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Ch 14 The Civil War
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Ch 14 The Civil War

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  • The leaders of the Peace committee in Cooke County admitted that their plan was to seize the arsenals at Gainesville and Sherman and make northeast Texas a Union state. The jury only hanged seven men, the mob the rest of the 40 men who were hung.
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  • Use the football analogy (strong defense = CSA; weak offense = US)
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Civil War
      1861 - 1865
    • 2. Bombing of Fort Sumter (15 April 1861)
    • 3. Beginning of the Conflict (1861)
      Fort Sumter
      • 15 April 1861
      • 4. Four years to the day of Lincoln’s assassination
      • 5. Shelling was conducted by Southern belligerents upset at the possibility of Lincoln being an anti-slavery president
      • 6. Lincoln demands the shelling stops
      • 7. Commands them to disband immediately
      • 8. Known to Southerners as the beginning of “Lincoln’s Aggression”
      • 9. The South began to systematically secede from the Union because of Lincoln’s perceived ‘aggression’.
      • 10. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson (CSA) was present and helped the shelling
      Border States Remain in the Union
      • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland Delaware, and later West Virginia stay in the Union despite being slave states
      • 11. West Virginia calls for gradual abolition and remains loyal to the Union throughout the conflict
      • 12. Some stay because of Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus
      • 13. Lincoln suspends it in cases involving Southern supporters
      • 14. Becomes too risky to support the South if you were close to Washington D.C.
    • Fort Sumter (1865)
    • 15. Lincoln’s First Moves (1861-1862)
      Expanding Constitutional Powers
      • Suspension of habeas corpus
      • 16. Increased size of military and navy without Congressional approval
      • 17. Blockade of Southern ports
      • 18. Instructs the Treasury Dept. to pay two secret agents $2 million to secure extra supplies
      • 19. Reasoning:
      • 20. “By general law, life and limb must be protected, yet often a limb must be amputated to save a life; but a life is never wisely given to save a limb.”
      • 21. What does Lincoln mean by this?
      • 22. It makes no sense to follow the Constitution letter by letter if the ultimate purpose of the Constitution – preserving the Union was under attack.
      • 23. Congress validates most of Lincoln’s actions because of this rationale
    • Military Planning (1862-1863)
      Northern Military Planning
      • The “Anaconda Plan”
      • 24. Suffocate the South from all sides and let it die by occupying a majority of the enemy territory
      • 25. Advocated by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott
      • 26. Called for a blockade on all Southern ports
      • 27. Advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South into two pieces
      • 28. This was a fairly passive military strategy
      • 29. Scott takes on this approach partially due to Lincoln’s push for a blockade
      • 30. The plan’s failure
      • 31. No U.S. Navy ships could navigate the Mississippi the way Scott believed
      • 32. The strategy was too short-sighted; Scott believed that the South would easily give up
      • 33. Scott gives up his post and his plan to George B. McClellan
      Southern Military Strategy
      • Thought the war would be primarily defensive
      • 34. General Robert E. Lee believed and advocated for this initially
    • 35. Battle of Shiloh (6-7 April 1862)
    • 36. Battle of Shiloh (1862)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Generals
      • 6-7 April 1862
      • 37. Hardin County, Tennessee (southwestern)
      • 38. Union: Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell
      • 39. Confederate: Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard
      • 40. Bloodiest battle in the war (up to 1862)
      • 41. 24,000 casualties
      • 42. More than the American Revolution, War of 1812, and Mexican War combined
      Ulysses S. Grant (Union)
    • 43. Battle of Shiloh (1862)
      Why is it important?
      • Johnston was killed during the battle
      • 44. Easily one of the best mid-level CSA officers
      • 45. Begins a trend of mid-level CSA officer casualties that the CSA cannot easily replace and does not recover from
      • 46. Grant’s command is questioned
      • 47. Thought to be drunk during the battle
      • 48. Accused of not planning for a defensive position in the first day of the battle
      • 49. A regiment got bayoneted in their tents asleep; this makes for big news headlines
      • 50. Felix H. Robertson was present and commanded a small detachment of artillery (beginning to move up in rank)
      Albert Sidney Johnston (C.S.A.)
    • 51. Bloody Pond, Battle of Shiloh
    • 52. Shiloh National Cemetery
    • 53. Battle of Antietam (17 September 1862)
    • 54. Battle of Antietam (1862)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Generals
      • 17 September 1862
      • 55. Sharpsburg, Maryland (Maryland Campaign)
      • 56. Union: George B. McClelland
      • 57. Confederate: Robert E. Lee
      • 58. Bloodiest single-day battle in American history
      • 59. 23,000 casualties
      • 60. 1st major battle on Union soil
      • 61. Lee attempts to push the CSA into Union territory
      McClelland Gets Recalled
      • He is too cautious, lacks organization, planning skills, and is petrified to put his soldiers in harm’s way
      • 62. 1/3 of the Union army never fired a shot
      • 63. After a CSA retreat, McClelland does not pursue Lee and easily squanders a chance for a decisive Union victory
      • 64. Lincoln recalls McClelland and replaces him of his command
      • 65. “If you won’t use the army, could I borrow it for a time?”
