The Earliest Theory
The Greek Philosopher Hippocrates believed that
four basic elements (air, water. Fire and earth) four
bodily fluids or humor ( blood, phlegm, yellow bile
and black bile) affects human behavior.
19th century, Franz Gall, a Phrenologist, attempts to
connect personality to the bumps and shape of the
German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964)
also classify personality based on body build:
1. Asthenic- thin, tall, fragile, narrowly built and looks
2. Athletic- muscular and energetic
3. Pyknic- round and robust or pump
4. Dysplastic- malproportioned body, a combination of
any of the above body builds.
Kretschemer was convinced that body build was
related to two major forms of mental disorder.
Pyknic body build were more likely to be manicdepressive
Asthenic body build were likely to be schizophrenic.
20th century William Sheldon examined the
relationship between body type and personality
(Constitutional Theory of Personality, 1944).
Classified the Human Physique:
Morphogenotype – hypothetical biological structure
Phrenotype – external observable physique
SHEDON’S PRIMARY COMPONENT OF BODY
Endomorphy - (plump, with fatty tissues) round, soft
bodies with large abdomens
II. Mesomorphs- ( lots of muscles) hard, sturdy with strong
bones and muscles
III. Ectomorphs- (bony) thin, small boned, fragile, with flat
Sheldon developed a system of somatotyping by scoring the
five different areas of the body, namely:
1. Head- Neck
2. Chest- Trunk
4. Stomach- Trunk
SHELDON further identified three components of
I. Endomorphy - with Viscerotonia
Sociable, Fond of food and people, Even tempered, and
II. Mesomorphy - with somatotonia
Love of physical adventure, Enjoyment of exercise and
vigorous activity, Competitive aggressiveness, and
Assertiveness of behavior
III. Ectomorphy - with cerebrotonia
Inhibited in movement, Love of privacy, Secretive, and
SECONDARY COMPONENTS OF BODY BUILD
1. Dysplasia- malproportioned or inconcistent mixture
of the three primary components in various parts of the
2. Gynandromorphy or g index - Characteristics
associated with the opposite sex, e.g., a male with high
g index is fragile with a soft body, long eyelashes, and
effeminate features. Primary g index- body build seen at
a distance or can be inferred even from photographs.
Secondary g index- body build needs direct observation
of the needs direct observation of the person
3. Textual index or t index- refers to smooth and
fitness of the physical texture. Primary index- can be
inferred even from photographs. Secondary indexneeds direct contact with the person.
=> One of the first personal test is RS Woodworth’s
Personal Data Sheet, which was used as early as
World War 1.
Factor Analysis Test – systematic evaluation of
Project Test – provide a different approach to
Thematic Apperception Test – projective test
LIMITATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
Failing and malingering is common and has a halo
2. Personality is a dynamic; responses are unstable and
may change over time.
3. The presence of response bias, or the authentic
tendency to answer in a certain way, regardless of
the content of the item.
4. Greater situational of personality. For example, a
student who cheats in an examination might be
honest in other situations.
PERSONALITY AS DEFINED BY
Personality is the totality of individual psychic
qualities which include temperament, one’s mode of
reaction and character to objects of one’s reaction
2. Personality is what permits a prediction of what a
person will do in a given situation ( Catttell, 1950)
3. Personality maybe biologically defined as the
govering organ or superordinate institution of the
body, in as much as it is located in the brain. “No
brain, no personality” (Murray, 1951).
4. Personality is the relatively enduring pattern of
recurrent interpersonal situations which
characterize a human life ( Sullivan, 1953).
5. personality is a person’s unique pattern of traits
6. Personality is a dynamic organization of the
psychological systems that determine the
individual’s unique adjustment to his or her
environment (Allport, 1937).
7. Personality is the more or less stable and enduring
organization of a person’s character, temperament,
intellect, and physique which determines his or her
unique adjustment to the environment (Eysenck,
8. Personality is refers to the individual’s structural and
dynamic properties as they reflect themselves in
characteristics response to a situation ( Pervin,
9. Personality is the record of an individual’s
experience and behavior (Cartwright,1979).
10. Personality is the impression of an individual makes
on others. It refers to his/her social skills, charismatic
qualities, and the like ( Hall, Calvin, and Gardner,
11. Personality is generally defined as the individual’s
unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior,
thoughts and emotion ( Burger, 1990).
12. Personality is the stability in people’s behavior that
leads them to act uniformly both different situations
and over extended periods of time ( Felman, 1994).
13. Personality is a stable set of intrapsychic ( internal)
characteristics and tendencies that determines the
psychological behavior of people. The behavior
determined by personality is relatively consistent
over time (Maddi, 2006).
ALLPORT’S DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY
=> 1937, Allport defined personality is “ what a man
really is’’, this statement indicates that personality is
typical and peculiar characteristics of a person.
Redefined personality as:
dynamic organization personality is constantly
evolving and changing. An infant’s personality is
influenced by hereditary and by the sorrounding
psychological personality is neither exclusively
mental nor exclusively neural. The organization
entails the operation of both body and mind.
