Mexican Texas, 1821-1836<br />Chapter Three<br />
Problems in independent Mexico<br />Ideological conflicts<br />Liberals – wanted to form a republic based on liberal ideas...
Non-Aggressive Immigration Concerns<br />Philip Nolan (1801)<br />American who came into Hill County looking for mustangs ...
Aggressive Immigration Concerns<br />Dr. James Long (1819)<br />Attempted to take advance of political issues between Mexi...
Mexico legalizes immigration to Texas<br />Keeping up the Spanish precedent<br />Spanish already agreed to allow Moses Aus...
Moses Austin<br />Stephen Fuller Austin<br />
Austin’s Colony<br />Stephen F. Austin assumed Moses Austin’s contract in 1821<br />Settlers began to arrive in late 1821<...
New Immigration Laws<br />National Colonization Law of 1824<br />Individual states of Mexico had complete control over imm...
New Immigration Laws<br />State Colonization Law of 1825<br />Focused primarily on the immigration of Coahuila and Texas <...
Empresario Contracts<br />Empresario – immigration agent that acted on behalf of the state government to select colonists,...
Martin de Leon<br />
Native Mexicans of Texas<br />Revival in fortunes<br />Ranches reestablished between Bexar (San Antonio) and La Bahia<br /...
Entry into Texas<br />Most arrived independently (not under the guidance of an empresario)<br />Some that came illegally w...
Haden Edwards and the Fredonia Republic<br />Edwards proclaimed the independence of the region near Nacogdoches in 1826, c...
Haden Edwards<br />
Mier y Teran’s Mission and Report<br />Mexico dispatched Manuel de Mier y Teran, a military officer and engineer, to Texas...
Law of April 6, 1830<br />Intended to stop immigration into Texas from the U.S.<br />Declared uncompleted empresario agree...
Search for economic prosperity<br />Political factions<br />Viesca faction – belonged to the liberal Federalist party<br /...
Liberal Federalist Legislation<br />Exemptions from taxes on cotton, foreign imports, and domestic items for use by coloni...
The End of Slavery in Texas<br />In 1829, Mexican President Vicente Guerrero issued a directive abolishing slavery through...
Law of April 6, 1830 in Context<br />Law was passed by Centralists after a coup in 1829<br />Pushed liberals out of step w...
Liberals resisted conservative policies<br />Tejanos committed themselves to liberal, Federalist policies<br />The “War Pa...
Turtle Bayou Resolutions (June 13, 1832)<br />An angry Anglo party surrounded Bradburn’s garrison at Brazoria.  A battle s...
The “Peace Party”<br />Led by Stephen F. Austin<br />Most Texans belonged to this party which preferred to work for soluti...
Attempt for Concession<br />Citizens in Bexar tried to petition a second time in 1832<br />Complained that the Law of Apri...
Division of Coahuila and Texas sought<br />After attempts at concession in 1832, a subsequent meeting was held at San Feli...
Alteration to the Law of April 6, 1830<br />Santa Anna elected President as a Federalist<br />Mexican liberals and Austin ...
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna<br />
Legislative Concessions<br />Acceptance of the English language as a legal language of the state<br />Permitted the extens...
Empresario contract issues<br />Anglos continued to come into colonies whose empresarios had imported at least 100 familes...
Illegal Immigration	<br />By 1834, over 20,700 Anglos and slaves arrived in Texas<br />Probably went from 10,000 to 20,000...
