27. 27. The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine indicates:  America‟s growing confidence  America‟s promise to Europe that they will stay out of European affairs in the Eastern Hemisphere  Also requests that Europe stay out of the Western Hemisphere  America‟s promise to help new and existing nations in the Western Hemisphere fight off tyranny and colonial oppression from European powers if necessary This doctrine becomes the most important document in foreign policy until the Progressive Era (1900-1920)  Also begins a long period of American involvement in Latin America
  28. 28. Cotton and Slavery The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793  Revolutionizes the processing of cotton by aiding the process of removing seeds from cotton  Further cements the necessity of cotton production in the South and the need for slave labor to continue the economic viability of the South‟s economy
  29. 29. The Cotton Kingdom A boom economy results as the demand for cotton grows  The textile industries in the Northeast, England, and France greatly contribute to this boom  Basically, the South was getting rich growing and exporting cotton internally and internationally To meet the demand in production, a demand for slaves results Overall, the South becomes dependent on cotton demand and slave labor to maintain their economic viability
  30. 30. The State of Slavery Before 1820 Of the original thirteen colonies:  7 had become free states  6 remained slave states States added to the Union  4 more free states  5 more slave states Total  11 free states  11 slave states
  31. 31. The State of Slavery Before 1820 Why do the numbers matter?  In the House of Representatives, the North had a larger population than the South despite the 3/5‟s Compromise  However, no bill can pass in the Senate if the Southern slave states band together (which they typically did) What does this mean?  An anti-slavery bill could pass in the House, but would be blocked in the Senate  A bill allowing “popular sovereignty” for slavery in all states was dead in the water either way Overall, the Southern states were afraid that they could not protect their interests if another free state was added to the Union
  32. 32. The Missouri Compromise In 1819, Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state  A bill was introduced in Congress that stated Missouri could only enter the Union if they gradually abolished slavery on a time-table set by Congress  A heated debate results over the bill and almost forces the nation into civil war Fortunately, Maine applies for admission as a free state shortly after Missouri
  33. 33. The Missouri Compromise The Compromise  Missouri could enter the Union as a slave state  Maine could enter the Union as a free state  Slavery would be banned in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36, 30 degree boundary The Missouri Compromise temporarily saved the U.S. from civil war  Thomas Jefferson remarks that this issue was a “fire bell in the night” and had the potential to destroy the Union
  34. 34. Ratio of Free/Slave States (1789-1858)
  35. 35. Three Faces ofSectionalism in the U.S.Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Daniel WebsterKentucky South Carolina Massachusetts
  36. 36. Henry Clay Westerner from Kentucky Interested in the West, but had a broad nationalistic vision that helped him draw compromise from Federalists and Dem/Reps Ran a very lucrative law practice before becoming involved with politics Architect of two compromises that save the Union from civil war  Missouri Compromise  Compromise of 1850 Ran for president numerous times, but failed to be elected  However, he had an illustrious career as Speaker of the House, Secretary of State, and U.S. Senator from Kentucky
  37. 37. John C. Calhoun Dem/Rep. from South Carolina Brilliant lawyer and studied the Constitution thoroughly  Very effective in backing his arguments with Constitutional theory One of the strongest voices for states‟ rights and the pro-slavery faction A prominent voice that leads the southern U.S. to secession in the 1850s
  38. 38. Daniel Webster Federalist and later National Republican from Massachusetts Rose to prominence by advocating for Northern shipping interests Later becomes the preeminent Constitutional scholar on the Marshall Court  Thinks like a Federalist, but has a strong nationalist philosophy similar to Hamilton Well-known for his speaking and debating abilities He and Henry Clay worked together to prevent civil war by promoting a strong nationalist agenda