Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations
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  • 1. Contact of Civilizations
    Chapter One
  • 2. Contact of Civilizations
    Origins of Texas date back 30,000 years
    Ice Age Migration
    Land Bridge across the Bering Sea
    Asiatic nomads; hunted for plants and animals
    Agriculture Develops
    Roughly 7000 B.C.E.
    Regional distinctions in cultural and linguistics develop as a result
  • 3. Early Indian Migration
  • 4. Pre-Columbian Cultures
    12 million people migrate to North America
    Iroquois (Northeast Woodlands)
    Recognized warriors
    Created the “League of the Iroquois” – alliance that ended conflicts among member tribes
    “Five Civilized Tribes” – adopted European cultural ways (Atlantic Coast to Mississippi Valley)
    Choctaws, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Cherokees
    Pueblos (West Texas to Arizona)
    Lived similarly to European peasants
    Built adobe villages on rock walls for defense purposes
  • 5. Pueblo Settlement (Arizona)
  • 6. Pre-Columbian Cultures
    Central American Indians
    Most intellectually advanced
    Cipher coding, architecture, astronomy, and calendars
    Speculation on the reasons for their decline
    Disease, food shortages, and/or social revolution
    Capital in present-day Mexico City known as “Tenochtitlan”
    War-like culture, but had an efficient political and legal system
    Excelled in the arts and architecture
  • 7. Inca Civilization
  • 8. Pre-Columbian Cultures
    Central American Indians
    Capital in Cuzco (present-day Peru)
    Efficient system of civil administration and road system superior to any in Europe at the time
    Best architectural skills of any Native American civilization
    Designed structures that could withstand earthquakes
    Advanced scientific skills
    Possibly had success in performing brain surgeries
  • 9. Inca Architecture at Cuzco
  • 10. Indigenous Peoples of Texas
    Coastal Tribes
    Karankawa(Matagorda to Corpus Christi)
    Migrated on and off the coast for a constant food supply
    Practiced ritual cannibalism
    Acknowledged three gender roles
    Male, Female, and berdache (men who took on female roles)
    Coahuiltecan(Gulf Coast Plain/South TX)
    Hunted and gathered in South Texas during the summer months
    Both groups had common roots in Northern Mexico
    Lacked political organization
    Religion was primitive and animistic
    Both groups moved frequently
    Used dome-shaped wigwams covered by animal skins for shelter
  • 11. Karankawas
  • 12. Indigenous Peoples of Texas
    Caddos(Northeast Texas)
    Originated from the Mississippi River Valley
    Dome-shaped housing made of grass and cane
    Primarily an agricultural group; planted twice a year
    Caddo chiefs were known as xinesi
    Served as political and religious leaders
    A stable group that traded extensively
    Bartered baskets, tools, ceramics, art, and weapons
  • 13. Caddo Housing
  • 14. Indigenous Peoples of Texas
    Jumanos (Trans-Pecos area)
    People of a shared cultural background, primarily with a common language or specific livelihood
    Indigenous to modern-day Arizona and New Mexico
    Fairly nomadic tribe that hunted primarily along the West Texas plains
    Some permanent agricultural settlements
    Known as accomplished merchants
  • 15. Indigenous Peoples of Texas
    Plains Indians
    Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas, and Tonkawas
    Had a secondary role in Texas history during the 18th and 19th centuries
    Apaches related to tribes from Alaska and Canada
    These tribes utilized the horse after its introduction by Spaniards in the 17th century
    Warfare led to the tribes migration to Texas
    Dependant on buffalo fro almost all living essentials
    The family was the primary social structure
    Families loosely cooperated under a chief
    No political structure
    Religion allowed for individual relationships with deities
  • 16.