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Ch 3 Mexican Texas

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Ch 3 Mexican Texas

  1. 1. Mexican Texas, 1821-1836<br />Chapter Three<br />
  2. 2. Problems in independent Mexico<br />Ideological conflicts<br />Liberals – wanted to form a republic based on liberal ideas of the Enlightenment and on the Spanish Constitution of 1812; essentially, more rights for the lower classes<br />Also permitted mass immigration and tolerated slavery<br />Conservatives – disliked the egalitarian ideas that gave some worth to the lower classes in Mexico<br />Economic chaos<br />Desire of military and Catholic Church officials wanting to maintain the distinct connection between Church and State<br />Political inexperience of Mexico’s new leaders<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  3. 3. Non-Aggressive Immigration Concerns<br />Philip Nolan (1801)<br />American who came into Hill County looking for mustangs to sell in Louisiana; Spanish authorities captured and killed him in fear of a possible conspiracy to acquire Texas<br />Border disputes with the United States (1803)<br />U.S. President Thomas Jefferson sends a party to clarify the boundaries of the Louisiana territory; nearly starts a war with Spain over the eastern boundary of Texas<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  4. 4. Aggressive Immigration Concerns<br />Dr. James Long (1819)<br />Attempted to take advance of political issues between Mexico and Spain during the Mexican Revolution<br />Came to Texas with a party of filibusters to take control of Texas from Mexico<br />Caused a great uproar and was later captured by Mexican authorities<br />Used the logic that since Texas was “surrendered” to Spain to gain Florida, U.S. southerners had a right to take back their land since Spain was on its way out of North America<br />Caused great distrust of Americans by Spanish and Mexican officials<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  5. 5. Mexico legalizes immigration to Texas<br />Keeping up the Spanish precedent<br />Spanish already agreed to allow Moses Austin to start a settlement of Americans to Texas<br />Moses Austin’s son, Stephen Fuller Austin later assumed his contract<br />Mexican liberals saw missions as expensive liabilities<br />Added too much power to the Church<br />Encouraged intervention in government affairs<br />Wanted to find another way to bring people into Texas without the baggage of the Catholic Church<br />Security in Texas depended on steady foreign immigration<br />6 million people settled on an expanse ranging from California to Central America<br />Manpower was desperately needed<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  6. 6. Moses Austin<br />Stephen Fuller Austin<br />
  7. 7. Austin’s Colony<br />Stephen F. Austin assumed Moses Austin’s contract in 1821<br />Settlers began to arrive in late 1821<br />Political issues caused Austin’s contract to come into question, Austin traveled to Mexico City in 1822 to argue his claim<br />The weak Mexican government recognized Austin’s claim under the Imperial Colonization Law (1823)<br />Lasted as long as President Iturbide remained in power (which was not long)<br />Austin returns to find his colony in a state of uncertainty<br />Attacks by Karankawa Indians<br />Food shortages<br />Many settlers began to depart<br />By the end of 1824, most of Austin’s land titles had been approved and Austin’s contract was considered valid<br />Austin’s principle settlement became San Felipe de Austin (about sixty miles from present-day Houston)<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  8. 8. New Immigration Laws<br />National Colonization Law of 1824<br />Individual states of Mexico had complete control over immigration and the disposal of public lands<br />Law did not directly prohibit the importation of slaves or outlaw slavery<br />Very federalist in tone; took similarities from the American Constitution and the Spanish Constitution of 1812<br />Valentin Gomez Farias and Lorenzo de Zavala were the principle individuals behind the law<br />Conservatives who wanted a strong central government despised the law and called for an end to the rise of the Federalists<br />The Mexican Government <br />Lorenzo de Zavala<br />
  9. 9. New Immigration Laws<br />State Colonization Law of 1825<br />Focused primarily on the immigration of Coahuila and Texas <br />Attempted to encourage farming and ranching<br />Stimulate commercial activity<br />Families could obtain a sitio (4,428 acres) and a labor (177 acres) of farming land<br />Immigrants had to become Mexican citizens<br />Promise to observe the Christian religion (expected Catholicism)<br />Again, this law was so vague that it did not inhibit the slave trade and/or ownership of slaves<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  10. 10. Empresario Contracts<br />Empresario – immigration agent that acted on behalf of the state government to select colonists, allocate land, and enforce laws within their colony<br />Between 1821 and 1825, 41 empresario contracts were signed, permitting 13,500 families to come to Texas<br />The majority were Anglo Americans from the United States<br />Disputes<br />Green DeWitt and Martin de Leon colonies (South Texas) had ill defined boundaries that caused disputes between settlers<br />DeWitt’s land later became public domain in 1832<br />De Leon’s colony remained small<br />The Mexican Government<br />
