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Ch 13 A House Divided
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Ch 13 A House Divided

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  • 1. Manifest Destiny
    1840-1850
  • 2. Manifest Destiny
  • 3. Manifest Destiny
    What is it?
    • The driving force (one component) behind America’s expansion to the west (specifically the Pacific Coast)
    • 4. Was not an official government policy
    • 5. Promoted heavily in newspapers, posters, and other propaganda
    • 6. John O’Sullivan first uses the term in a newspaper in 1845
    • 7. “manifest destiny to overspread the continent”
    • 8. Regarding the annexation of Texas
    • 9. Says America was “chosen” to lead the continent out of wilderness
    • 10. Americans were “chosen” to establish civilization
    What caused it?
    • Myth of the Chosen Nation – God chose the Americans to establish democracy from sea to shining sea
    • 11. The Louisiana Purchase – over 1/3 of the continent is gained by Jefferson’s legislation
    • 12. Government saw the appeal of potential land bringing more political power to the growing nation
    • 13. Land Availability + Politics + Religion = Manifest Destiny
  • Manifest Destiny
    What it meant to the country
    • Through physical expansion to the west, the United States would be set on a course to become a political and social superpower
    • 14. Manifest Destiny adds fuel to the fire of expansion
    • 15. Advertising potential for great wealth in minerals in the West
    • 16. Promoting programs to help the downtrodden acquire and keep land in the West (if they paid their way)
    Results
    • Many Easterners head to the West in search of riches and a new start
    • 17. Most believing they were helping the US achieve Manifest Destiny and it was God’s chosen path for them
    • 18. Manifest Destiny expands to foreign policy
    • 19. Becomes the driving force behind the Mexican-American War
    • 20. Later, the Spanish-American War (after we achieve “sea to shining sea”
    • 21. Today, becomes intertwined with globalization
    • 22. We must spread democracy throughout the world
  • The Battle of the Alamo
  • 23. The Texas Revolt
    Texas under Mexican Rule
    • Texas was the first part of Mexico to be settle by significant numbers of Americans
    • 24. Moses Austin (father of Stephen F. Austin)
    • 25. Due to the influx of Americans, Mexico felt that it was losing its control over Texas
    • 26. To make matters worse, Stephen F. Austin calls American settlers to demand greater autonomy from Mexico
    • 27. The goal was independence
    • 28. 1830 – Mexico annuls existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States
    • 29. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent an army to Texas to impose central authority
    • 30. Texan rebels, inspired by the U.S. Revolutionary War form a provisional government
    • 31. Declare independence from Mexico
  • The Texan Revolt
    Battle of the Alamo
    • Roughly 250 Texas built reinforcements inside the Alamo
    • 32. Santa Anna decides to launch an attack on the mission after a 12 day siege
    • 33. Only 2 Texans survive; 180 to 240 Texans dead; 400-600 Mexicans dead
    • 34. This is a pivotal point in the Texas Revolution as Santa Anna’s perceived cruelty inspired Texans to band together to defeat the Mexicans
    Battle of San Jacinto
    • The decisive battle of the Texas Revolution
    • 35. Santa Anna v. Sam Houston
    • 36. Battle in present-day Harris County
    • 37. Rallying cries, “Remember the Alamo,” and “Remember Goliad”
    • 38. Combat lasted less than 20 minutes; slaughter of Mexicans carried on for several more hours
    • 39. 630 Mexicans killed, over 700 captured; 280 wounded
  • The Mexican War
    (Occupation of Mexico City)
  • 40. The Road to the Mexican War
    Election of 1844
    • Whig Candidate: Henry Clay
    • 41. Democrat Candidate: James K. Polk
    • 42. Texas Annexation was a key issue
    • 43. Issue of slavery in Texas
    • 44. Why does John Tyler (incumbent) not run?
    • 45. Tries to run on an independent platform
    • 46. Alienates himself from Whig party, Whigs kick him out in 1841
    • 47. Was William Henry Harrison’s VP
    • 48. Harrison dies in office, he becomes Pres.
    James K. Polk (Dem.)
