Market Structure
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Market Structure






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    Market Structure Market Structure Presentation Transcript

      Mr. Rey Belen
    • Perfect Competition
      Monopolistic Competition
      Type of Market Structures
    • Price Taking
      The individual firms sells a very small share of the total market output and, therefore, cannot influence market price.
      The individual consumer buys too small a share of industry output to have any impact on market price.
      Perfectly Competitive Markets
    • Product Homogeneity
      The products of all firms are perfect substitutes
      Agricultural products
      Perfectly Competitive Markets
    • Perfect Information
      Buyers and sellers have all the pertinent information necessary for them to make decisions on buying or selling goods and services.
      Perfectly Competitive Markets
    • The 1980s saw proliferation of gadgets and equipment to purify water.
      The purification was done mostly at home.
      Only simple process of passing tap water through a filter.
      Water Refilling Station
    • The 1990s added the sophistication of water purification technology with the entrance of bottled water. Raw water passed through 6-8 processes of treatment.
      The sophistication, along with packaging, branding, manufacturing costs, led to drinking water being expensive.
      Water Refilling Station
    • Water refilling stations provided a cheaper alternative. More than 3,000 stations are estimated to have been put up in the country presently.
      Initially, customers came to stations with their own containers.
      Water Refilling Station
    • Eventually, services extended free delivery of 5-gallon containers with free use of a hot and cold dispenser provided a minimum weekly consumption is met.
      Some stations also sold different types of dispensers and smaller sizes of bottled water.
      Water Refilling Station
    • There are no barriers to entry. In other words, there is free entry and exit.
      There is product differentiation. The station claims to offer water treatment different from other stations through different technology. Thus, their treated water supposedly are slightly different from their competitors.
      Products are substitutable with one another.
      What Type of Market is Monopolistic Competition
    • The barriers to entry are:
      Scale economies
      Name Recognition
      Strategic Action
      Flooding the market
      Controlling an essential input
    • Mobile Cellular Phone Industry
      Prior to 1995, landline telephone dominated the telecommunication sector. PLDT was considered a monopoly back then.
      In 1995, the Telecommunication Act of the Philippines (RA 7925) was enacted, setting the policy for competition and liberalization of the telecommunication sector.
      It opened up the paging and the mobile telephone business.
    • The dismantling of the monopoly and opening of the country to other telecom companies has resulted in a drastic improvement in teledensity.
      The cellular telephone system showed the greatest growth over the past eight years. This despite the fact that it initially was more expensive to own a cellular telephone and the rates are by the minute.
      Cellular subscribers more than tripled from 500, 000 in 1995 to 1.8M by the end of 1999. Now, it is estimated to be more than 40M
      Effects of the Deregulation: Teledensity
    • Comparison of Prices of the Major Firms Before the Entry of Sun Cellular.
      P9.50 per call
      P1.00 per SMS
      P9.50 per call
      P1.00 per SMS
      *Both offering a discount if calling within their respective network
      *Stayed the same until new market player entered the market.
    • Strategic Actions
      Before SUNCELL entered the market, instead of price being lowered, strategic actions were being exhibited to gain bigger shares of the market
      *But still both players offered the same services for the same price.
    • Facing several barriers upon entry i.e. market dominance of SMART and GLOBE, SUN CELLULAR entered the mobile telecommunications industry on 2003
      Sun Cellular introduce a new pricing scheme which would give an alternative option to consumers.
      Sun’s Rates as a New Player
    • P50 unlimited SMS for 7 days SUN to SUN
      P100 UNLIMITED CALL AND SMS for 7 days
      P150 UNLIMITED SMS for 30 days
      P350 Unlimited SMS and CALLS for 30 days SUN to SUN
      P5.50 per minute to other networks
      P1.00 per minute SUN to SUN
      P1.00 per SMS to other networks
      P0.50 per SMS within the network
      Sun Cellular’s Pricing Scheme
    • The 24/7 Call and Text Unlimited is a service that allow subscribers to enjoy unlimited local Sun-to-Sun voice calls and Short Messaging Service (SMS)
      The complaint states that the pricing scheme offered by Sun will render other mobile phone firms to loose market share; this may lead to the survival of only one player, or may otherwise result in a monopoly
      Legal Issues Against Sun Cellular
    • Major Players Followed Sun’s Prices
      The two major players adjusted their prices to maintain their respective market shares and not lose to their competitor’s low rates
    • The Telecommunication industry (landline) started out as a monopoly.
