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Ch 28 dawn of the 21st century

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  • 1. Chapter 28
    The dawn of the 21st Century
  • 2. September 11, 2001
    Series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States
    19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners
    2 airliners crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City
    Both buildings collapsed within 2 hours
    The 3rd airliner crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia
    The 4th plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania
    It was enroute to Washington, D.C.
    Casualties
    3,000 victims of the initial attacks and airliner crashes
    2,752 civilians; 343 firefighters; 60 police officers
    836 first responders (Police/Fire/EMS) as of June 2009
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. The War on Terrorism
    In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President Bush declared a war on terrorism
    Bush told Americans that “freedom and fear are at war”
    An outpouring of popular patriotism followed the attacks
    The Bush administration benefited from this patriotism and identification with the United States’ history and government
    Operation Enduring Freedom
    The Bush administration targeted Afghanistan and its regime, the Taliban, after intelligence revealed the country harbored Al Qaeda and bin Laden
    The United States launched a military offensive against Afghanistan in October 2001
  • 7.
  • 8. The PATRIOT ACt
    In the aftermath of September 11, Congress rushed to pass the PATRIOT Act
    Expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens
    The Bush administration made a point to discourage anti-Arab and anti-Muslim sentiment that resulted from the passage of the act
    A detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba was established
    In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals
    Target was to hold trial for noncitizens deemed to have assisted terrorism and/or enemy combatants
    President Bush also authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to listen to domestic domestic telephone conversations without a court warrant is an individual is suspected of terrorism
  • 9.
  • 10. War with Iraq
    The Clinton administration occasionally ordered Iraq to be bombed in retaliation for Saddam Hussein’s lack of cooperation with U.N. weapons inspectors
    A conservative group within the Bush administration welcomed an American invasion of Iraq to oust Hussein from power
    This group seized on the attacks of September 11 to press their case for an Iraq invasion
    In 2002, the Bush administration announced that a regime change was necessary in Iraq
    The United States charged Hussein with amassing weapons of mass destruction and hindering U.N. weapons inspectors
  • 11.
  • 12. War with Iraq
    The decision split the Western alliance and inspired a massive antiwar movement throughout the world
    Critics within the Bush administration argued that a war with Iraq deflected attention away from apprehending Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda
    China, Russia, Germany, and France refused to support a preemptive strike against Iraq
    Many Americans resented international criticism from the former Soviet Union and France
    Great Britain was the only nation to lend full support to the United States
    President Bush called the war “Operation Iraqi Freedom”
    Identified the purpose to “defend our freedom” and “bring freedom to others”
  • 13. War with Iraq
    Baghdad was captured within a month
    President Bush announced “mission accomplished” shortly afterwards
    Looters and insurgents took control of Iraq
    In early 2003, there were not enough American troops in the country to keep order
    Sectarian violence swept the country
  • 14.
  • 15. War with Iraq: Numbers
    The war soon cost more lives and dollars than any policymaker (regardless of political affiliation) had estimated
    As of November 2010, the total cost of wars since 2001 is roughly $1.1 trillion dollars in war costs
    Arguably, $3 to 5 trillion if the effects are the U.S. economy are calculated
    Cost of war in Iraq: $744 billion
    Cost of war in Afghanistan: $369 billion
    State-wide: $91 billion overall;
    $421 million overall in Waco
    $3,600 per person
  • 16. Ranking U.S. casualties
  • 17. 21st Century Supreme Court
    Affirmative Action
    Gratz v. Bollinger – the University of Michigan’s admission process used a points system that made race too decisive a factor and violated the Equal Protection Clause for undergraduate admissions
    Basically, “minimally qualified underrepresented minorities” were guaranteed admission under the U of M’s point system
    Homosexuality
    Lawrence v. Texas
    The S.C. overruled a Texas court ruling that held that Texas statue can prohibit certain sexual acts – namely those between same-sex partners
    The S.C. ruled that the Texas ruling and statute violated the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment
    Retirement of Sandra Day O’Connor
    O’Connor retired in 2005; the first female member of the Supreme Court
  • 18. 2004 Presidential Election
    Candidates
    Republican incumbent George W. Bush
    Democratic Senator from Massachusetts John Kerry
    Independent Ralph Nader
    Like the 2000 election, voting controversies and irregularities plagued the election
    The election was not decided until the day after voting
    Kerry and Democratic National Committee Chairman Howard Dean felt that voting in Ohio did not proceed fairly
    However, Kerry did not dispute Bush’s win in the state
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Hurricane Katrina
    In August 2005, New Orleans was devastated when Hurricane Katrina hit the coastline
    The levee system broke and the city began to flood
    At the time of the hurricane, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was charged with the responsibility of disaster planning and relief for the United States
    However, FEMA was poorly prepared for the hurricane and led to a city-wide disaster in New Orleans
    The New Orleans Disaster
    Poor residents of the city were left abandoned amid floodwaters
    City services and local government failed in the wake of the hurricane
    Social class division became apparent after the disaster
    President Bush called for aggressive action that led the Republican Congress to cut social welfare programs to pay for hurricane relief