Determine personality is lies behind on specific acts. It
is w/in the individual. A person is not simply a passive
reactor to the environment but does something
Characteristic behaviors and thoughts is replace the
phrase “ unique adjustments to the environment”
LAURENCE PERVIN’S VIEW OF PERSONALITY
a. Personality includes both structure and dynamics
b. Personality is ultimately defined in terms of behavior.
c. Personality manifests consistencies in individuals and
in a group of individuals.
Other Conceptual Views of Personality
personality is sometimes defined as the public self
that a person displays to the world
Personality as a complex set of responses; “you are
what you do.”
ORIGIN OF CONSISTENT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS
1. Genetic => Genes definitely influence personality but
what agree and in what manner are questions that need
to be explore further.
2. Sociocultural => culture strongly influence people’s
3. Learning => Certain behaviors are rewarded while
others are ignored.
4. Existential Humanistic Consideration => minimize the
importance of knowing the origins of personality, who
acquires what personality completely and how you find
meaning in your existence.
5. Unconscious mechanism or “depth” theorist => To
understand personality, one must get to the unconscious
mind utilizing complex tools such as dream and symbols
analysis, free association, hypnosis
ERRONEOUS METHODS OF ASSESSING
First Impression. A first impression may be based on
physical appearance, facial features or expressions,
mannerisms, style of dressing, name, nationality, race
2. Pseudo-scientific methods.
A. Physiognomy=> is a method of judging personality
through the measurement and study of a person’s
physical features, particularly the facial features.
B. Phrenology=> in this method, personality is judged
by the size and shape of the skull.
C. Graphology=> this method uses a person’s
handwriting to know his or her personality
COMMON METHOD OF ASSESSING PERSONALITY
1. Objective Test – Written self- rating or the Inventory
test variety, usually questionnaires to be answered
with yes or no, and true or false.
2. Behavioral Method ( conscious manifestation)
Interview- face to face interaction for specific purpose
Life history method- makes use of biographical and
autobiographical techniques, diary, and anecdotal reports.
Word Association- the oldest method in which the
subject is asked to response to some stimuli by stating the
first word that comes to mind
Sack Sentence Completion- measure four areas: family,
sex, interpersonal relationship, and self-concept
Thematic Perception Test- consist of a set of 20 pictures
which narrate his/her past, present, and projected future
Rorschach Inkblot test- consist of inkblot pictures. The
subject describes what the blot looks like and what it
Expressive Technique – a type of projective test that
assesses personality through self-expression.
MINNESOTA MULTIPLE PERSONALITY INVENTORY (
MMPI)- Is one the most extensively used and most firmly
established personality inventories. Constructed by Charles
McKinley and Starke Hathaway in 1930. One advantages of
the MMPI over other trait inventories is that it possesses
four validity scales.
16 PERSONALITY FACTOR (PF) QUESTTIONNAIRE
developed by Raymund B. Cattell of source traits drawn
from a great number of surface traits trough factor
CALFORNIA PSYCHOLOGICAL INVENTORY (CPI) test is
derived in part from the MMPI by Harrison Gough in 1950’s
( Fehr, 1983) . It aims remedy some alleged criticisms
regarding dominance, socialization, and feminity issues.
FILIPINO PERSONALITY AND CULTURE
It is difficult to define the Filipino personality because
of the Following reasons:
a. There is a problem of choosing a reliable method to
analyze Filipino traits and values since the country
has been greatly influenced by numerous colonizers.
b. Most researchers use Western models that are not
applicable to Filipino culture. The situation has
resulted in what Jocano ( 1978) described as
discrepancies between research findings and real
1. Smooth Interpersonal Relations or (SIR)- the ability to get
along with others in such a way that conflict is avoided.
a. Pakikisama - is derived from the Filipino word sama,
meaning to go along. It is a positive Filipino value.
b. Go-between – A third party is used to avoid a feeling of
inadequacy in face-to-face encounters or to act as an
intermediary when asking for favors.
Euphemism – Stating an unpleasant truth, opinion or
request with beautiful language and fine manner.
2. Hiya – in 1965 Fr. Jaime Bulatao, as the painful emotion
arising from a relationship with an authority figure or a
society that inhibits self- assertion, even during situations
perceived as dangerous to one’s ego.
3. Bahala Na – an expression expression from Filipino
word Bathala, meaning God. It is the “ come what may”
or “que sera sera” attitude that rest on the lie of least
resisitance. One need not exert any effort because God
will take care of everything.
4. Ningas Kugon – “ningas” means to catch to fire while
“kugon” is a fast burning kind of grass. Thus, Ningas
Kugon refers to enthusiasm that is intense only at the
start but gradually dies down.
5. Utang na Loob – Reciprocity or debt of gratitude is of
primary importance in the Filipino value system.
6. Hospitality – welcoming other to one’s home and
offering the best to visitors, while denying the same to
members of the family ( Samson, 1965).
7. Amoral Familism – the tendency to become
individualistic and inward-directed, hence, unable to see
beyond the family circle. The Philippine society has
become segmented, group-centered, and possessed by
tayo-tayo attitude which marks social individualism.