Ch 13 A House Divided

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Ch 13 A House Divided

  1. 1. Manifest Destiny<br />1840-1850<br />
  2. 2. Manifest Destiny<br />
  3. 3. Manifest Destiny<br />What is it?<br /><ul><li>The driving force (one component) behind America’s expansion to the west (specifically the Pacific Coast)
  4. 4. Was not an official government policy
  5. 5. Promoted heavily in newspapers, posters, and other propaganda
  6. 6. John O’Sullivan first uses the term in a newspaper in 1845
  7. 7. “manifest destiny to overspread the continent”
  8. 8. Regarding the annexation of Texas
  9. 9. Says America was “chosen” to lead the continent out of wilderness
  10. 10. Americans were “chosen” to establish civilization</li></ul>What caused it?<br /><ul><li>Myth of the Chosen Nation – God chose the Americans to establish democracy from sea to shining sea
  11. 11. The Louisiana Purchase – over 1/3 of the continent is gained by Jefferson’s legislation
  12. 12. Government saw the appeal of potential land bringing more political power to the growing nation
  13. 13. Land Availability + Politics + Religion = Manifest Destiny</li></li></ul><li>Manifest Destiny<br />What it meant to the country<br /><ul><li>Through physical expansion to the west, the United States would be set on a course to become a political and social superpower
  14. 14. Manifest Destiny adds fuel to the fire of expansion
  15. 15. Advertising potential for great wealth in minerals in the West
  16. 16. Promoting programs to help the downtrodden acquire and keep land in the West (if they paid their way)</li></ul>Results<br /><ul><li>Many Easterners head to the West in search of riches and a new start
  17. 17. Most believing they were helping the US achieve Manifest Destiny and it was God’s chosen path for them
  18. 18. Manifest Destiny expands to foreign policy
  19. 19. Becomes the driving force behind the Mexican-American War
  20. 20. Later, the Spanish-American War (after we achieve “sea to shining sea”
  21. 21. Today, becomes intertwined with globalization
  22. 22. We must spread democracy throughout the world</li></li></ul><li>The Battle of the Alamo<br />
  23. 23. The Texas Revolt<br />Texas under Mexican Rule<br /><ul><li>Texas was the first part of Mexico to be settle by significant numbers of Americans
  24. 24. Moses Austin (father of Stephen F. Austin)
  25. 25. Due to the influx of Americans, Mexico felt that it was losing its control over Texas
  26. 26. To make matters worse, Stephen F. Austin calls American settlers to demand greater autonomy from Mexico
  27. 27. The goal was independence
  28. 28. 1830 – Mexico annuls existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States
  29. 29. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent an army to Texas to impose central authority
  30. 30. Texan rebels, inspired by the U.S. Revolutionary War form a provisional government
  31. 31. Declare independence from Mexico</li></li></ul><li>The Texan Revolt<br />Battle of the Alamo<br /><ul><li>Roughly 250 Texas built reinforcements inside the Alamo
  32. 32. Santa Anna decides to launch an attack on the mission after a 12 day siege
  33. 33. Only 2 Texans survive; 180 to 240 Texans dead; 400-600 Mexicans dead
  34. 34. This is a pivotal point in the Texas Revolution as Santa Anna’s perceived cruelty inspired Texans to band together to defeat the Mexicans </li></ul>Battle of San Jacinto<br /><ul><li>The decisive battle of the Texas Revolution
  35. 35. Santa Anna v. Sam Houston
  36. 36. Battle in present-day Harris County
  37. 37. Rallying cries, “Remember the Alamo,” and “Remember Goliad”
  38. 38. Combat lasted less than 20 minutes; slaughter of Mexicans carried on for several more hours
  39. 39. 630 Mexicans killed, over 700 captured; 280 wounded</li></li></ul><li>The Mexican War<br />(Occupation of Mexico City)<br />
  40. 40. The Road to the Mexican War<br />Election of 1844<br /><ul><li>Whig Candidate: Henry Clay
  41. 41. Democrat Candidate: James K. Polk
  42. 42. Texas Annexation was a key issue
  43. 43. Issue of slavery in Texas
  44. 44. Why does John Tyler (incumbent) not run?