    John Tyler (Whig)
    William Henry Harrison (Whig)
  • 49. The Road to the Mexican War
    Election of 1844
    • Results
    • 50. James Polk wins (friend of Andrew Jackson, Tennessee slaveholder)
    • 51. He supported Texas annexation (even though it was Tyler’s idea)
    • 52. Supported “reoccupation” of Oregon
    Polk’s Goals
    • Reduce tariffs
    • 53. Restablish the Independent Treasury System
    • 54. Settle the Oregon dispute (“Fifty-four Forty or Fight!!”)
    • 55. Make California a state
    Oregon Territory Controversy
    • Democrats wanted Polk to be as uncompromising on Oregon as he was on Texas annexation
    • 56. “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” – U.S. should be prepared to go to war with Britain (again) if they were unwilling to move their border north to the 54, 40 degree boundary (near Russian-owned Alaska at this point)
    • 57. Polk decides to be diplomatic and settles on the 49th parallel (where Washington and Vancouver, B.C. still separate the two countries today)
    • 58. Bottom line: Manifest Destiny is attempting to claim British territory in the Northwest
  • 59. The Mexican War
    Oregon obtained, now on to Mexico!
    • Polk tries diplomacy again
    • 60. Send an agent to buy California, New Mexico, most of Arizona, and the Rio Grande border of Texas for $25 million
    • 61. They didn’t take it; government was way too unstable
    • 62. Mexico also felt that they still owned Texas and the U.S. was plotting to take all of Mexico eventually
    • 63. Thornton Affair
    • 64. Detachment of U.S. troops scouted near the Rio Grande border (near present-day Brownsville)
    • 65. Skirmish with Mexican troops; 11 U.S. troops die
    • 66. Gives the U.S. a reason to declare war though the circumstances behind the attack are still uncertain
    • 67. Declaring War
    • 68. Polk uses the Thornton Affair and Mexico’s refusal to sell their land as a cause for war
    • 69. Exaggerates and says the Mexicans were actively attacking American soil
    • 70. War declared on 13 May 1846
    • 71. Polarization on the War
    • 72. Whigs (North and South) vehemently denounce the war; see Manifest Destiny causing unnecessary expansion with a racist undertone
    • 73. Democrats (especially Southerners) support the war; see the merits of Manifest Destiny
  • The Mexican War
    Fighting the War on Three Fronts (1846-1848)
    • Santa Fe
    • 74. Led by General Stephen Kerney
    • 75. Goal was to move through NM, AZ, and the Sonoran desert to meet up with troops in California
    • 76. California
    • 77. Kerney brings his troops through NM and AZ; arrives in California in late 1846
    • 78. Finally defeats the Mexicans near Los Angeles in January 1847
    • 79. Central Mexico
    • 80. Polk send General Zachary Taylor, finally occupies Mexico City in September 1847
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • Land north of the Rio Grade, California, and everything in between up for grabs
    • 81. Mexico sells this land for $15 million (with a lot of influence from U.S. military)
    • 82. U.S. gain of 1.2 million square miles
    Why Not Take All of Mexico?
    • Americans tired of expansion into Latin America
    • 83. Manifest Destiny took on a selective, racist mentality
    • 84. Americans came to believe Mexicans were inferior and did not want to include them as citizens
  • 85.
  • 86. Migration to the West
  • 87. Migration to the West
    California Gold Rush
    • Explosive population growth and fierce competition
    • 88. Only worsened ethnic and racial conflicts
    • 89. Indians, Asians, and blacks all denied basic rights
    • 90. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves
    • 91. Gold discovered in late 1840s, U.S. government claimed “unlimited amounts”
    • 92. Most migrants came around 1849 (hence the San Francisco 49ers)
    • 93. Migrants also came from Asia
    • 94. By the early 1850s, gold mining became a corporate business
    • 95. Companies buying entire streams and valleys
    Transportation and Communication
    • Railroads grew exponentially during the 1840s
    • 96. By 1860, railroads covered the North
    • 97. The South struggled to keep up
    • 98. Railway developments coincided with iron developments (backed by great financial support)
    • 99. Clipper Ship
    • 100. Small, fast ship with big sails and a small hull
    • 101. Only way to travel to California before the trans-continental RR
    • 102. Telegraph
    • 103. Telegraph lines began to follow the paths of railroads
  • International Morse Code
  • 104. Migration to the West
    Mormons
    • Founded by Joseph Smith in the 1820s in upstate New York
    • 105. Mormon Church founded on the principle of reviving pure Christianity
    • 106. Believed Christ once resided in North America
    • 107. Smith exercised complete and absolute authority over his followers
    • 108. Refusal to accept the U.S.’s separation of church and state
    • 109. Also believed in polygamy
    • 110. Smith’s group gradually moved west
    • 111. Smith was killed by an angry mob in Nauvoo, Illinois
    • 112. Smith’s successor, Brigham Young led the group into Utah (Salt Lake City area)
    • 113. Young and his followers resisted being governed by the U.S.
