Personal and social development introduction


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Personal and social development introduction

  1. 1. I. Introduction
  2. 2. Historical Background The Earliest Theory The Greek Philosopher Hippocrates believed that four basic elements (air, water. Fire and earth) four bodily fluids or humor ( blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) affects human behavior. 19th century, Franz Gall, a Phrenologist, attempts to connect personality to the bumps and shape of the skull.
  3. 3.  German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964) also classify personality based on body build: 1. Asthenic- thin, tall, fragile, narrowly built and looks very weak 2. Athletic- muscular and energetic 3. Pyknic- round and robust or pump 4. Dysplastic- malproportioned body, a combination of any of the above body builds.
  4. 4. Kretschemer was convinced that body build was related to two major forms of mental disorder.  Pyknic body build were more likely to be manicdepressive  Asthenic body build were likely to be schizophrenic.  20th century William Sheldon examined the relationship between body type and personality (Constitutional Theory of Personality, 1944). Classified the Human Physique:  Morphogenotype – hypothetical biological structure  Phrenotype – external observable physique
  5. 5. SHEDON’S PRIMARY COMPONENT OF BODY BUILD I. Endomorphy - (plump, with fatty tissues) round, soft bodies with large abdomens II. Mesomorphs- ( lots of muscles) hard, sturdy with strong bones and muscles III. Ectomorphs- (bony) thin, small boned, fragile, with flat chest Sheldon developed a system of somatotyping by scoring the five different areas of the body, namely: 1. Head- Neck 2. Chest- Trunk 3. Arms 4. Stomach- Trunk 5. Legs
  6. 6. SHELDON further identified three components of temperament: I. Endomorphy - with Viscerotonia Sociable, Fond of food and people, Even tempered, and Affectionate II. Mesomorphy - with somatotonia Love of physical adventure, Enjoyment of exercise and vigorous activity, Competitive aggressiveness, and Assertiveness of behavior III. Ectomorphy - with cerebrotonia Inhibited in movement, Love of privacy, Secretive, and Self conscious
  7. 7. SECONDARY COMPONENTS OF BODY BUILD 1. Dysplasia- malproportioned or inconcistent mixture of the three primary components in various parts of the body. 2. Gynandromorphy or g index - Characteristics associated with the opposite sex, e.g., a male with high g index is fragile with a soft body, long eyelashes, and effeminate features. Primary g index- body build seen at a distance or can be inferred even from photographs. Secondary g index- body build needs direct observation of the needs direct observation of the person 3. Textual index or t index- refers to smooth and fitness of the physical texture. Primary index- can be inferred even from photographs. Secondary indexneeds direct contact with the person.
  8. 8. PSYCHOMETRIC INFLUENCES => One of the first personal test is RS Woodworth’s Personal Data Sheet, which was used as early as World War 1.  Factor Analysis Test – systematic evaluation of personality  Project Test – provide a different approach to personality assessment  Thematic Apperception Test – projective test
  9. 9. LIMITATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TEST Disadvantages: 1. Failing and malingering is common and has a halo effect. 2. Personality is a dynamic; responses are unstable and may change over time. 3. The presence of response bias, or the authentic tendency to answer in a certain way, regardless of the content of the item. 4. Greater situational of personality. For example, a student who cheats in an examination might be honest in other situations.
  10. 10. PERSONALITY AS DEFINED BY PSYCHOLOGISTS 1. Personality is the totality of individual psychic qualities which include temperament, one’s mode of reaction and character to objects of one’s reaction (Fromm, 1947). 2. Personality is what permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation ( Catttell, 1950) 3. Personality maybe biologically defined as the govering organ or superordinate institution of the body, in as much as it is located in the brain. “No brain, no personality” (Murray, 1951).
  11. 11. 4. Personality is the relatively enduring pattern of recurrent interpersonal situations which characterize a human life ( Sullivan, 1953). 5. personality is a person’s unique pattern of traits (Guilford, 1959). 6. Personality is a dynamic organization of the psychological systems that determine the individual’s unique adjustment to his or her environment (Allport, 1937). 7. Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique which determines his or her unique adjustment to the environment (Eysenck, 1970).
  12. 12. 8. Personality is refers to the individual’s structural and dynamic properties as they reflect themselves in characteristics response to a situation ( Pervin, 1975). 9. Personality is the record of an individual’s experience and behavior (Cartwright,1979). 10. Personality is the impression of an individual makes on others. It refers to his/her social skills, charismatic qualities, and the like ( Hall, Calvin, and Gardner, 1985).
  13. 13. 11. Personality is generally defined as the individual’s unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts and emotion ( Burger, 1990). 12. Personality is the stability in people’s behavior that leads them to act uniformly both different situations and over extended periods of time ( Felman, 1994). 13. Personality is a stable set of intrapsychic ( internal) characteristics and tendencies that determines the psychological behavior of people. The behavior determined by personality is relatively consistent over time (Maddi, 2006).
  14. 14. ALLPORT’S DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY => 1937, Allport defined personality is “ what a man really is’’, this statement indicates that personality is typical and peculiar characteristics of a person. Redefined personality as:  dynamic organization personality is constantly evolving and changing. An infant’s personality is influenced by hereditary and by the sorrounding condition.  psychological personality is neither exclusively mental nor exclusively neural. The organization entails the operation of both body and mind.