  45. 45. Tries to run on an independent platform
  46. 46. Alienates himself from Whig party, Whigs kick him out in 1841
  47. 47. Was William Henry Harrison’s VP
  48. 48. Harrison dies in office, he becomes Pres.</li></ul>James K. Polk (Dem.)<br />John Tyler (Whig)<br />William Henry Harrison (Whig)<br />
  49. 49. The Road to the Mexican War<br />Election of 1844<br /><ul><li>Results
  50. 50. James Polk wins (friend of Andrew Jackson, Tennessee slaveholder)
  51. 51. He supported Texas annexation (even though it was Tyler’s idea)
  52. 52. Supported “reoccupation” of Oregon</li></ul>Polk’s Goals<br /><ul><li>Reduce tariffs
  53. 53. Restablish the Independent Treasury System
  54. 54. Settle the Oregon dispute (“Fifty-four Forty or Fight!!”)
  55. 55. Make California a state</li></ul>Oregon Territory Controversy<br /><ul><li>Democrats wanted Polk to be as uncompromising on Oregon as he was on Texas annexation
  56. 56. “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” – U.S. should be prepared to go to war with Britain (again) if they were unwilling to move their border north to the 54, 40 degree boundary (near Russian-owned Alaska at this point)
  57. 57. Polk decides to be diplomatic and settles on the 49th parallel (where Washington and Vancouver, B.C. still separate the two countries today)
  58. 58. Bottom line: Manifest Destiny is attempting to claim British territory in the Northwest</li></li></ul><li>
  59. 59. The Mexican War<br />Oregon obtained, now on to Mexico!<br /><ul><li>Polk tries diplomacy again
  60. 60. Send an agent to buy California, New Mexico, most of Arizona, and the Rio Grande border of Texas for $25 million
  61. 61. They didn’t take it; government was way too unstable
  62. 62. Mexico also felt that they still owned Texas and the U.S. was plotting to take all of Mexico eventually
  63. 63. Thornton Affair
  64. 64. Detachment of U.S. troops scouted near the Rio Grande border (near present-day Brownsville)
  65. 65. Skirmish with Mexican troops; 11 U.S. troops die
  66. 66. Gives the U.S. a reason to declare war though the circumstances behind the attack are still uncertain
  67. 67. Declaring War
  68. 68. Polk uses the Thornton Affair and Mexico’s refusal to sell their land as a cause for war
  69. 69. Exaggerates and says the Mexicans were actively attacking American soil
  70. 70. War declared on 13 May 1846
  71. 71. Polarization on the War
  72. 72. Whigs (North and South) vehemently denounce the war; see Manifest Destiny causing unnecessary expansion with a racist undertone
  73. 73. Democrats (especially Southerners) support the war; see the merits of Manifest Destiny</li></li></ul><li>The Mexican War<br />Fighting the War on Three Fronts (1846-1848)<br /><ul><li>Santa Fe
  74. 74. Led by General Stephen Kerney
  75. 75. Goal was to move through NM, AZ, and the Sonoran desert to meet up with troops in California
  76. 76. California
  77. 77. Kerney brings his troops through NM and AZ; arrives in California in late 1846
  78. 78. Finally defeats the Mexicans near Los Angeles in January 1847
  79. 79. Central Mexico
  80. 80. Polk send General Zachary Taylor, finally occupies Mexico City in September 1847</li></ul>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo<br /><ul><li>Land north of the Rio Grade, California, and everything in between up for grabs
  81. 81. Mexico sells this land for $15 million (with a lot of influence from U.S. military)
  82. 82. U.S. gain of 1.2 million square miles</li></ul>Why Not Take All of Mexico?<br /><ul><li>Americans tired of expansion into Latin America
  83. 83. Manifest Destiny took on a selective, racist mentality
  84. 84. Americans came to believe Mexicans were inferior and did not want to include them as citizens</li></li></ul><li>
  85. 85.