  11. 11. Martin de Leon<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Native Mexicans of Texas<br />Revival in fortunes<br />Ranches reestablished between Bexar (San Antonio) and La Bahia<br />Wealthy ranchos established<br />Martin de Leon of Victoria<br />Erasmo and Juan N. Seguin of Bexar<br />Carlos de la Garza of Goliad<br />Towns<br />Nacogdoches was experiencing a steady population growth through the 1820s<br />In the 1830s, the town was surrounded by nearly 50 ranchos.<br />Trans-Nueces area had roughly 350 rancherias (small family operated ranches) by the 1830s<br />The Mexican Government <br />
  14. 14. Entry into Texas<br />Most arrived independently (not under the guidance of an empresario)<br />Some that came illegally were attempting to flee debt or the law in the United States<br />Mexican nationality/culture often ignored and made the government uneasy<br />Squatting on unoccupied lands<br />Smuggling<br />Using American practices in local situations<br />Speculating with their properties<br />Violating other miscellaneous conditions (and oath) under which they had been allowed to settle<br />Anglos and the Mexican Government<br />
  15. 15. Haden Edwards and the Fredonia Republic<br />Edwards proclaimed the independence of the region near Nacogdoches in 1826, calling it the Fredonia Republic<br />Issues over land titles and Edwards’ brother, Benjamin lead to an armed insurrection.<br />Stephen F. Austin led his colonial militia along with Mexican officials to put down the rebellion<br />The episode highlights the growing tensions between the settlers and Mexico<br />Also the possibility that increasing immigration could dissolve Mexico’s hold over Texas<br />Settlers’ animosity towards Mexico grew as the government voided Edwards’ empresario contract<br />Anglos and the Mexican Government<br />
  16. 16. Haden Edwards<br />
  17. 17. Mier y Teran’s Mission and Report<br />Mexico dispatched Manuel de Mier y Teran, a military officer and engineer, to Texas in order to evaluate how the government should deal with problems in Texas<br />In 1828, Teran reported that Nacogdoches has become an American town, flooded with Anglos<br />Problems he noticed:<br />Anglo settlements resisted obeying colonization laws<br />Assimilation of the Anglos into Mexican culture was almost impossible<br />Teran returned to Mexico and convinced the government to draft the Law of April 6, 1830<br />Anglos and the Mexican Government<br />
  18. 18. Law of April 6, 1830<br />Intended to stop immigration into Texas from the U.S.<br />Declared uncompleted empresario agreements void<br />Loophole: any empresario who had brought 100 families could retain their contracts<br />Future American immigrants must not settle in any territory bordering the U.S.<br />New presidios constructed (ran by convicts) to check illegal immigration<br />Banned further importation of slaves into Texas<br />Anglos and the Mexican Government<br />
  19. 19. Search for economic prosperity<br />Political factions<br />Viesca faction – belonged to the liberal Federalist party<br />Struggled to maintain influence in Mexican politics throughout the 1820s<br />Leaders: Guadalupe Victoria, Lorenzo de Zavala, Vincente Guerrero<br />Wanted to achieve economic prosperity through the colonization program and other legislation<br />Centralist faction – belonged to the Centralist party<br />Conservatives who believed in securing the traditional power of the military and the Catholic Church<br />Sort of a throw-back to traditional Spanish Texas<br />Mexican and American Capitalists<br />
  20. 20. Liberal Federalist Legislation<br />Exemptions from taxes on cotton, foreign imports, and domestic items for use by colonists in Texas and Coahuila<br />Granted citizenship and special concession to numerous Anglo-Americans<br />James Bowie, acquired a textile mill permit<br />Liberals argued that slave labor was necessary for the economic advancement of Mexico<br />Decree passed on May 5, 1828 validated contracts of servitude (indentured servitude) by immigrants of Texas<br />Another loophole that allowed Texans to bring in slaves as “permanently indentured servants”<br />Mexican and American Capitalists<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. The End of Slavery in Texas<br />In 1829, Mexican President Vicente Guerrero issued a directive abolishing slavery throughout the country<br />It would continue until the 1850s though<br />Political resistance from the rising class of capitalists in Texas and Coahuila persuaded Guerrero to exempt Texas from the directive<br />The Law of April 6, 1830 affirmed the end of slavery in Texas<br />Anglos in Texas viewed this critically and began to question the Mexican government<br />Mexican and American Capitalists<br />
  23. 23. Law of April 6, 1830 in Context<br />Law was passed by Centralists after a coup in 1829<br />Pushed liberals out of step with state and national politics<br />Centralists were determined to end Anglo immigration and slavery<br />Counter-colonization was their preferred method<br />Reinforced presidios at San Antonio, Goliad, and Nacogdoches<br />Commissioned numerous garrisons; Velasco and Anahuac were the most important<br />Velasco was at the mouth of the Brazos River<br />Anahuac was near the Gulf Coast and discouraged illegal immigration by sea<br />Conservative Coup<br />