  15. 15.  Determine personality is lies behind on specific acts. It is w/in the individual. A person is not simply a passive reactor to the environment but does something about it.  Characteristic behaviors and thoughts is replace the phrase “ unique adjustments to the environment”
  16. 16. LAURENCE PERVIN’S VIEW OF PERSONALITY a. Personality includes both structure and dynamics b. Personality is ultimately defined in terms of behavior. c. Personality manifests consistencies in individuals and in a group of individuals. Other Conceptual Views of Personality  personality is sometimes defined as the public self that a person displays to the world  Personality as a complex set of responses; “you are what you do.”
  17. 17. ORIGIN OF CONSISTENT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS 1. Genetic => Genes definitely influence personality but what agree and in what manner are questions that need to be explore further. 2. Sociocultural => culture strongly influence people’s behavior 3. Learning => Certain behaviors are rewarded while others are ignored. 4. Existential Humanistic Consideration => minimize the importance of knowing the origins of personality, who acquires what personality completely and how you find meaning in your existence.
  18. 18. 5. Unconscious mechanism or “depth” theorist => To understand personality, one must get to the unconscious mind utilizing complex tools such as dream and symbols analysis, free association, hypnosis ERRONEOUS METHODS OF ASSESSING PERSONALITY 1. First Impression. A first impression may be based on physical appearance, facial features or expressions, mannerisms, style of dressing, name, nationality, race and etc. 2. Pseudo-scientific methods. > Physiognomy > Phrenology > Graphology
  19. 19. A. Physiognomy=> is a method of judging personality through the measurement and study of a person’s physical features, particularly the facial features. B. Phrenology=> in this method, personality is judged by the size and shape of the skull. C. Graphology=> this method uses a person’s handwriting to know his or her personality COMMON METHOD OF ASSESSING PERSONALITY 1. Objective Test – Written self- rating or the Inventory test variety, usually questionnaires to be answered with yes or no, and true or false.
  20. 20. 2. Behavioral Method ( conscious manifestation)   Interview- face to face interaction for specific purpose Life history method- makes use of biographical and autobiographical techniques, diary, and anecdotal reports.  Word Association- the oldest method in which the subject is asked to response to some stimuli by stating the first word that comes to mind  Sack Sentence Completion- measure four areas: family, sex, interpersonal relationship, and self-concept  Thematic Perception Test- consist of a set of 20 pictures which narrate his/her past, present, and projected future  Rorschach Inkblot test- consist of inkblot pictures. The subject describes what the blot looks like and what it might be.  Expressive Technique – a type of projective test that assesses personality through self-expression.
  21. 21. MINNESOTA MULTIPLE PERSONALITY INVENTORY ( MMPI)- Is one the most extensively used and most firmly established personality inventories. Constructed by Charles McKinley and Starke Hathaway in 1930. One advantages of the MMPI over other trait inventories is that it possesses four validity scales. 16 PERSONALITY FACTOR (PF) QUESTTIONNAIRE developed by Raymund B. Cattell of source traits drawn from a great number of surface traits trough factor analysis CALFORNIA PSYCHOLOGICAL INVENTORY (CPI) test is derived in part from the MMPI by Harrison Gough in 1950’s ( Fehr, 1983) . It aims remedy some alleged criticisms regarding dominance, socialization, and feminity issues.
  22. 22. FILIPINO PERSONALITY AND CULTURE It is difficult to define the Filipino personality because of the Following reasons: a. There is a problem of choosing a reliable method to analyze Filipino traits and values since the country has been greatly influenced by numerous colonizers. b. Most researchers use Western models that are not applicable to Filipino culture. The situation has resulted in what Jocano ( 1978) described as discrepancies between research findings and real Filipino behavior.
  23. 23. 1. Smooth Interpersonal Relations or (SIR)- the ability to get along with others in such a way that conflict is avoided. a. Pakikisama - is derived from the Filipino word sama, meaning to go along. It is a positive Filipino value. b. Go-between – A third party is used to avoid a feeling of inadequacy in face-to-face encounters or to act as an intermediary when asking for favors. c. Euphemism – Stating an unpleasant truth, opinion or request with beautiful language and fine manner. 2. Hiya – in 1965 Fr. Jaime Bulatao, as the painful emotion arising from a relationship with an authority figure or a society that inhibits self- assertion, even during situations perceived as dangerous to one’s ego.
  24. 24. 3. Bahala Na – an expression expression from Filipino word Bathala, meaning God. It is the “ come what may” or “que sera sera” attitude that rest on the lie of least resisitance. One need not exert any effort because God will take care of everything. 4. Ningas Kugon – “ningas” means to catch to fire while “kugon” is a fast burning kind of grass. Thus, Ningas Kugon refers to enthusiasm that is intense only at the start but gradually dies down. 5. Utang na Loob – Reciprocity or debt of gratitude is of primary importance in the Filipino value system.
  25. 25. 6. Hospitality – welcoming other to one’s home and offering the best to visitors, while denying the same to members of the family ( Samson, 1965). 7. Amoral Familism – the tendency to become individualistic and inward-directed, hence, unable to see beyond the family circle. The Philippine society has become segmented, group-centered, and possessed by tayo-tayo attitude which marks social individualism.
  26. 26. Thank You !!!    By : Balbuena, Darlene