      • 66. Technically, the battle was a tactical victory for the North
      • 67. Greatly injures CSA morale for the rest of 1862
    • McClelland Lee
    • 68. “Bloody Lane” -- 5600 casualties over an 800 yard stretch of road
    • 69. “Bloody Lane” (2005)
    • 70. Emancipation (1863)
      The Emancipation Proclamation
      • Lincoln issues it shortly after the Union “victory” at Antietam
      • 71. This plan took two years to formulate as Lincoln stalls on the issue numerous times
      • 72. Still sees slaves as property
      • 73. Historian ManishaSinha contends Lincoln issued it due to pressure from the black and abolitionist communities; somewhat unsubstantiated
      • 74. Radical white Northerners thought seizing land from slave owners was the proper way to deal with the slavery issue
      What did it do?
      • Granted freedom to slaves in territories under CSA control
      • 75. Some parts of Louisiana, West Virginia, and other border states were not included due to their precarious status with the Union (didn’t want them to secede)
      • 76. Causes great fear in the South
      • 77. Slaves running free to revolt against their masters
      • 78. Southerners still remembering slave revolts
    • Hard War (1863-1865)
      Lincoln Reevaluates His Strategy
      • The Emancipation Proclamation causes a shift in Lincoln’s mentality to the notion of “hard war”
      • 79. “Hard War” – increasing the pressures of war on the South, especially on civilians
      • 80. Historian Mark Grimsley uses this term instead of “total war”
      • 81. Not enough evidence to establish the Civil War as a “total war”
      • 82. W.T. Sherman’s “March to the Sea”, the Atlanta Campaign, and “Scorched earth” policies are prime indicators of hard war
      Sherman’s March to the Sea
      • Goal was to cut the South into thirds as he marched to the East Coast
      • 83. Was a reaction to increasing guerilla tactics perpetrated by the CSA in the Western Theater
      William T. Sherman (Union)
    • 84. Battle of Galveston (1 January 1863)
    • 85. Battle of Galveston (1864)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders
      • 1 January 1863
      • 86. Galveston, Texas
      • 87. Union: William B. Renshaw
      • 88. Confederate: John B. Magruder
      Significance
      • One of the best naval firefights of the war
      • 89. CSA regained control of Galveston and kept it through the rest of the war
      • 90. Union navy accidentally blew up their own ship
      • 91. Go back to sea in defeat
    • Battle of Vicksburg (May – July 1863)
    • 92. Battle of Vicksburg (May – July 1863)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Generals
      • 25 May – 4 July 1863 (40 day siege)
      • 93. Vicksburg, Mississippi
      • 94. Union: Ulysses S. Grant
      • 95. Confederate: John Pemberton
      Significance
      • Union wins at Vicksburg and Gettysburg
      • 96. Spells a major defeat for the CSA
      • 97. Cuts CSA’s communication with the Trans-Mississippi Dept.
      • 98. Splits the CSA into two
      • 99. Union now had control of the Mississippi River and access to Texas
      • 100. Pemberton surrenders on 4 July 1863
      • 101. Vicksburg does not celebrate the Forth of July until the late 1940s
      • 102. The CSA slowly begins the descent to total defeat after Vicksburg
    • The Gettysburg Address
      Theme: The Nation
      • Traces the American experience from past to future
      • 103. Uses the founding of the nation in 1776 and the signing of Declaration of Independence to highlight “all men are created equal”
      • 104. Lincoln never demonizes the South during the address
      • 105. The North and the South share the responsibility and burden of the war
      • 106. Total length of the speech: 3 minutes; 272 words
      • 107. “the nation will have a new birth of freedom”
      • 108. “…soldiers will not have died in vain”
    • Ex Parte Milligan ( October 1864)
      Can the President Claim Emergency Powers?
      • Beyond those claimed in the Constitution?
      The immediate answer is: yes.
      • The case of Lambdin P. Milligan
      • 109. Arrested in Indiana for charges of conspiracy to aide CSA prisoners in escaping and rejoining the CSA army
      • 110. Tried by a military commission because Lincoln had placed Indiana under martial law
      • 111. Milligan was found guilty and sentenced to death
      • 112. Ex Parte Milligan
      • 113. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Milligan’s claim that the military commission had no right to try him
      • 114. Because the regular courts were still functioning (even during war)
      • 115. The big idea is….
