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Ch 27 the 1990s


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  • 1. The 1990s
    Chapter 27
  • 2. George H. W. Bush
  • 3. George H. W. Bush
    A New World Order
    Bush calls for a “new world order” as the Soviet Union begins its decline
    Malta Conference
    Bush and Gorbechev discuss superpower cooperation
    Reduction of troop deployments
    Reduction of arms
    Settling regional disputes
    Stimulating East/West trade
    German reunification was seen as a part of this new world order
    START I treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)
    Marked the beginning of an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Soviets
  • 4. George H. W. Bush
    Domestic Issues
    Tax reform: “Read my lips, no new taxes!”
    Sounded good in principle, but his administration struggled with the enormous deficit from the Reagan years
    Bush gives in to Democrats and raises taxes
    Ruins his credibility and his approval rating
    Other domestic reform
    Americans with Disabilities ACT of 1990 (ADA)
    Clean Air Act
    Both were fairly progressive for a conservative president
  • 5.
  • 6. George H. W. Bush
    The Persian Gulf War (Gulf War I)
    Bush intervenes when Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in 1990
    First international crisis since the end of the Cold War
    Bush identifies the Gulf War as the first step to create a world based on democracy and global free trade
    Manifest Destiny continuing into another century
    Bush launches 4,000 bombing runs and a successful ground offensive
    His ratings skyrocket as a result
    The 1992 election looked promising for him
  • 7. William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton
  • 8. The Clinton Years
    Election of 1992
    Initially, the election looked promising for incumbent George H. W. Bush
    Successful offensive in the Gulf War
    Economy was relatively stable
    However, the economy began to recess as the election season started
    Clinton wins the election with 43 %
    Texas billionaire (and independent populist) Ross Perot split some of the vote between Clinton and Bush
  • 9.
  • 10. The Clinton Years
    Domestic Policies
    FLMA Act (Family and Medical Leave Act)
    Brady Bill
    Five day waiting period on handgun purchases
    Assault weapons ban
    First White House website launched in 1994
    Gays’ rights in the military
    Clinton argued for this in his campaign
    The public was hostile to the issue
    Settled on the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy
  • 11. The Clinton Years
    NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement)
    Agreement that would greatly reduce and/or eliminate the majority of tariffs for products traded between the United States, Canada, and Mexico
    Essentially a free-trade zone for the United States, Mexico, and Canada
    Democrats charge it caused the loss of jobs (no labor provisions)
    Some say our deficit has ballooned 11 times over what it was before NAFTA
    However, the American economy has grown 54% since its inception
    Overall, more time is needed to judge its successes and failures
  • 12.
  • 13. The Family Unit in the 1990s
    Decline of the traditional family
    After 1970, fewer American families had a father who was the sole breadwinner
    Cohabitation without marriage became common
    Divorce rates doubled
    More unmarried women (especially teenagers) having children
    Quality of public education declines after the 1980s
    Movement to return to “traditional family values” began
    Nostalgic return to the 1950s begins as a result of the Christian Right movement
    Others gravitate toward alternative lifestyles
  • 14.
  • 15. Women in the 1990s
    More married women entered the workplace
    Some achieved remarkable success
    Most were relegated to low paying jobs or “female” jobs
    Women on average made around 75% of men’s salaries throughout the 1990s
    NOW (National Organization for Women) push for another Equal Rights Amendment for women, but ultimately fail
  • 16.
  • 17. Election of 1996
    Clinton easily defeated Republican Bob Dole
    Becomes the first Democrat elected to two terms since FDR
    Ross Perot runs again as a Reform Independent
    Only garners 8.4% of the popular vote
    Clinton embraced the most popular Republican policies like welfare reform
    Left Dole with extreme positions that were unpopular among suburban middle-class voters
    Hostility to abortion rights and environmental protection
  • 18.
  • 19. The Computer Revolution
    The rise of the computer industry and the Internet produced a new economy
    Steve Jobs (Apple) and Bill Gates (Microsoft) quickly became guiding forces for the future of computer-based technology
    The Internet expanded the flow of information and communications more radically than any invention since the printing press
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Globalization
    Globalization became the new concept of the 1990s
    The process by which economies, cultures, and societies are linked through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade
    Term is typically used to refer to economic globalization
    Integration of national economies through trade, foreign investment, capital flow, technological integration, and migration
  • 23.
