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Ch 27 the 1990s
 

Ch 27 the 1990s

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    Ch 27 the 1990s Ch 27 the 1990s Presentation Transcript

    • The 1990s
      Chapter 27
    • George H. W. Bush
    • George H. W. Bush
      A New World Order
      Bush calls for a “new world order” as the Soviet Union begins its decline
      Malta Conference
      Bush and Gorbechev discuss superpower cooperation
      Reduction of troop deployments
      Reduction of arms
      Settling regional disputes
      Stimulating East/West trade
      German reunification was seen as a part of this new world order
      START I treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)
      Marked the beginning of an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Soviets
    • George H. W. Bush
      Domestic Issues
      Tax reform: “Read my lips, no new taxes!”
      Sounded good in principle, but his administration struggled with the enormous deficit from the Reagan years
      Bush gives in to Democrats and raises taxes
      Ruins his credibility and his approval rating
      Other domestic reform
      Americans with Disabilities ACT of 1990 (ADA)
      Clean Air Act
      Both were fairly progressive for a conservative president
    • George H. W. Bush
      The Persian Gulf War (Gulf War I)
      Bush intervenes when Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in 1990
      First international crisis since the end of the Cold War
      Bush identifies the Gulf War as the first step to create a world based on democracy and global free trade
      Manifest Destiny continuing into another century
      Bush launches 4,000 bombing runs and a successful ground offensive
      His ratings skyrocket as a result
      The 1992 election looked promising for him
    • William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton
    • The Clinton Years
      Election of 1992
      Initially, the election looked promising for incumbent George H. W. Bush
      Successful offensive in the Gulf War
      Economy was relatively stable
      However, the economy began to recess as the election season started
      Clinton wins the election with 43 %
      Texas billionaire (and independent populist) Ross Perot split some of the vote between Clinton and Bush
    • The Clinton Years
      Domestic Policies
      FLMA Act (Family and Medical Leave Act)
      Brady Bill
      Five day waiting period on handgun purchases
      Assault weapons ban
      First White House website launched in 1994
      Gays’ rights in the military
      Clinton argued for this in his campaign
      The public was hostile to the issue
      Settled on the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy
    • The Clinton Years
      NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement)
      Agreement that would greatly reduce and/or eliminate the majority of tariffs for products traded between the United States, Canada, and Mexico
      Essentially a free-trade zone for the United States, Mexico, and Canada
      Democrats charge it caused the loss of jobs (no labor provisions)
      Some say our deficit has ballooned 11 times over what it was before NAFTA
      However, the American economy has grown 54% since its inception
      Overall, more time is needed to judge its successes and failures
    • The Family Unit in the 1990s
      Decline of the traditional family
      After 1970, fewer American families had a father who was the sole breadwinner
      Cohabitation without marriage became common
      Divorce rates doubled
      More unmarried women (especially teenagers) having children
      Quality of public education declines after the 1980s
      Movement to return to “traditional family values” began
      Nostalgic return to the 1950s begins as a result of the Christian Right movement
      Others gravitate toward alternative lifestyles
    • Women in the 1990s
      More married women entered the workplace
      Some achieved remarkable success
      Most were relegated to low paying jobs or “female” jobs
      Women on average made around 75% of men’s salaries throughout the 1990s
      NOW (National Organization for Women) push for another Equal Rights Amendment for women, but ultimately fail
    • Election of 1996
      Clinton easily defeated Republican Bob Dole
      Becomes the first Democrat elected to two terms since FDR
      Ross Perot runs again as a Reform Independent
      Only garners 8.4% of the popular vote
      Clinton embraced the most popular Republican policies like welfare reform
      Left Dole with extreme positions that were unpopular among suburban middle-class voters
      Hostility to abortion rights and environmental protection
    • The Computer Revolution
      The rise of the computer industry and the Internet produced a new economy
      Steve Jobs (Apple) and Bill Gates (Microsoft) quickly became guiding forces for the future of computer-based technology
      The Internet expanded the flow of information and communications more radically than any invention since the printing press
