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  • 1. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 2. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 3. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 4. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 5. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 6. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 7. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 8. Principles and Methods of TranslationEducational Objectives Presenting a definition on translation and discussing the adopted outlook for the purpose of introducing some major issues involved in translation.
  • 9. Principles and Methods of Translation Catford‟s Definition of Translation:  The replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language.
  • 10. Principles and Methods of Translation Task 1(a) Go and bring a piece of chalk!(b) Can you bring a piece of chalk please?(c) Could someone bring a piece of chalk please?
  • 11. Principles and Methods of Translation (d) Can I ask you to go and bring a piece of chalk please? (e) We don‟t have any chalk to write. (f) Please bring a piece of chalk.
  • 12. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 13. Principles and Methods of TranslationNot all of the English utterances given inTask 1 can be considered as thetranslation equivalence of the given Farsiutterance.
  • 14. Principles and Methods of Translation They are different in terms of the degree of intimacy the speaker assumes between himself and his addressee.
  • 15. Principles and Methods of TranslationThe utterance (f) is the besttranslation equivalence, becausethey are of equal degree of intimacy.
  • 16. Principles and Methods of Translation a - b -c
  • 17. Principles and Methods of Translation -- d e - f -
  • 18. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesA review of types of translation for a better understanding of the issues involved in translation process.
  • 19. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 20. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 21. Principles and Methods of Translation - - - -
  • 22. Principles and Methods of Translation •
  • 23. Principles and Methods of Translation •
  • 24. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 25. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 26. Principles and Methods of Translation  Nor and neither can be used as negative additive adverbs without being a correlative pair.
  • 27. Principles and Methods of Translation neither nor
  • 28. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 29. Principles and Methods of Translation1. He did not receive any assistance fromthe authorities nor did he believe theirassurance that action would soon be taken.
  • 30. Principles and Methods of Translation2. Many people are only dimly aware ofthe ways in which the environment can beprotected. Nor have governments madesufficient efforts to educate them.
  • 31. Principles and Methods of Translation .
  • 32. Principles and Methods of TranslationExample:SL: Translation is a branch of contrastive linguistics. :TL
  • 33. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 34. Principles and Methods of TranslationExample:SL: Phonology is the study of the soundsystem of a language. :TL
  • 35. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 36. Principles and Methods of Translation .
  • 37. Principles and Methods of Translation  . Good-bye
  • 38. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 39. Principles and Methods of Translation God protector
  • 40. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 41. Principles and Methods of Translation  God protect you
  • 42. Principles and Methods of Translation Newmark, 1981  Semantic Translation  (Communicative Translation) 
  • 43. Principles and Methods of Translation   SL: Wet Paint 
  • 44. Principles and Methods of Translation  No Smoking It is forbidden to use tobacco products.
  • 45. Principles and Methods of Translation Objectives: This lesson will focus on the situational features of a sentence, and will discuss the issue of translation equivalence in this regard.
  • 46. Principles and Methods of Translation text
  • 47. Principles and Methods of Translation   You haven‟t done the assignment, have you
  • 48. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 49. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 50. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 51. Principles and Methods of Translation  I‟ve arrived
  • 52. Principles and Methods of Translation I he you we - eat leave arrive .
  • 53. Principles and Methods of Translation - -
  • 54. Principles and Methods of Translation - .
  • 55. Principles and Methods of TranslationSituational Features:All the features, which can be related to anysentence situation, are called situationalfeatures.
  • 56. Principles and Methods of TranslationDistinctive Situational Features:The set of situational features which arecontextually relevant to a text, are bundles ofdistinctive situational features.
  • 57. Principles and Methods of TranslationDetermine the distinctive features of thefollowing sentences:(a) It’s so hot here.(b) I have done my homework.(c) You should call your mother.
  • 58. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 59. Principles and Methods of Translation .
  • 60. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 61. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 62. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 63. Principles and Methods of Translation  .
  • 64. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesThis lesson aims at introducing some of the basic principles of structural linguistics and discussing the issue of translation equivalence in relation to them
  • 65. Principles and Methods of Translation John Lyons 
  • 66. Principles and Methods of Translation  .
  • 67. Principles and Methods of Translation .  
  • 68. Principles and Methods of Translation recognized  I recognized her by her red hat.
  • 69. Principles and Methods of Translation Britain has recognized the new regime.  He recognized that he was not qualified for the post. The firm recognized Tom‟s outstanding work by giving him an extra bonus.