      Even during times of war, if regular courts still function, the government cannot impose military trials on civilians
    • 116. Interpretations of Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address (1864)
      War as Punishment
      • “The Almighty has his own purposes”
      • 117. Matthew: “woe unto the world because of offenses”
      • 118. Possibly the most terrifying thing a president has ever said:
      • 119. “If God wills that this war continue until all the wealth piled by the bondman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword…so still it must be said ‘the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether’.”
      • 120. All are guilty
      • 121. Everyone’s hands are stained with the blood of centuries of slavery
      • 122. Where do we go from here?
      The American people must act as agents of God’s grace and mercy
      • “malice towards none”
      • 123. “charity for all”
    • The Saltville Massacre (1-3 October 1864)
    • 124. The Saltville Massacre (October 1864)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders
      • 1 – 3 October 1864
      • 125. Saltville, Virginia
      • 126. Union: Stephen G. Burbridge
      • 127. Confederate: Felix H. Robertson
      Significance
      • Union attempts to seize Saltville (due to natural salt mines); wanted to cut off more CSA supplies
      • 128. 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry fought bravely during the battle and sustained many casualties
      • 129. The “Massacre” occurred after the battle as mercenary Champ Ferguson’s posse killed most of the wounded black Union soldiers
      • 130. Some affiliated with Felix H. Robertson’s unit joined in
      • 131. Clearly a war crimes issue
    • The Saltville Massacre (October 1864)
      Felix H. Robertson
      • Youngest major (and later General) in the CSA army
      • 132. Born near Independence, Texas (close to Houston)
      • 133. Left West Point to fight with the CSA (and his family)
      • 134. Became notoriously known as a cold blooded killer because of the Saltville Massacre
      • 135. Only Texan to serve as a General in the CSA army
      • 136. Lived in Waco for the rest of his life after the war; became a lawyer
      Champ Ferguson
      • Confederate mercenary who randomly joined up with a unit if it involved killing someone
      • 137. Born in Kentucky
      • 138. Had a strange obsession with killing anyone affiliated with the anti-slavery movement and/or the North
      • 139. The resident Southern guerilla sociopath that everyone, including Southern soldiers feared
      • 140. “When Rebel guerilla Champ Ferguson showed up at your house, you could be sure of one thing; you were about to die.”
      • 141. Executed for war crimes on 20 October 1865
      • 142. One of a few that were executed after the war
    • Appomattox Courthouse (1865)
    • 143. Appomattox Court House (1865)
      Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders
      • 9 April 1865
      • 144. Appomattox Court House, Appomattox, Virginia
      • 145. Union: Ulysses S. Grant
      • 146. Confederate: Robert E. Lee
      Significance
      • Final battle of the CSA Northern Virginia army
      • 147. Surrender was the only option
      • 148. Many of Lee’s officers (including James Longstreet who greatly miscalculated the Union in Gettysburg) agreed on surrender
      • 149. Lee, “there is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant and I would rather die a thousand deaths.”
      • 150. Grant’s reply: “General, your note on this date is but this moment, 11:50 AM, rec’d., in consequence of my having passed from the Richmond and Lynchburg road. I am at this writing about four miles West of Walker’s Church and will push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place.”
    • Appomattox Court House (1865)
      Lee Surrenders
      • Lee shows up at Appomattox Court House in an immaculate Confederate uniform
      • 151. Grant shows up in a mud spattered uniform with no side arm, no regalia, and only a tarnished shoulder strap showing his rank
      • 152. The two generals spend a great deal of time discussing their past and service in the Mexican War
      • 153. Grant offers Lee a very generous deal:
      • 154. None of his officers or men would be imprisoned or prosecuted
      • 155. Grant would supply food for Lee’s starving army
      • 156. CSA soldiers could take home their horses and mules for spring planting
      • 157. Lee agrees and said it would have a positive effect on reconciling the torn country
      • 158. 10 April 1865: 27, 805 Confederates surrender
    • Gen. Joshua Chamberlain (USA)
    • 159. Chamberlain’s Salute of Honor
    • 160. What Were They Fighting For?
      Numbers
      • 633,000 Americans died in the Civil War
      • 161. 373,000 Union
      • 162. 260,000 CSA
      Goals
      • North
      • 163. Preservation of the Union, the “last great hope in the world”
      • 164. South
      • 165. Preservation of our way of life
      • 166. Slavery, plantations, antebellum mentalities
      • 167. An economic system welded to tradition and slavery
      • 168. Both believed God was on their side
      Lasting Effects
      • North
      • 169. Civic Religion forms out of the fusion of religion and God’s ‘just cause’ for Lincoln’s “last great hope in the world”
      • 170. South
      • 171. “Lost Cause” mentality – the South was defeated unjustly
      • 172. They were fighting for the same cause as the Revolution
      • 173. Freedom from oppression