  • 17. The First Europeans
    The Spanish Reconquista
    Early Spain was controlled by Muslims from Northern Africa
    Spain was in a constant state of warfare to oust Muslims that were viewed as intruders
    Reconquista – general term used to recognize the centuries of struggle to regain Spain from Muslim control
    Kings were typically responsible for this
    However, Spain benefitted economically from Muslim control
  • 18. Castile and the Reconquista
  • 19. The First Europeans
    Castile and the Reconquista
    Castile’s Reconquista was essentially a religious crusade
    900 A.D. – Spainards believed they found the burial site of apostle Santiago (St. James)
    Inspired religious fervor in Spain and essentially made the Catholic Church a crucial ally to the Spanish Crown
    Catholic religious orders such as the Franciscans and Dominicans began proselytizing in the 13th century
  • 20. The First Europeans
    Agrarian Castile
    Reconquista encouraged the raising of sheep in rural areas of Castile
    Higher and quicker profits than crops
    Cattle raising flourished in southern Castile
    Vaqueros – mounted cattle herders that drove cattle cross-country from northern grazing lands to southern pastures seasonally
    Began cattle ranching traditions, the rodeo, cattle branding
    This later was transplanted to North America under areas of Spanish control
  • 21. Vaquero
  • 22. The First Europeans
    “Los Reyes Catolicos” The Catholic Kings
    Iberian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon united in 1479 under Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
    Wanted to consolidate their power over the entire Iberian peninsula
    They first had to pacify the kingdoms, especially the nobles, Catholic Church, and military
    These groups had gained power during the final days of the Spanish Reconquista
    Isabella used the institution of the hermandad (brotherhoods responsible for maintaining the peace) to pacify the nobles
    Also used influence at the local level for a grass-roots approach to regain control
    After regaining peace and control of the Iberian peninsula, the Catholic monarchs focused their attention on foreign policy
    Spain had to compete with Portugal who was technologically advanced and already sending Prince Henry the Navigator to the African coast
  • 23. New World Contacts
    Christopher Columbus
    Italian navigator that convinced Queen Isabella to fund his journey to the “West Indies”
    Columbus was motivated by economic and political gain
    Landed in Hispaniola on 12 October 1492 (modern-day Bahamas)
    Named the first island San Salvador (Holy Savior)
    He did not find the West Indies, but reported that he had discovered a new continent
  • 24. Christopher Columbus
  • 25. New World Contacts
    The Conquistadors
    After Columbus’s discovery, Spain quickly sent explorers to make the country rich
    Vasco Nunez de Balboa – crossed the Central American Isthmus and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain in 1513
    Juan Ponce de Leon – reached Florida and claimed the peninsula for Spain, but the Spanish did not successfully settle until the 1560s
    Hernan Cortes – conquered the Aztec empire and paved the way for Spanish domination of present-day Mexico
    Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Inca empire in present-day Peru
  • 26. New World Contacts
    Fortune in Texas
    Cabeza de Vacawas involved in an expedition to Florida in search of gold
    Pillaged a native tribe and became stranded on Florida’s west coast
    Sailed to the Gulf of Mexico, captured by the Karankawa Indians, and finally escaped after years of captivity
    Sailed around the Rio Grande and finally made it to Mexico
    Friar Marcos de Niza was sent by the Spanish Crown to investigate de Vaca’s claims in 1539
    Later traveled to western New Mexico and discovered a “glittering city of silver and gold”
    Actually a Pueblo village with quartz imbedded in the walls of the adobe structures
    de Niza somehow convinced the Crown that he had evidence of the Seven Cities of Gold
  • 27. Coronado’s Expedition
  • 28. New World Contacts
    Vasquez de Coronado’s Expeditions
    Assigned to explore Texas and the Southwest after de Niza’s report to the Crown
    Discovered that de Niza’s “city of gold” was just an adobe complex
    Refused to be discouraged and traveled for two years throughout the Southwest and Texas Panhandle, but did not find anything of value to the Crown
    Discouraged explorations to the north for another 50 years
    Hernando de Soto’s Expedition
    Traveled from Florida to Alabama, and later to the Mississippi Valley looking for the cities of gold
    Did not find anything and later died from fever
    His party traveled onward to eastern Texas, near present-day Houston County and as far west as the Trinity River
    de Soto and his party’s reports later reinforced the Spanish Crown’s decisions to stop exploration in Texas
  • 29.
