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Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
Ch 13 A House Divided
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Ch 13 A House Divided

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  • 1. Manifest Destiny<br />1840-1850<br />
  • 2. Manifest Destiny<br />
  • 3. Manifest Destiny<br />What is it?<br /><ul><li>The driving force (one component) behind America’s expansion to the west (specifically the Pacific Coast)
  • 4. Was not an official government policy
  • 5. Promoted heavily in newspapers, posters, and other propaganda
  • 6. John O’Sullivan first uses the term in a newspaper in 1845
  • 7. “manifest destiny to overspread the continent”
  • 8. Regarding the annexation of Texas
  • 9. Says America was “chosen” to lead the continent out of wilderness
  • 10. Americans were “chosen” to establish civilization</li></ul>What caused it?<br /><ul><li>Myth of the Chosen Nation – God chose the Americans to establish democracy from sea to shining sea
  • 11. The Louisiana Purchase – over 1/3 of the continent is gained by Jefferson’s legislation
  • 12. Government saw the appeal of potential land bringing more political power to the growing nation
  • 13. Land Availability + Politics + Religion = Manifest Destiny</li></li></ul><li>Manifest Destiny<br />What it meant to the country<br /><ul><li>Through physical expansion to the west, the United States would be set on a course to become a political and social superpower
  • 14. Manifest Destiny adds fuel to the fire of expansion
  • 15. Advertising potential for great wealth in minerals in the West
  • 16. Promoting programs to help the downtrodden acquire and keep land in the West (if they paid their way)</li></ul>Results<br /><ul><li>Many Easterners head to the West in search of riches and a new start
  • 17. Most believing they were helping the US achieve Manifest Destiny and it was God’s chosen path for them
  • 18. Manifest Destiny expands to foreign policy
  • 19. Becomes the driving force behind the Mexican-American War
  • 20. Later, the Spanish-American War (after we achieve “sea to shining sea”
  • 21. Today, becomes intertwined with globalization
  • 22. We must spread democracy throughout the world</li></li></ul><li>The Battle of the Alamo<br />
  • 23. The Texas Revolt<br />Texas under Mexican Rule<br /><ul><li>Texas was the first part of Mexico to be settle by significant numbers of Americans
  • 24. Moses Austin (father of Stephen F. Austin)
  • 25. Due to the influx of Americans, Mexico felt that it was losing its control over Texas
  • 26. To make matters worse, Stephen F. Austin calls American settlers to demand greater autonomy from Mexico
  • 27. The goal was independence
  • 28. 1830 – Mexico annuls existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States
  • 29. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent an army to Texas to impose central authority
  • 30. Texan rebels, inspired by the U.S. Revolutionary War form a provisional government
  • 31. Declare independence from Mexico</li></li></ul><li>The Texan Revolt<br />Battle of the Alamo<br /><ul><li>Roughly 250 Texas built reinforcements inside the Alamo
  • 32. Santa Anna decides to launch an attack on the mission after a 12 day siege
  • 33. Only 2 Texans survive; 180 to 240 Texans dead; 400-600 Mexicans dead
  • 34. This is a pivotal point in the Texas Revolution as Santa Anna’s perceived cruelty inspired Texans to band together to defeat the Mexicans </li></ul>Battle of San Jacinto<br /><ul><li>The decisive battle of the Texas Revolution
  • 35. Santa Anna v. Sam Houston
  • 36. Battle in present-day Harris County
  • 37. Rallying cries, “Remember the Alamo,” and “Remember Goliad”
  • 38. Combat lasted less than 20 minutes; slaughter of Mexicans carried on for several more hours
  • 39. 630 Mexicans killed, over 700 captured; 280 wounded</li></li></ul><li>The Mexican War<br />(Occupation of Mexico City)<br />
  • 40. The Road to the Mexican War<br />Election of 1844<br /><ul><li>Whig Candidate: Henry Clay
  • 41. Democrat Candidate: James K. Polk
  • 42. Texas Annexation was a key issue
  • 43. Issue of slavery in Texas
  • 44. Why does John Tyler (incumbent) not run?