    • 114. Almost went to war in 1857
    • 115. Young finally accepts an appointment as territorial governor of Utah
    Immigration
    • 1840s – Immigrants from Ireland come to the United States (1/4 of their population)
    • 116. Most were poor and took on very low paying jobs; some moved to the west
    • 117. Immigrants from Germany also came
    • 118. Creates tension in the United States regarding immigration due to the influx
  • Crisis and descent into war
    1850 - 1861
  • 119. Crisis and Compromise
    Wilmot Proviso
    • During the Mexican War, David Wilmot (Penn.) proposes a resolution prohibiting slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico
    • 120. Measure fails due to no Congressional action
    • 121. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is acted upon instead (allowing slavery)
    The Free Soil Party
    • After the end of the Mexican War, opponent of slavery expansion band together to form the Free Soil Party
    • 122. The party had appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government
    • 123. Their platform advocated for:
    • 124. Barring slavery from the west
    • 125. Providing homesteads to settlers in the west free of cost
    • 126. Southerners were outraged at the “Free-Soilers” singling out slavery
    • 127. Once again, the admission of free states would disrupt the balance of free/slave states
    • 128. Crisis begins again as California is admitted to the Union as a free state
  • Crisis and Compromise
    Compromise of 1850
    • Extended debate in Congress over California coming in as a free state
    • 129. Series of five bills
    • 130. California admitted as a free state
    • 131. Slave trade was abolished
    • 132. Territories of New Mexico and Utah organized under popular sovereignty (let the people decide whether to be a free or slave state)
    • 133. Fugitive Slave Act is passed (assists in return of runaway slaves)
    • 134. Texas gives up western land to pay off Republic of Texas debt ($10 million given to TX)
    • 135. This bill essentially postpones the Civil War for another decade
    • 136. Henry Clay was important in formulating the compromise
    • 137. He dies in 1852
    Expansion Again
    • Gadsden Purchase (1853) – U.S. gave Mexico $15 million for the remainder of AZ and NM
    • 138. Americans look to Cuba and the Philippines for international expansion
    • 139. Spain not happy about this
    • 140. Postpones another international war until 1898
  • Crisis and Compromise
    “Know-Nothing Party”
    • An appeal to nativism due to the influx of immigrants (Irish and German)
    • 141. Several fraternities form to advocate against immigration
    • 142. Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
    • 143. A cohesive group formed with the “Know-Nothings”
    • 144. When asked about their party, they would always say, “I know nothing”
    • 145. Grass roots movement (power flowed up from the bottom)
    • 146. Promotion of Protestantism over Catholicism
    • 147. Many Democrats and Whigs defected from their parties to join the Know-Nothing and Free-Soil parties
  • Crisis and Compromise
    The Whig Party’s Demise
    • Franklin Pierce is elected in 1852 (Dem.)