  • 24. The Clinton Scandals
    In the 1980s and 1990s scrutiny of politicians’ private lives became far more intense than in the past
    Whitewater Scandal
    Real estate controversy involving Bill and Hillary Clinton
    The Clintons partnered with James and Susan McDougal to purchase 220 acres of land in Arkansas to become the Whitewater Development Corp.
    The venture failed, the McDougals entered the banking industry, and began another real estate investment that caught the attention of federal regulators
    After Clinton took the presidency, an independent investigation found that Clinton pressured a supporter, David Hale, into making a loan that benefitted Clinton and the McDougal’s Savings and Loan
  • 25. The Clinton Scandals
    Whitewater Scandal
    Initially, the Clintons were cleared of wrongdoing, but Kenneth Starr (President of Baylor U.) took over and used David Hale as a key witness against the Clintons
    Alleged that Clinton pressured Hale to illegally loan $300,000 of federally-backed money to Susan McDougal
    Hale was convicted of numerous felonies and the allegation lost its credibility
    However, Starr’s investigation led to the numerous sex scandals involving Bill Clinton
    Paula Jones (former government employee in Arkansas)
    Monica Lewinsky (White House intern)
  • 26.
  • 27. Clinton’s Impeachment
    After Whitewater, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr conducted an investigation of Clinton that included abuses of:
    Improper firing of White House travel agents
    Alleged misuse of FBI files
    Sexual harassment claims from Paula Jones
    Perjury statements dealing with his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky
    Overall, Starr’s report indicated that impeachment proceedings should proceed
    Clinton was charged with perjury and obstruction of justice
  • 28. Clinton’s Impeachment
    After a month of deliberation, the Senate acquitted Clinton of both charges
    In April 1999, Clinton was cited for contempt of court regarding his “willful failure” to tell the truth in the Paula Jones lawsuit
    He was assessed a $90,000 fine, had his Arkansas law license suspended for 5 years, and resigned from the United States Supreme Court bar
    Out of court, he settled with Paula Jones for $850,000 in damages
  • 29. Clinton’s Impeachment
    Publically, 50% of Americans supported Clinton’s impeachment and 42% disapproved of Clinton’s acquittal
    Clinton’s job approval rating rose during the impeachment scandal, but his poll numbers regarding honesty, integrity, and moral character sharply declined
    As a result, “moral character” was a significant issue in the 2000 election
    Post-election results from the 2000 election indicated that the single most significant reason people voted for George W. Bush was for his moral character and his image as a “compassionate conservative”
    The association between Clinton and Al Gore (Clinton’s Vice President) greatly impacted Gore’s campaign
  • 30. The 2000 Presidential Election
    Al Gore (D)
    George W. Bush (R)
  • 31. The 2000 Presidential Election
    This election proved to be one of the closest in the nation’s history
    Second to the election of 1877
    The election was notable because of the controversial voting recount in Florida
    Gore requested hand recounts in 4 counties
    Results indicated Bush won Florida and Gore appealed to the Florida Supreme Court
    The Florida Supreme Court ordered a total state recount
  • 32.
  • 33. The 2000 Presidential Election
    The U.S. Supreme Court immediately struck down the Florida Supreme Court’s recount
    In December 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled:
    7 to 2 that the Florida Supreme Court’s ruling for a complete recount was unconstitutional
    5 to 4 that the Florida recounts could not be done before a “safe harbor” deadline and should cease
    Subsequently, the previously certified total (that indicated Bush won Florida) should hold.
    Overall, like in 1877, the U.S. Supreme Court had to decide the outcome of the presidential election
  • 34. Results of the Election
    One of the more remarkable things about the election was not so much its controversial ending, but the even division of the country it revealed
    Democrats blamed the Supreme Court, Ralph Nader, and sheer bad luck for Bush’s narrow victory
    The election also revealed a broad disengagement from public life
    Primarily, low voter turn-out
    Roughly 100 million show up to vote
    Over 280 million people in the U.S. (2000 Census)