  • 45. Tries to run on an independent platform
  • 46. Alienates himself from Whig party, Whigs kick him out in 1841
  • 47. Was William Henry Harrison’s VP
  • 48. Harrison dies in office, he becomes Pres.</li></ul>James K. Polk (Dem.)<br />John Tyler (Whig)<br />William Henry Harrison (Whig)<br />
  • 49. The Road to the Mexican War<br />Election of 1844<br /><ul><li>Results
  • 50. James Polk wins (friend of Andrew Jackson, Tennessee slaveholder)
  • 51. He supported Texas annexation (even though it was Tyler’s idea)
  • 52. Supported “reoccupation” of Oregon</li></ul>Polk’s Goals<br /><ul><li>Reduce tariffs
  • 53. Restablish the Independent Treasury System
  • 54. Settle the Oregon dispute (“Fifty-four Forty or Fight!!”)
  • 55. Make California a state</li></ul>Oregon Territory Controversy<br /><ul><li>Democrats wanted Polk to be as uncompromising on Oregon as he was on Texas annexation
  • 56. “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” – U.S. should be prepared to go to war with Britain (again) if they were unwilling to move their border north to the 54, 40 degree boundary (near Russian-owned Alaska at this point)
  • 57. Polk decides to be diplomatic and settles on the 49th parallel (where Washington and Vancouver, B.C. still separate the two countries today)
  • 58. Bottom line: Manifest Destiny is attempting to claim British territory in the Northwest</li></li></ul><li>
  • 59. The Mexican War<br />Oregon obtained, now on to Mexico!<br /><ul><li>Polk tries diplomacy again
  • 60. Send an agent to buy California, New Mexico, most of Arizona, and the Rio Grande border of Texas for $25 million
  • 61. They didn’t take it; government was way too unstable
  • 62. Mexico also felt that they still owned Texas and the U.S. was plotting to take all of Mexico eventually
  • 63. Thornton Affair
  • 64. Detachment of U.S. troops scouted near the Rio Grande border (near present-day Brownsville)
  • 65. Skirmish with Mexican troops; 11 U.S. troops die
  • 66. Gives the U.S. a reason to declare war though the circumstances behind the attack are still uncertain
  • 67. Declaring War
  • 68. Polk uses the Thornton Affair and Mexico’s refusal to sell their land as a cause for war
  • 69. Exaggerates and says the Mexicans were actively attacking American soil
  • 70. War declared on 13 May 1846
  • 71. Polarization on the War
  • 72. Whigs (North and South) vehemently denounce the war; see Manifest Destiny causing unnecessary expansion with a racist undertone
  • 73. Democrats (especially Southerners) support the war; see the merits of Manifest Destiny</li></li></ul><li>The Mexican War<br />Fighting the War on Three Fronts (1846-1848)<br /><ul><li>Santa Fe
  • 74. Led by General Stephen Kerney
  • 75. Goal was to move through NM, AZ, and the Sonoran desert to meet up with troops in California
  • 76. California
  • 77. Kerney brings his troops through NM and AZ; arrives in California in late 1846
  • 78. Finally defeats the Mexicans near Los Angeles in January 1847
  • 79. Central Mexico
  • 80. Polk send General Zachary Taylor, finally occupies Mexico City in September 1847</li></ul>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo<br /><ul><li>Land north of the Rio Grade, California, and everything in between up for grabs
  • 81. Mexico sells this land for $15 million (with a lot of influence from U.S. military)
  • 82. U.S. gain of 1.2 million square miles</li></ul>Why Not Take All of Mexico?<br /><ul><li>Americans tired of expansion into Latin America
  • 83. Manifest Destiny took on a selective, racist mentality
  • 84. Americans came to believe Mexicans were inferior and did not want to include them as citizens</li></li></ul><li>
  • 85.