    • 148. Known as a “doughface” Democrat
    • 149. Northern Democrat with Southern sympathies
    • 150. Ushers in the end for the Whigs
    • 151. Whig Party falls apart due to members defecting to the Northern Democrats, Know-Nothings, and Free-Soil parties
    • 152. By the end of the decade, a combination of these three parties would form the Republican Party (the one we know today)
  • Crisis and Compromise
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • After the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, and Webster, Stephen A. Douglas saw himself as the new leader of the Senate
    • 153. Introduces a bill for statehood for Nebraska and Kansas
    • 154. Had business interests in railroads
    • 155. Wanted a transcontinental line to go through there
    • 156. Strong advocate of popular sovereignty
    • 157. Lincoln-Douglas debates over the Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • 158. Kansas-Nebraska act does the following:
    • 159. Throws out the Missouri Compromise
    • 160. Throws out the Compromise of 1850
    • 161. Let the free/slave state issue be left to popular sovereignty
    • 162. Results:
    • 163. Divides the nation completely
    • 164. Civil war is inevitable
  • 165. Crisis and Compromise
    Rise of the Republican Party
    • The party reflected economic and social changes within the country
    • 166. Booming business in the North due to railroads
    • 167. Society dealing with a complex, industrial society
    • 168. Free Labor ideology
    • 169. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, so expansion of slavery had to stop to ensure freedom for the white laborer
    • 170. They were trying to appeal to immigrants especially
    • 171. “Slave Power conspiracy”
    • 172. Republicans began to charge Southern Democrats of a conspiracy to nationalize slavery through measures such as the Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • 173. Lincoln takes on Douglas, President James Buchanan, and Chief Justice Roger Taney as proponents of this conspiracy in his famous, “House Divided” speech
    • 174. This did not mean all Republicans were abolitionists though
    Bleeding Kansas
    • Civil war breaks out in Kansas over slavery (popular sovereignty at work)
    • 175. Republicans use this as a means to discredit Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Crisis and Compromise
    Dred Scott v. Sanford
    • Dred Scott, a slave that lived in five territories sued for his freedom
    • 176. Supreme Court heard the case and asked these questions:
    • 177. Could a black person be a citizen and sue in court?
    • 178. Did residence in a free state make Scott free?
    • 179. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
    • 180. Chief Justice Roger Taney declares that:
    • 181. Only white persons could be citizens in the U.S.
    • 182. Congress possessed no power to bar slavery form a territory
    • 183. Slaves cannot be taken away from their owners without due process of the law
    • 184. Scott’s case is thrown out because he cannot sue
    • 185. This poses a serious threat to the Republican’s platform to restrict the expansion of slavery
    • 186. Really heats up the “Slave Power Conspiracy” theory
  • Descent into War
    John Brown’s Raid
    • John Brown, an abolitionist that had reactionary tendencies plans an armed slave revolt on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    • 187. The assault was stopped by U.S. Marines under Col. Robert E. Lee
    • 188. Brown was captured, tried, and executed in December 1859
    • 189. John Wilkes Booth (future assassin of President Lincoln) witnessed the execution
    • 190. This event greatly upsets the South
    • 191. Causes more sectional division between the North and South
    • 192. Also bolsters Southern Nationalism
  • Descent into War
    The Election of 1860
    • Arguably the most important election in American History
    • 193. Abraham Lincoln, Republican nominee
    • 194. Democrats were split, Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention
    • 195. Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge of Kentucky
    • 196. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas
    • 197. Lincoln wins in a landslide with the Democrats split
    • 198. Does not receive a single vote in ten southern states
    • 199. Republican party platform:
    • 200. Deny the validity of Dred Scott v. Sanford
    • 201. Oppose slavery’s expansion
    • 202. More economic incentives
    The Secession Crisis
    • Begins as soon as Lincoln is elected president
    • 203. Rather than be a minority, Deep South leaders call for regional independence
    • 204. By the time Lincoln takes the oath of office, seven states secede from the Union
    • 205. From South Carolina to Texas
    • 206. Leaving president James Buchanan said a state could not leave the Union
    • 207. But he didn’t believe the U.S. could use force against them
  • And the War Came
    Lincoln’s Response
    • Believed the secession issue would collapse from within
    • 208. Issued this warning: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war”
    The Confederate States of America
    • Formed on 4 March 1861
    • 209. Elected Jefferson Davis as President
    • 210. Rather reluctant to become president
    • 211. Loved the United States
    • 212. Was torn over the constitutionality of slavery
    Fort Sumter
    • South fires on Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861
    • 213. Lincoln calls in 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection
    • 214. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was an artilleryman at the battle