  • 70. Principles and Methods of Translation syntagm
  • 71. Principles and Methods of Translation big  b/i/g
  • 72. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 73. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 74. Principles and Methods of Translation Semantic Structure
  • 75. Principles and Methods of Translation  .
  • 76. Principles and Methods of Translation Synonymy conception- idea -
  • 77. Principles and Methods of Translation Hyponymyvehicle: car, bus, truck
  • 78. Principles and Methods of Translation vehicle Co-hyponymy
  • 79. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 80. Principles and Methods of Translation  dead-alive single-married Ahmad is single Ahmad is not married.
  • 81. Principles and Methods of Translation Antonymy Graded antonymy .
  • 82. Principles and Methods of Translation old, young 
  • 83. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 84. Principles and Methods of Translation .
  • 85. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 86. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesThis lesson will look at theword and word meaning instructural semantics anddiscuss the related issues oftranslation equivalence.
  • 87. Principles and Methods of Translation  Vocabulary  Lexicon  item Vocabulary /element  itemlexical /element Lexeme  Collocation 
  • 88. Principles and Methods of Translation •
  • 89. Principles and Methods of TranslationWe are interested in football. are interested in
  • 90. Principles and Methods of Translation : .are interested in
  • 91. Principles and Methods of Translation idiom
  • 92. Principles and Methods of Translation  He put off the meeting. 
  • 93. Principles and Methods of Translation Content words
  • 94. Principles and Methods of Translation Structure words
  • 95. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 96. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 97. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 98. Principles and Methods of Translation Objective This lesson will look at different levels of word meaning and will discuss the related translation issues.
  • 99. Principles and Methods of Translation Referential meaning
  • 100. Principles and Methods of Translation Connotative meaning
  • 101. Principles and Methods of Translation (connotation) .
  • 102. Principles and Methods of Translation Stylistic meaning
  • 103. Principles and Methods of Translation man ( ( ) gentleman  chap
  • 104. Principles and Methods of Translation Affective meaning
  • 105. Principles and Methods of TranslationExample:I’m terribly sorry to interrupt, but I wonder ifyou would be so kind as to lower your voice alittle.Will you lower your voice?Will you shut up?
  • 106. Principles and Methods of Translation Reflected meaning
  • 107. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesThis lesson will look atsome new layers anddimensions of word-meaning and theirimplications in translation.
  • 108. Principles and Methods of Translation Figurative Meaning) .
  • 109. Principles and Methods of Translation  owl
  • 110. Principles and Methods of Translation Collocative Meaning)
  • 111. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 112. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 113. Principles and Methods of Translationrancid butteraddled eggrotten fruitcorrupt person
  • 114. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 115. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 116. Principles and Methods of Translation Objectives This lesson will first look at the sentence structure in English.
  • 117. Principles and Methods of Translation It will then discuss possible differences or similarities between the English and Farsi sentence structure.
  • 118. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 119. Principles and Methods of TranslationExamples(a)Human learning involves several typesof information processes.
  • 120. Principles and Methods of Translation(b) The mind is not a sponge absorbinginformation, nor a connection to beconditioned by external forces, but an activeprocessor of information.
  • 121. Principles and Methods of Translation(c) By definition, learning must be anactive process because learning can occuronly when a physical change takes place inthe brain.
  • 122. Principles and Methods of Translation ComplementSubject – Verb – Object – Complement – Adverbial SV(O)(C)(A)The meeting continued.The blood supplies the body organs with oxygen.
  • 123. Principles and Methods of Translation head modifier
  • 124. Principles and Methods of TranslationExamples• Another important component of human learning• Many current learning theories• The amount of learned information
  • 125. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesThis lesson will focus on textual structure of the sentence, layers of sentence meaning and types of subject in a sentence.
  • 126. Principles and Methods of Translation • •
  • 127. Principles and Methods of Translation Theme
  • 128. Principles and Methods of TranslationExamplesThe underlined parts are the ‘theme’.(a) All languages learned normally are learned in social situations.
  • 129. Principles and Methods of Translation(b) Teachers should develop specificpositive approaches for helping falteringstudents.The teacher rewarded three of the studentsfor their excellent performance.
  • 130. Principles and Methods of Translationa. The teacher rewarded three of thestudents for their excellentperformance.
  • 131. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 132. Principles and Methods of Translation   Ideational - 
  • 133. Principles and Methods of Translation Interpersonal - 
  • 134. Principles and Methods of Translation - -
  • 135. Principles and Methods of Translationa 1. The door was opened by Ali.a 2. Ali opened the door.b 1. My mother gave me this apple.b 2. This apple my mother gave.