  24. 24. Liberals resisted conservative policies<br />Tejanos committed themselves to liberal, Federalist policies<br />The “War Party”<br />A radical Federalist faction that emerged from the outrage of the Law of April 6<br />Turtle Bayou Resolutions (June 13, 1832)<br />William Barret Travis was arrested at Anahuac for attempting to release two runaway slaves that Col. Juan D. Bradburn had in custody<br />Travis was held without a trial by jury or charged<br />Anglos and the War Party labeled Bradburn a despot for not following the American customs of separating military and civilian law<br />Liberal Reaction<br />
  25. 25. Turtle Bayou Resolutions (June 13, 1832)<br />An angry Anglo party surrounded Bradburn’s garrison at Brazoria. A battle seemed imminent.<br />Instead of fighting, the Anglos issued the Turtle Bayou Resolutions<br />It condemned Bradburn’s actions<br />Explained that the Anglos’ actions were not an uprising, but a demand for constitutional rights for Mexican citizens<br />Instead of causing more conflict, military officials replaced Bradburn and released Travis<br />While some respected the War Party’s actions, most did not support them.<br />Liberal Reaction<br />
  26. 26. The “Peace Party”<br />Led by Stephen F. Austin<br />Most Texans belonged to this party which preferred to work for solutions to settle settlers’ issues<br />Used established political channels instead of protests<br />Attempt for Concession<br />In Oct. 1832, delegates from Anglo settlements appealed to the Mexican government to repeal the article in the Law of April 6 that limited immigration<br />The Mexican political chief at Bexar refused to forward the petition<br />Viewed the meeting of Anglos as outside the law<br />Extralegal citizens’ meetings were viewed poorly by Spanish-Mexican tradition<br />Liberal Reaction<br />
  27. 27. Attempt for Concession<br />Citizens in Bexar tried to petition a second time in 1832<br />Complained that the Law of April 6 was threatening useful capitalists<br />Demanded bilingual administrators<br />Wanted more judges<br />Better militia protection from hostile Indians<br />Tax exemptions for businesses<br />The petition was forwarded to governor<br />Bexar’s political chief advised the governor that the Anglos and Tejanos wanted reform, not a new state<br />Also echoed the fear that Anglos would dominate politics if a new state was created<br />Liberal Reaction<br />
  28. 28. Division of Coahuila and Texas sought<br />After attempts at concession in 1832, a subsequent meeting was held at San Felipe de Austin in 1833 to discuss the separation of the division of Coahuila and Texas<br />New leaders opposed Stephen F. Austin’s caution towards the Mexican government<br />Including David G. Burnet and Sam Houston<br />Argued that a separate Texas could make decisions affecting its own well-being<br />The meeting entrusted Erasmo Seguin, Stephen F. Austin, and Dr. James B. Miller to speak with Mexico City<br />Only Austin made the journey to Mexico City<br />Liberal Reaction<br />
  29. 29. Alteration to the Law of April 6, 1830<br />Santa Anna elected President as a Federalist<br />Mexican liberals and Austin worked together to make the Mexican senate revoke the immigration provision in the Law of April 6, effective May 1834<br />Failure to Separate Coahuila and Texas<br />Austin failed to convince the government to separate Texas<br />Officials discovered letters from Austin advocating separation<br />They threw him in jail in early 1834<br />Liberals Return to Power<br />
  30. 30. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna<br />
  31. 31. Legislative Concessions<br />Acceptance of the English language as a legal language of the state<br />Permitted the extension of empresario contracts<br />Expanded local courts<br />Provided for trial by jury<br />Texas Representation Improved<br />Increased representation in the state congress<br />Increased the number of departments to three<br />Department of Nacogdoches<br />Department of Brazos<br />Department of Bexar<br />Liberals Return to Power<br />
  32. 32. Empresario contract issues<br />Anglos continued to come into colonies whose empresarios had imported at least 100 familes (no immigration control)<br />Irish empresarios were granted after the law was enacted<br />Mexicans looked favorably on Europeans to people Texas<br />James McGloin and John McMullen founded San Patricio (1831)<br />Sterling C. Robertson persuaded the government to validate his contract and successfully brought in more settlers to Texas<br />Land Certificates<br />Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company sold invalid land certificates to buyers after the law was enacted<br />Several European families came in to Texas; Mexico accepted them<br />Ineffectiveness of the Law of April 6<br />
  33. 33. Illegal Immigration <br />By 1834, over 20,700 Anglos and slaves arrived in Texas<br />Probably went from 10,000 to 20,000 from 1830 to 1834<br />Many arrived illegally and took occupations as:<br />Merchants, lawyers, land speculators, politicians, squatters, trappers, miners, artisans, smugglers, and anything else that paid<br />Overall, the Law of April 6, 1830 was ineffective<br />Immigration increased exponentially while the law was on the books<br />Ineffectiveness of the Law of April 6<br />

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