    • Globalization
      Globalization became the new concept of the 1990s
      The process by which economies, cultures, and societies are linked through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade
      Term is typically used to refer to economic globalization
      Integration of national economies through trade, foreign investment, capital flow, technological integration, and migration
    • The Clinton Scandals
      In the 1980s and 1990s scrutiny of politicians’ private lives became far more intense than in the past
      Whitewater Scandal
      Real estate controversy involving Bill and Hillary Clinton
      The Clintons partnered with James and Susan McDougal to purchase 220 acres of land in Arkansas to become the Whitewater Development Corp.
      The venture failed, the McDougals entered the banking industry, and began another real estate investment that caught the attention of federal regulators
      After Clinton took the presidency, an independent investigation found that Clinton pressured a supporter, David Hale, into making a loan that benefitted Clinton and the McDougal’s Savings and Loan
    • The Clinton Scandals
      Whitewater Scandal
      Initially, the Clintons were cleared of wrongdoing, but Kenneth Starr (President of Baylor U.) took over and used David Hale as a key witness against the Clintons
      Alleged that Clinton pressured Hale to illegally loan $300,000 of federally-backed money to Susan McDougal
      Hale was convicted of numerous felonies and the allegation lost its credibility
      However, Starr’s investigation led to the numerous sex scandals involving Bill Clinton
      Paula Jones (former government employee in Arkansas)
      Monica Lewinsky (White House intern)
    • Clinton’s Impeachment
      After Whitewater, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr conducted an investigation of Clinton that included abuses of:
      Improper firing of White House travel agents
      Alleged misuse of FBI files
      Sexual harassment claims from Paula Jones
      Perjury statements dealing with his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky
      Overall, Starr’s report indicated that impeachment proceedings should proceed
      Clinton was charged with perjury and obstruction of justice
    • Clinton’s Impeachment
      After a month of deliberation, the Senate acquitted Clinton of both charges
      In April 1999, Clinton was cited for contempt of court regarding his “willful failure” to tell the truth in the Paula Jones lawsuit
      He was assessed a $90,000 fine, had his Arkansas law license suspended for 5 years, and resigned from the United States Supreme Court bar
      Out of court, he settled with Paula Jones for $850,000 in damages
    • Clinton’s Impeachment
      Publically, 50% of Americans supported Clinton’s impeachment and 42% disapproved of Clinton’s acquittal
      Clinton’s job approval rating rose during the impeachment scandal, but his poll numbers regarding honesty, integrity, and moral character sharply declined
      As a result, “moral character” was a significant issue in the 2000 election
      Post-election results from the 2000 election indicated that the single most significant reason people voted for George W. Bush was for his moral character and his image as a “compassionate conservative”
      The association between Clinton and Al Gore (Clinton’s Vice President) greatly impacted Gore’s campaign
    • The 2000 Presidential Election
      Al Gore (D)
      George W. Bush (R)
    • The 2000 Presidential Election
      This election proved to be one of the closest in the nation’s history
      Second to the election of 1877
      The election was notable because of the controversial voting recount in Florida
      Gore requested hand recounts in 4 counties
      Results indicated Bush won Florida and Gore appealed to the Florida Supreme Court
      The Florida Supreme Court ordered a total state recount
    • The 2000 Presidential Election
      The U.S. Supreme Court immediately struck down the Florida Supreme Court’s recount
      In December 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled:
      7 to 2 that the Florida Supreme Court’s ruling for a complete recount was unconstitutional
      5 to 4 that the Florida recounts could not be done before a “safe harbor” deadline and should cease
      Subsequently, the previously certified total (that indicated Bush won Florida) should hold.
      Overall, like in 1877, the U.S. Supreme Court had to decide the outcome of the presidential election
    • Results of the Election
      One of the more remarkable things about the election was not so much its controversial ending, but the even division of the country it revealed
      Democrats blamed the Supreme Court, Ralph Nader, and sheer bad luck for Bush’s narrow victory
      The election also revealed a broad disengagement from public life
      Primarily, low voter turn-out
      Roughly 100 million show up to vote
      Over 280 million people in the U.S. (2000 Census)