  • 136. Principles and Methods of Translationc 1. Could you open the door please?c 2. Open the door please.
  • 137. Principles and Methods of Translation . -  . - 
  • 138. Principles and Methods of Translation - .
  • 139. Principles and Methods of Translation My mother gave me this apple. My mother 
  • 140. Principles and Methods of Translation  b. This apple, my mother gave me. my this apple  mother
  • 141. Principles and Methods of Translation c. This apple, I was given by my mother. I this apple  my mother
  • 142. Principles and Methods of Translation  - 
  • 143. Principles and Methods of Translation - 
  • 144. Principles and Methods of Translation - 
  • 145. Principles and Methods of Translation - 
  • 146. Principles and Methods of Translation Objectives This lesson will look at the notion of “structure” in language and its manifestation across different languages drawing implication for the translation.
  • 147. Principles and Methods of Translation Substance Form
  • 148. Principles and Methods of Translation" (structure for structure) .
  • 149. Principles and Methods of TranslationExample:He said that he was ready.
  • 150. Principles and Methods of Translation was  .
  • 151. Principles and Methods of Translation  . 
  • 152. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesThis lesson will look atthe language varietiesdiscussing thetranslator’s task inrelation to them.
  • 153. Principles and Methods of Translation
  • 154. Principles and Methods of Translation idiolect  
  • 155. Principles and Methods of Translation Geographical dialect  
  • 156. Principles and Methods of Translation (Temporal dialect):  .
  • 157. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 158. Principles and Methods of Translation Social dialect  
  • 159. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 160. Principles and Methods of Translation    
  • 161. Principles and Methods of Translation Register  
  • 162. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 163. Principles and Methods of Translation style  formal  colloquial informal slang
  • 164. Principles and Methods of Translation Mode  
  • 165. Principles and Methods of Translation  
  • 166. Principles and Methods of Translation Objectives This lesson will look in brief at some other translation issues for which we do not have the space to discuss in this book.
  • 167. Principles and Methods of Translation 
  • 168. Principles and Methods of Translation  .
  • 169. Principles and Methods of Translation  .
  • 170. Principles and Methods of Translation    .
  • 171. Principles and Methods of Translation ambiguities  Structural Lexical
  • 172. Principles and Methods of Translation a- The hatred of the killers.a1- Someone hated the killers.a2- The killers hated someone.
  • 173. Principles and Methods of Translation c- the captain corrected the list.c1- The captain corrected the (name) list.c2- the captain corrected the ship‟s list leaning position). list: -
  • 174. Principles and Methods of TranslationObjectivesTo present a comprehensive discussion on the the process of „translating‟ in terms of the concepts and notions we have introduced in the preceding units.
  • 175. Principles and Methods of Translation Having introduced the basic meta-language on translation, we intend to involve the learner in the discussion on translation in English.
  • 176. Principles and Methods of Translation The Act of Translating One cannot translate a text from one language into another by directly replacing its elements by their parallel ones in TL.
  • 177. Principles and Methods of Translation Form vs Substance Different languages may give fifferent forms to the same substance:
  • 178. Principles and Methods of Translation Example: English uses only one form of „cousin‟ to talk about eight different kinship relations while Farsi uses eight different forms for the same semantic domain.
  • 179. Principles and Methods of Translation Denotational Range Lexical items in one language and their parallel ones in another language may not be of an identical denotational range: Example Egg shell Peel(potato) Bark(tree) Hide(animal)
  • 180. Principles and Methods of Translation The denotational range of in Farsi is wider than its counterpart in English.
  • 181. Principles and Methods of Translation Collocational Range A word may collocate with some words in Farsi while its parallel one in English may not collocate with the language counterparts of such words:
  • 182. Principles and Methods of Translation rancid butter corrupt person addled egg decayed tooth As it is shown here, the word has a wide collocational range in Farsi
  • 183. Principles and Methods of Translation Figurative Vaue It is the layer of a word as the layer of meaning which derives from the image normally associated with that word among the speakers of language. Example „Dog‟ can refer to a bad-tempered person.
  • 184. Principles and Methods of Translation Supplementary Unit Objectives Presenting a comparative analysis of the structure of noun phrases (groups) in Farsi and English.
  • 185. Principles and Methods of Translation Comparing the structure of noun phrases in Farsi and English Noun Groups in English Types of modifiers: determiners, nouns, adjectives, verbs in –ing- form, verbs in –ed form Types of qualifiers: preposition of+ noun group Relative pronouns Noun Groups in Farsi