  86. 86. Migration to the West<br />
  87. 87. Migration to the West<br />California Gold Rush<br /><ul><li>Explosive population growth and fierce competition
  88. 88. Only worsened ethnic and racial conflicts
  89. 89. Indians, Asians, and blacks all denied basic rights
  90. 90. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves
  91. 91. Gold discovered in late 1840s, U.S. government claimed “unlimited amounts”
  92. 92. Most migrants came around 1849 (hence the San Francisco 49ers)
  93. 93. Migrants also came from Asia
  94. 94. By the early 1850s, gold mining became a corporate business
  95. 95. Companies buying entire streams and valleys</li></ul>Transportation and Communication <br /><ul><li>Railroads grew exponentially during the 1840s
  96. 96. By 1860, railroads covered the North
  97. 97. The South struggled to keep up
  98. 98. Railway developments coincided with iron developments (backed by great financial support)
  99. 99. Clipper Ship
  100. 100. Small, fast ship with big sails and a small hull
  101. 101. Only way to travel to California before the trans-continental RR
  102. 102. Telegraph
  103. 103. Telegraph lines began to follow the paths of railroads</li></li></ul><li>International Morse Code<br />
  104. 104. Migration to the West<br />Mormons<br /><ul><li>Founded by Joseph Smith in the 1820s in upstate New York
  105. 105. Mormon Church founded on the principle of reviving pure Christianity
  106. 106. Believed Christ once resided in North America
  107. 107. Smith exercised complete and absolute authority over his followers
  108. 108. Refusal to accept the U.S.’s separation of church and state
  109. 109. Also believed in polygamy
  110. 110. Smith’s group gradually moved west
  111. 111. Smith was killed by an angry mob in Nauvoo, Illinois
  112. 112. Smith’s successor, Brigham Young led the group into Utah (Salt Lake City area)
  113. 113. Young and his followers resisted being governed by the U.S.
  114. 114. Almost went to war in 1857
  115. 115. Young finally accepts an appointment as territorial governor of Utah</li></ul>Immigration<br /><ul><li>1840s – Immigrants from Ireland come to the United States (1/4 of their population)
  116. 116. Most were poor and took on very low paying jobs; some moved to the west
  117. 117. Immigrants from Germany also came
  118. 118. Creates tension in the United States regarding immigration due to the influx</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and descent into war<br />1850 - 1861<br />
  119. 119. Crisis and Compromise<br />Wilmot Proviso<br /><ul><li>During the Mexican War, David Wilmot (Penn.) proposes a resolution prohibiting slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico
  120. 120. Measure fails due to no Congressional action
  121. 121. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is acted upon instead (allowing slavery)</li></ul>The Free Soil Party<br /><ul><li>After the end of the Mexican War, opponent of slavery expansion band together to form the Free Soil Party
  122. 122. The party had appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government
  123. 123. Their platform advocated for:
  124. 124. Barring slavery from the west
  125. 125. Providing homesteads to settlers in the west free of cost
  126. 126. Southerners were outraged at the “Free-Soilers” singling out slavery
  127. 127. Once again, the admission of free states would disrupt the balance of free/slave states
  128. 128. Crisis begins again as California is admitted to the Union as a free state</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />Compromise of 1850<br /><ul><li>Extended debate in Congress over California coming in as a free state
  129. 129. Series of five bills
  130. 130. California admitted as a free state
  131. 131. Slave trade was abolished
  132. 132. Territories of New Mexico and Utah organized under popular sovereignty (let the people decide whether to be a free or slave state)
  133. 133. Fugitive Slave Act is passed (assists in return of runaway slaves)
  134. 134. Texas gives up western land to pay off Republic of Texas debt ($10 million given to TX)
  135. 135. This bill essentially postpones the Civil War for another decade
  136. 136. Henry Clay was important in formulating the compromise
  137. 137. He dies in 1852</li></ul>Expansion Again<br /><ul><li>Gadsden Purchase (1853) – U.S. gave Mexico $15 million for the remainder of AZ and NM
  138. 138. Americans look to Cuba and the Philippines for international expansion
  139. 139. Spain not happy about this
  140. 140. Postpones another international war until 1898</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />“Know-Nothing Party”<br /><ul><li>An appeal to nativism due to the influx of immigrants (Irish and German)
  141. 141. Several fraternities form to advocate against immigration
  142. 142. Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
  143. 143. A cohesive group formed with the “Know-Nothings”
  144. 144. When asked about their party, they would always say, “I know nothing”
  145. 145. Grass roots movement (power flowed up from the bottom)
  146. 146. Promotion of Protestantism over Catholicism
  147. 147. Many Democrats and Whigs defected from their parties to join the Know-Nothing and Free-Soil parties</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />The Whig Party’s Demise<br /><ul><li>Franklin Pierce is elected in 1852 (Dem.)