  • 86. Migration to the West<br />
  • 87. Migration to the West<br />California Gold Rush<br /><ul><li>Explosive population growth and fierce competition
  • 88. Only worsened ethnic and racial conflicts
  • 89. Indians, Asians, and blacks all denied basic rights
  • 90. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves
  • 91. Gold discovered in late 1840s, U.S. government claimed “unlimited amounts”
  • 92. Most migrants came around 1849 (hence the San Francisco 49ers)
  • 93. Migrants also came from Asia
  • 94. By the early 1850s, gold mining became a corporate business
  • 95. Companies buying entire streams and valleys</li></ul>Transportation and Communication <br /><ul><li>Railroads grew exponentially during the 1840s
  • 96. By 1860, railroads covered the North
  • 97. The South struggled to keep up
  • 98. Railway developments coincided with iron developments (backed by great financial support)
  • 99. Clipper Ship
  • 100. Small, fast ship with big sails and a small hull
  • 101. Only way to travel to California before the trans-continental RR
  • 102. Telegraph
  • 103. Telegraph lines began to follow the paths of railroads</li></li></ul><li>International Morse Code<br />
  • 104. Migration to the West<br />Mormons<br /><ul><li>Founded by Joseph Smith in the 1820s in upstate New York
  • 105. Mormon Church founded on the principle of reviving pure Christianity
  • 106. Believed Christ once resided in North America
  • 107. Smith exercised complete and absolute authority over his followers
  • 108. Refusal to accept the U.S.’s separation of church and state
  • 109. Also believed in polygamy
  • 110. Smith’s group gradually moved west
  • 111. Smith was killed by an angry mob in Nauvoo, Illinois
  • 112. Smith’s successor, Brigham Young led the group into Utah (Salt Lake City area)
  • 113. Young and his followers resisted being governed by the U.S.
  • 114. Almost went to war in 1857
  • 115. Young finally accepts an appointment as territorial governor of Utah</li></ul>Immigration<br /><ul><li>1840s – Immigrants from Ireland come to the United States (1/4 of their population)
  • 116. Most were poor and took on very low paying jobs; some moved to the west
  • 117. Immigrants from Germany also came
  • 118. Creates tension in the United States regarding immigration due to the influx</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and descent into war<br />1850 - 1861<br />
  • 119. Crisis and Compromise<br />Wilmot Proviso<br /><ul><li>During the Mexican War, David Wilmot (Penn.) proposes a resolution prohibiting slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico
  • 120. Measure fails due to no Congressional action
  • 121. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is acted upon instead (allowing slavery)</li></ul>The Free Soil Party<br /><ul><li>After the end of the Mexican War, opponent of slavery expansion band together to form the Free Soil Party
  • 122. The party had appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government
  • 123. Their platform advocated for:
  • 124. Barring slavery from the west
  • 125. Providing homesteads to settlers in the west free of cost
  • 126. Southerners were outraged at the “Free-Soilers” singling out slavery
  • 127. Once again, the admission of free states would disrupt the balance of free/slave states
  • 128. Crisis begins again as California is admitted to the Union as a free state</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />Compromise of 1850<br /><ul><li>Extended debate in Congress over California coming in as a free state
  • 129. Series of five bills
  • 130. California admitted as a free state
  • 131. Slave trade was abolished
  • 132. Territories of New Mexico and Utah organized under popular sovereignty (let the people decide whether to be a free or slave state)
  • 133. Fugitive Slave Act is passed (assists in return of runaway slaves)
  • 134. Texas gives up western land to pay off Republic of Texas debt ($10 million given to TX)
  • 135. This bill essentially postpones the Civil War for another decade
  • 136. Henry Clay was important in formulating the compromise
  • 137. He dies in 1852</li></ul>Expansion Again<br /><ul><li>Gadsden Purchase (1853) – U.S. gave Mexico $15 million for the remainder of AZ and NM
  • 138. Americans look to Cuba and the Philippines for international expansion
  • 139. Spain not happy about this
  • 140. Postpones another international war until 1898</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />“Know-Nothing Party”<br /><ul><li>An appeal to nativism due to the influx of immigrants (Irish and German)
  • 141. Several fraternities form to advocate against immigration
  • 142. Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
  • 143. A cohesive group formed with the “Know-Nothings”
  • 144. When asked about their party, they would always say, “I know nothing”
  • 145. Grass roots movement (power flowed up from the bottom)
  • 146. Promotion of Protestantism over Catholicism
  • 147. Many Democrats and Whigs defected from their parties to join the Know-Nothing and Free-Soil parties</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />The Whig Party’s Demise<br /><ul><li>Franklin Pierce is elected in 1852 (Dem.)
