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Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations
 

Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations

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    Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations Presentation Transcript

    • Contact of Civilizations
      Chapter One
    • Contact of Civilizations
      Origins of Texas date back 30,000 years
      Ice Age Migration
      Land Bridge across the Bering Sea
      Asiatic nomads; hunted for plants and animals
      Agriculture Develops
      Roughly 7000 B.C.E.
      Regional distinctions in cultural and linguistics develop as a result
    • Early Indian Migration
    • Pre-Columbian Cultures
      12 million people migrate to North America
      Iroquois (Northeast Woodlands)
      Recognized warriors
      Created the “League of the Iroquois” – alliance that ended conflicts among member tribes
      “Five Civilized Tribes” – adopted European cultural ways (Atlantic Coast to Mississippi Valley)
      Choctaws, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Cherokees
      Pueblos (West Texas to Arizona)
      Lived similarly to European peasants
      Built adobe villages on rock walls for defense purposes
    • Pueblo Settlement (Arizona)
    • Pre-Columbian Cultures
      Central American Indians
      Mayans
      Most intellectually advanced
      Cipher coding, architecture, astronomy, and calendars
      Speculation on the reasons for their decline
      Disease, food shortages, and/or social revolution
      Aztecs
      Capital in present-day Mexico City known as “Tenochtitlan”
      War-like culture, but had an efficient political and legal system
      Excelled in the arts and architecture
    • Inca Civilization
    • Pre-Columbian Cultures
      Central American Indians
      Incas
      Capital in Cuzco (present-day Peru)
      Efficient system of civil administration and road system superior to any in Europe at the time
      Best architectural skills of any Native American civilization
      Designed structures that could withstand earthquakes
      Advanced scientific skills
      Possibly had success in performing brain surgeries
    • Inca Architecture at Cuzco
    • Indigenous Peoples of Texas
      Coastal Tribes
      Karankawa(Matagorda to Corpus Christi)
      Migrated on and off the coast for a constant food supply
      Practiced ritual cannibalism
      Acknowledged three gender roles
      Male, Female, and berdache (men who took on female roles)
      Coahuiltecan(Gulf Coast Plain/South TX)
      Hunted and gathered in South Texas during the summer months
      Commonality
      Both groups had common roots in Northern Mexico
      Lacked political organization
      Religion was primitive and animistic
      Both groups moved frequently
      Used dome-shaped wigwams covered by animal skins for shelter
    • Karankawas
    • Indigenous Peoples of Texas
      Caddos(Northeast Texas)
      Originated from the Mississippi River Valley
      Dome-shaped housing made of grass and cane
      Primarily an agricultural group; planted twice a year
      Caddo chiefs were known as xinesi
      Served as political and religious leaders
      A stable group that traded extensively
      Bartered baskets, tools, ceramics, art, and weapons
    • Caddo Housing
    • Indigenous Peoples of Texas
      Jumanos (Trans-Pecos area)
      People of a shared cultural background, primarily with a common language or specific livelihood
      Indigenous to modern-day Arizona and New Mexico
      Fairly nomadic tribe that hunted primarily along the West Texas plains
      Some permanent agricultural settlements
      Known as accomplished merchants
    • Indigenous Peoples of Texas
      Plains Indians
      Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas, and Tonkawas
      Had a secondary role in Texas history during the 18th and 19th centuries
      Apaches related to tribes from Alaska and Canada
      These tribes utilized the horse after its introduction by Spaniards in the 17th century
      Warfare led to the tribes migration to Texas
      Dependant on buffalo fro almost all living essentials
      The family was the primary social structure
      Families loosely cooperated under a chief
      No political structure
      Religion allowed for individual relationships with deities
    • The First Europeans
      The Spanish Reconquista
      Early Spain was controlled by Muslims from Northern Africa
      Spain was in a constant state of warfare to oust Muslims that were viewed as intruders
      Reconquista – general term used to recognize the centuries of struggle to regain Spain from Muslim control
      Kings were typically responsible for this
      However, Spain benefitted economically from Muslim control
    • Castile and the Reconquista
    • The First Europeans
      Castile and the Reconquista
      Castile’s Reconquista was essentially a religious crusade
      900 A.D. – Spainards believed they found the burial site of apostle Santiago (St. James)