  148. 148. Known as a “doughface” Democrat
  149. 149. Northern Democrat with Southern sympathies
  150. 150. Ushers in the end for the Whigs
  151. 151. Whig Party falls apart due to members defecting to the Northern Democrats, Know-Nothings, and Free-Soil parties
  152. 152. By the end of the decade, a combination of these three parties would form the Republican Party (the one we know today)</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />The Kansas-Nebraska Act<br /><ul><li>After the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, and Webster, Stephen A. Douglas saw himself as the new leader of the Senate
  153. 153. Introduces a bill for statehood for Nebraska and Kansas
  154. 154. Had business interests in railroads
  155. 155. Wanted a transcontinental line to go through there
  156. 156. Strong advocate of popular sovereignty
  157. 157. Lincoln-Douglas debates over the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  158. 158. Kansas-Nebraska act does the following:
  159. 159. Throws out the Missouri Compromise
  160. 160. Throws out the Compromise of 1850
  161. 161. Let the free/slave state issue be left to popular sovereignty
  162. 162. Results:
  163. 163. Divides the nation completely
  164. 164. Civil war is inevitable</li></li></ul><li>
  165. 165. Crisis and Compromise<br />Rise of the Republican Party<br /><ul><li>The party reflected economic and social changes within the country
  166. 166. Booming business in the North due to railroads
  167. 167. Society dealing with a complex, industrial society
  168. 168. Free Labor ideology
  169. 169. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, so expansion of slavery had to stop to ensure freedom for the white laborer
  170. 170. They were trying to appeal to immigrants especially
  171. 171. “Slave Power conspiracy”
  172. 172. Republicans began to charge Southern Democrats of a conspiracy to nationalize slavery through measures such as the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  173. 173. Lincoln takes on Douglas, President James Buchanan, and Chief Justice Roger Taney as proponents of this conspiracy in his famous, “House Divided” speech
  174. 174. This did not mean all Republicans were abolitionists though</li></ul>Bleeding Kansas<br /><ul><li>Civil war breaks out in Kansas over slavery (popular sovereignty at work)
  175. 175. Republicans use this as a means to discredit Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />Dred Scott v. Sanford<br /><ul><li>Dred Scott, a slave that lived in five territories sued for his freedom
  176. 176. Supreme Court heard the case and asked these questions:
  177. 177. Could a black person be a citizen and sue in court?
  178. 178. Did residence in a free state make Scott free?
  179. 179. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
  180. 180. Chief Justice Roger Taney declares that:
  181. 181. Only white persons could be citizens in the U.S.
  182. 182. Congress possessed no power to bar slavery form a territory
  183. 183. Slaves cannot be taken away from their owners without due process of the law
  184. 184. Scott’s case is thrown out because he cannot sue
  185. 185. This poses a serious threat to the Republican’s platform to restrict the expansion of slavery
  186. 186. Really heats up the “Slave Power Conspiracy” theory</li></li></ul><li>Descent into War<br />John Brown’s Raid<br /><ul><li>John Brown, an abolitionist that had reactionary tendencies plans an armed slave revolt on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
  187. 187. The assault was stopped by U.S. Marines under Col. Robert E. Lee
  188. 188. Brown was captured, tried, and executed in December 1859
  189. 189. John Wilkes Booth (future assassin of President Lincoln) witnessed the execution
  190. 190. This event greatly upsets the South
  191. 191. Causes more sectional division between the North and South
  192. 192. Also bolsters Southern Nationalism</li></li></ul><li>Descent into War<br />The Election of 1860<br /><ul><li>Arguably the most important election in American History
  193. 193. Abraham Lincoln, Republican nominee
  194. 194. Democrats were split, Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention
  195. 195. Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge of Kentucky
  196. 196. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas
  197. 197. Lincoln wins in a landslide with the Democrats split
  198. 198. Does not receive a single vote in ten southern states
  199. 199. Republican party platform:
  200. 200. Deny the validity of Dred Scott v. Sanford
  201. 201. Oppose slavery’s expansion
  202. 202. More economic incentives</li></ul>The Secession Crisis<br /><ul><li>Begins as soon as Lincoln is elected president
  203. 203. Rather than be a minority, Deep South leaders call for regional independence
  204. 204. By the time Lincoln takes the oath of office, seven states secede from the Union
  205. 205. From South Carolina to Texas
  206. 206. Leaving president James Buchanan said a state could not leave the Union
  207. 207. But he didn’t believe the U.S. could use force against them</li></li></ul><li>And the War Came<br />Lincoln’s Response<br /><ul><li>Believed the secession issue would collapse from within
  208. 208. Issued this warning: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war”</li></ul>The Confederate States of America<br /><ul><li>Formed on 4 March 1861
  209. 209. Elected Jefferson Davis as President
  210. 210. Rather reluctant to become president
  211. 211. Loved the United States
  212. 212. Was torn over the constitutionality of slavery</li></ul>Fort Sumter<br /><ul><li>South fires on Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861
  213. 213. Lincoln calls in 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection
  214. 214. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was an artilleryman at the battle</li>

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