  • 148. Known as a “doughface” Democrat
  • 149. Northern Democrat with Southern sympathies
  • 150. Ushers in the end for the Whigs
  • 151. Whig Party falls apart due to members defecting to the Northern Democrats, Know-Nothings, and Free-Soil parties
  • 152. By the end of the decade, a combination of these three parties would form the Republican Party (the one we know today)</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />The Kansas-Nebraska Act<br /><ul><li>After the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, and Webster, Stephen A. Douglas saw himself as the new leader of the Senate
  • 153. Introduces a bill for statehood for Nebraska and Kansas
  • 154. Had business interests in railroads
  • 155. Wanted a transcontinental line to go through there
  • 156. Strong advocate of popular sovereignty
  • 157. Lincoln-Douglas debates over the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • 158. Kansas-Nebraska act does the following:
  • 159. Throws out the Missouri Compromise
  • 160. Throws out the Compromise of 1850
  • 161. Let the free/slave state issue be left to popular sovereignty
  • 162. Results:
  • 163. Divides the nation completely
  • 164. Civil war is inevitable</li></li></ul><li>
  • 165. Crisis and Compromise<br />Rise of the Republican Party<br /><ul><li>The party reflected economic and social changes within the country
  • 166. Booming business in the North due to railroads
  • 167. Society dealing with a complex, industrial society
  • 168. Free Labor ideology
  • 169. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, so expansion of slavery had to stop to ensure freedom for the white laborer
  • 170. They were trying to appeal to immigrants especially
  • 171. “Slave Power conspiracy”
  • 172. Republicans began to charge Southern Democrats of a conspiracy to nationalize slavery through measures such as the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • 173. Lincoln takes on Douglas, President James Buchanan, and Chief Justice Roger Taney as proponents of this conspiracy in his famous, “House Divided” speech
  • 174. This did not mean all Republicans were abolitionists though</li></ul>Bleeding Kansas<br /><ul><li>Civil war breaks out in Kansas over slavery (popular sovereignty at work)
  • 175. Republicans use this as a means to discredit Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Compromise<br />Dred Scott v. Sanford<br /><ul><li>Dred Scott, a slave that lived in five territories sued for his freedom
  • 176. Supreme Court heard the case and asked these questions:
  • 177. Could a black person be a citizen and sue in court?
  • 178. Did residence in a free state make Scott free?
  • 179. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
  • 180. Chief Justice Roger Taney declares that:
  • 181. Only white persons could be citizens in the U.S.
  • 182. Congress possessed no power to bar slavery form a territory
  • 183. Slaves cannot be taken away from their owners without due process of the law
  • 184. Scott’s case is thrown out because he cannot sue
  • 185. This poses a serious threat to the Republican’s platform to restrict the expansion of slavery
  • 186. Really heats up the “Slave Power Conspiracy” theory</li></li></ul><li>Descent into War<br />John Brown’s Raid<br /><ul><li>John Brown, an abolitionist that had reactionary tendencies plans an armed slave revolt on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
  • 187. The assault was stopped by U.S. Marines under Col. Robert E. Lee
  • 188. Brown was captured, tried, and executed in December 1859
  • 189. John Wilkes Booth (future assassin of President Lincoln) witnessed the execution
  • 190. This event greatly upsets the South
  • 191. Causes more sectional division between the North and South
  • 192. Also bolsters Southern Nationalism</li></li></ul><li>Descent into War<br />The Election of 1860<br /><ul><li>Arguably the most important election in American History
  • 193. Abraham Lincoln, Republican nominee
  • 194. Democrats were split, Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention
  • 195. Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge of Kentucky
  • 196. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas
  • 197. Lincoln wins in a landslide with the Democrats split
  • 198. Does not receive a single vote in ten southern states
  • 199. Republican party platform:
  • 200. Deny the validity of Dred Scott v. Sanford
  • 201. Oppose slavery’s expansion
  • 202. More economic incentives</li></ul>The Secession Crisis<br /><ul><li>Begins as soon as Lincoln is elected president
  • 203. Rather than be a minority, Deep South leaders call for regional independence
  • 204. By the time Lincoln takes the oath of office, seven states secede from the Union
  • 205. From South Carolina to Texas
  • 206. Leaving president James Buchanan said a state could not leave the Union
  • 207. But he didn’t believe the U.S. could use force against them</li></li></ul><li>And the War Came<br />Lincoln’s Response<br /><ul><li>Believed the secession issue would collapse from within
  • 208. Issued this warning: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war”</li></ul>The Confederate States of America<br /><ul><li>Formed on 4 March 1861
  • 209. Elected Jefferson Davis as President
  • 210. Rather reluctant to become president
  • 211. Loved the United States
  • 212. Was torn over the constitutionality of slavery</li></ul>Fort Sumter<br /><ul><li>South fires on Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861
  • 213. Lincoln calls in 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection
  • 214. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was an artilleryman at the battle</li>

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