  • 30. New World Contacts
    Northern Competition
    Founded Quebec in Canada
    Began occupying Nova Scotia
    Traveled as far south as present-day Wisconsin
    Claimed the Hudson Valley and New Netherlands, which later became New York
    Explored along the Atlantic Coast
    By the 1640s, the English had possession of the Atlantic seaboard between Spanish controlled Florida and New England
  • 31. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
    Three structures crucial to colonization
    The Presidio
    The Mission
  • 32. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
    The Spanish Crown attempted to bring Indian lands into Spanish influence by an orderly process of expansion and settlement
    The Presidio
    Usually the first structure established
    Served numerous functions
    Garrison to train soldiers for warfare
    Protected the mission
    Walled courtyard to conduct peace talks with Indians
  • 33. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
    The Mission
    Priests staffed the mission and attempted to perform functions relevant to exploration, conquest, and Christianization
    Attempted to convert the Indians to Catholicism
    Tried to maintain friendly relations with hostile tribes
    Assisted in maintaining conquered territories
  • 34. Mission San Jose, San Antonio
  • 35. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
    Civilian Settlements
    Another way to hold conquered territory; used during the reconquista
    Used to populate the frontier and integrate their resources into the Spanish colonization system
    Settlers were known as Pobladores
    Ranchos (ranches)
    Provided settlements with resources such as beef, pork, wool, and byproducts such as hide and tallow on the frontier
    Played a supporting role in Christianizing Indians
    Furnished soldiers with live animals
  • 36. Spanish Texas
    Western Texas
    Jumano Indians invited the Spanish to visit after a miraculous visit by the “Lady in Blue”
    Spanish nun Madre Maria de Agreda takes credit for her spiritual visit
    Spanish explorers were primarily interested in freshwater pearls and buffalo; also saw it as a base of trade with the Caddo Indians
    Pueblo Revolt of 1680
    Pueblo tribes attacked and destroyed Spanish settlements of the upper Rio Grande
    Many displaced settlers came to El Paso
    Spanish Return
    Jumano Chief requested priests (and explorers followed)
    Jumanos were secretly seeking protection from the Apaches
    Spanish fended off the Apaches, hunted countless buffalo, and promised to return again
  • 37. Spanish Texas
    Eastern Texas: The French Threat
    French explorer La Salle wanted to stake a claim in the Mississippi Valley; travelled down the river to present-day Matagorda Bay
    Was marooned and established Fort St. Louis near present-day Vanderbilt, Texas
    Explored Texas, but attempted to meet up with other Frenchmen coming down the Mississippi
    His settlers later killed him
    Indians killed the remaining survivors at Fort St. Louis and destroyed the fort
  • 38. Spanish Texas
    Eastern Texas: The Caddos
    Spain responded to the French threat by sending Alonso de Leon on several expeditions
    Explored Fort St. Louis and then made contact with the Caddos
    Seen as the “great kingdom of Tejas” to the Spanish; Tejas – friend
    Caddos accepted the Europeans as potential allies and trading partners
    de Leon and missionaries set up two missions
    However, the Caddos were not willing converts
    Christianity clashed with their religion
    Spanish disrupted their traditional way of life
    They did not like the “unruly” Spanish soldiers
    Became resentful and attacked Spanish livestock
    Spanish later retreat and leave East Texas in 1693
  • 39. Spanish Texas
    Eastern Texas: The French and Spanish Alliance
    French Canadian Louis Jucherau de St. Denis came to the Spanish on the Rio Grande looking for trade
    Arrested and later convinced the Spanish that the Caddo wanted missionaries
    The Spanish viceroy ordered Spanish Captain Domingo Ramon to convert East Texas into a buffer zone
    Rebuild Spanish missionaries
    Assigned St. Denis as his second in command
    Somewhat uneasy alliance, but the Spanish benefitted from St. Denis’s knowledge of Texas terrain, command of Indian languages, and his ability to befriend the Indians
  • 40. San Antonio de Bexar
  • 41. Spanish Texas
    San Antonio de Bexar (present-day San Antonio)
    Served to Christianize the Coahuiltecan Indians
    Also, the midway point between Rio Grande and East Texas; served as a supply station
    By the 1730s, a presidio, municipality, and five missions constituted the San Antonio complex
    Presidio de La Bahia
    Initially established as a Gulf Coast deterrent to the French
    Moved inland toward the San Antonio River to present-day Goliad
  • 42. Presidio de La Bahia (Goliad)
  • 43. Spanish Texas
    Failed Settlements
    San Gabriel River settlement (near Rockdale)
    Established to convert the Tonkawas
    Given little attention, abandoned in 1755
    San Saba River settlement (near Menard)
    Established to convert the Apaches
    Failed due to Indian attacks; abandoned in 1769
    The Spanish colonization system would be crucial to the success of Spain in the Texas frontier
    Two choices for dealing with Indians
    Assimilate or annihilate