      Inspired religious fervor in Spain and essentially made the Catholic Church a crucial ally to the Spanish Crown
      Catholic religious orders such as the Franciscans and Dominicans began proselytizing in the 13th century
    • The First Europeans
      Agrarian Castile
      Reconquista encouraged the raising of sheep in rural areas of Castile
      Higher and quicker profits than crops
      Cattle raising flourished in southern Castile
      Vaqueros – mounted cattle herders that drove cattle cross-country from northern grazing lands to southern pastures seasonally
      Began cattle ranching traditions, the rodeo, cattle branding
      This later was transplanted to North America under areas of Spanish control
    • Vaquero
    • The First Europeans
      “Los Reyes Catolicos” The Catholic Kings
      Iberian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon united in 1479 under Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
      Wanted to consolidate their power over the entire Iberian peninsula
      They first had to pacify the kingdoms, especially the nobles, Catholic Church, and military
      These groups had gained power during the final days of the Spanish Reconquista
      Isabella used the institution of the hermandad (brotherhoods responsible for maintaining the peace) to pacify the nobles
      Also used influence at the local level for a grass-roots approach to regain control
      After regaining peace and control of the Iberian peninsula, the Catholic monarchs focused their attention on foreign policy
      Spain had to compete with Portugal who was technologically advanced and already sending Prince Henry the Navigator to the African coast
    • New World Contacts
      Christopher Columbus
      Italian navigator that convinced Queen Isabella to fund his journey to the “West Indies”
      Columbus was motivated by economic and political gain
      Landed in Hispaniola on 12 October 1492 (modern-day Bahamas)
      Named the first island San Salvador (Holy Savior)
      He did not find the West Indies, but reported that he had discovered a new continent
    • Christopher Columbus
    • New World Contacts
      The Conquistadors
      After Columbus’s discovery, Spain quickly sent explorers to make the country rich
      Vasco Nunez de Balboa – crossed the Central American Isthmus and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain in 1513
      Juan Ponce de Leon – reached Florida and claimed the peninsula for Spain, but the Spanish did not successfully settle until the 1560s
      Hernan Cortes – conquered the Aztec empire and paved the way for Spanish domination of present-day Mexico
      Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Inca empire in present-day Peru
    • New World Contacts
      Fortune in Texas
      Cabeza de Vacawas involved in an expedition to Florida in search of gold
      Pillaged a native tribe and became stranded on Florida’s west coast
      Sailed to the Gulf of Mexico, captured by the Karankawa Indians, and finally escaped after years of captivity
      Sailed around the Rio Grande and finally made it to Mexico
      Friar Marcos de Niza was sent by the Spanish Crown to investigate de Vaca’s claims in 1539
      Later traveled to western New Mexico and discovered a “glittering city of silver and gold”
      Actually a Pueblo village with quartz imbedded in the walls of the adobe structures
      de Niza somehow convinced the Crown that he had evidence of the Seven Cities of Gold
    • Coronado’s Expedition
    • New World Contacts
      Vasquez de Coronado’s Expeditions
      Assigned to explore Texas and the Southwest after de Niza’s report to the Crown
      Discovered that de Niza’s “city of gold” was just an adobe complex
      Refused to be discouraged and traveled for two years throughout the Southwest and Texas Panhandle, but did not find anything of value to the Crown
      Discouraged explorations to the north for another 50 years
      Hernando de Soto’s Expedition
      Traveled from Florida to Alabama, and later to the Mississippi Valley looking for the cities of gold
      Did not find anything and later died from fever
      His party traveled onward to eastern Texas, near present-day Houston County and as far west as the Trinity River
      de Soto and his party’s reports later reinforced the Spanish Crown’s decisions to stop exploration in Texas
    • New World Contacts
      Northern Competition
      French
      Founded Quebec in Canada
      Began occupying Nova Scotia
      Traveled as far south as present-day Wisconsin
      Dutch
      Claimed the Hudson Valley and New Netherlands, which later became New York
      English
      Explored along the Atlantic Coast
      By the 1640s, the English had possession of the Atlantic seaboard between Spanish controlled Florida and New England
    • Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
      Three structures crucial to colonization
      The Presidio
      The Mission
      Settlements
    • Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
      The Spanish Crown attempted to bring Indian lands into Spanish influence by an orderly process of expansion and settlement
      The Presidio
      Usually the first structure established
      Served numerous functions
      Prison
      Garrison to train soldiers for warfare
      Protected the mission
      Walled courtyard to conduct peace talks with Indians
    • Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
      The Mission
      Priests staffed the mission and attempted to perform functions relevant to exploration, conquest, and Christianization
      Attempted to convert the Indians to Catholicism
      Tried to maintain friendly relations with hostile tribes
      Assisted in maintaining conquered territories
    • Mission San Jose, San Antonio
    • Colonization Process in Spanish Texas
      Settlements
      Civilian Settlements
      Another way to hold conquered territory; used during the reconquista
      Used to populate the frontier and integrate their resources into the Spanish colonization system
      Settlers were known as Pobladores
      Ranchos (ranches)
      Provided settlements with resources such as beef, pork, wool, and byproducts such as hide and tallow on the frontier
      Played a supporting role in Christianizing Indians
      Furnished soldiers with live animals
    • Spanish Texas
      Western Texas
      Jumano Indians invited the Spanish to visit after a miraculous visit by the “Lady in Blue”
      Spanish nun Madre Maria de Agreda takes credit for her spiritual visit
      Spanish explorers were primarily interested in freshwater pearls and buffalo; also saw it as a base of trade with the Caddo Indians
      Pueblo Revolt of 1680
      Pueblo tribes attacked and destroyed Spanish settlements of the upper Rio Grande
      Many displaced settlers came to El Paso
      Spanish Return
      Jumano Chief requested priests (and explorers followed)
      Jumanos were secretly seeking protection from the Apaches
      Spanish fended off the Apaches, hunted countless buffalo, and promised to return again
    • Spanish Texas
      Eastern Texas: The French Threat
      French explorer La Salle wanted to stake a claim in the Mississippi Valley; travelled down the river to present-day Matagorda Bay
      Was marooned and established Fort St. Louis near present-day Vanderbilt, Texas
      Explored Texas, but attempted to meet up with other Frenchmen coming down the Mississippi
      His settlers later killed him
      Indians killed the remaining survivors at Fort St. Louis and destroyed the fort
    • Spanish Texas
      Eastern Texas: The Caddos
      Spain responded to the French threat by sending Alonso de Leon on several expeditions
      Explored Fort St. Louis and then made contact with the Caddos
      Seen as the “great kingdom of Tejas” to the Spanish; Tejas – friend
      Caddos accepted the Europeans as potential allies and trading partners
      de Leon and missionaries set up two missions
      However, the Caddos were not willing converts
      Christianity clashed with their religion
      Spanish disrupted their traditional way of life
      They did not like the “unruly” Spanish soldiers
      Became resentful and attacked Spanish livestock
      Spanish later retreat and leave East Texas in 1693
    • Spanish Texas
      Eastern Texas: The French and Spanish Alliance
      French Canadian Louis Jucherau de St. Denis came to the Spanish on the Rio Grande looking for trade
      Arrested and later convinced the Spanish that the Caddo wanted missionaries
      The Spanish viceroy ordered Spanish Captain Domingo Ramon to convert East Texas into a buffer zone
      Rebuild Spanish missionaries
      Assigned St. Denis as his second in command
      Somewhat uneasy alliance, but the Spanish benefitted from St. Denis’s knowledge of Texas terrain, command of Indian languages, and his ability to befriend the Indians
    • San Antonio de Bexar
    • Spanish Texas
      Settlements
      San Antonio de Bexar (present-day San Antonio)
      Served to Christianize the Coahuiltecan Indians
      Also, the midway point between Rio Grande and East Texas; served as a supply station
      By the 1730s, a presidio, municipality, and five missions constituted the San Antonio complex
      Presidio de La Bahia
      Initially established as a Gulf Coast deterrent to the French
      Moved inland toward the San Antonio River to present-day Goliad
    • Presidio de La Bahia (Goliad)
    • Spanish Texas
      Failed Settlements
      San Gabriel River settlement (near Rockdale)
      Established to convert the Tonkawas
      Given little attention, abandoned in 1755
      San Saba River settlement (near Menard)
      Established to convert the Apaches
      Failed due to Indian attacks; abandoned in 1769
      Incorporation
      The Spanish colonization system would be crucial to the success of Spain in the Texas frontier
      Two choices for dealing with Indians
      Assimilate or annihilate