      As a whole, the mobile cellular phone market is a Oligopolistic market.
      Three Major Players
      Services are slightly differentiated
      There are barriers to entry
      What type of market is Oligopoly?
    • Barriers to entry
      Control of Inputs
      firm may own the total supply of a raw material that is essential in the production of some product.
      Economies of scale
      One supplier can produce at a lower per-unit cost than several smaller firms.
    • Diamond
    • 3. Patents
      Exclusive rights given to inventors for a limited period of time.
      4. Licenses/Franchises
      Granted by the government as a condition for operating in the market.
    • Receiving a U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone on March 7, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell formed the Bell Telephone Company in 1877, which in 1885 became AT&T. When Bell's original patent expired 15 years later in 1894, the telephone market opened to competition and 6,000 new telephone carriers started while the Bell Telephone company took a significant financial downturn
    • The monopolist is the supply-side of the market and has complete control over the amount offered for sale.
      Limited by Demand
      Philippine Electric Power Industry
    • Manila in 1903 was a city of about 220,000 inhabitants. Over a settlement of Tagalog clans at the mouth of the Pasig River, Spanish colonists had built Fort Santiago, and eventually a walled city, or Intramuros which became the administrative center.
      But most of the inhabitants and their commerce were located outside the walls and north across the Pasig in an area about three to four times the size of Intramuros, in the suburban towns of Binondo, San Nicolas, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Quiapo and San Miguel.
      Colonial Outpost
    • Vehicular transportation in Manila then was provided by horse-drawn carriages - the quilez or calesa, the carromata, the caruaje - and the horse-drawn street railway of the Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas.
      Towards the end of the 1890s, however, the system had deteriorated badly due to uncertainty caused by the Philippine revolution and American conquest.
      And by 1902, only about ten horsecars were in actual service each day.
      Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas
    • In 1903, about 3,000 electric light customers and the city government with its streetlights were served by an electric company called La Electricista organized in 1892.
      La Electricista had built a central power plant on Calle San Sebastian (now R. Hidalgo). On January 17, 1895, its streetlights were turned on for the first time.
      La Electricista
    • Birth of Meralco in 1903
      In 1901, the United States formally established civilian government in Manila, clothing the Second Philippine Commission with legislative powers to organize the new government.
      Composed of five Americans and eventually three Filipinos, the Commission passed on October 20, 1902 Act No. 484 which formally called for franchise bids to operate an electric street railway and to furnish electric current for light, heat and power in the city and suburbs.
      On March 5, 1903, the bids were opened and it turned out that the only bid submitted was that of Detroit entrepreneur Charles M. Swift.
      On March 24, 1903, the Municipal Board passed Ordinance No. 44, granting to Swift what became the original basic franchise of Meralco.
      On March 14, 1903, Swift incorporated in the State of New Jersey a company which was soon named Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company. "Meralco" was the acronym formed by the first letters of the corporate name.
    • After winning the bid, Swift commissioned J.G. White for construction and engineering services. In September 1903, actual construction began on the track and overhead system in Manila.
      Swift was also able to purchase both the Tranvia company and La Electricista sometime in 1904. Thus, Meralco started its electric service to Manila by taking over operation of La Electricista's system.
      However, Meralco built its own steam generating plant on Isla Provisora near the Ayala Bridge which powered the streetcar system and eventually also the electric service.
      Getting Started, 1903-1905
    • On April 10, 1905, Meralco's street railway system was formally inaugurated. By year-end, the completed system consisted of about 40 miles (63 km.) of track crossing the business section of Manila and beyond. It passed the busy streets of Binondo, Escolta, San Nicolas, Tondo, Caloocan, Malabon, Quiapo, Sampaloc, Santa Mesa, San Miguel, and other strategic parts of Manila.
      Constituting for a long time the largest single investment of private capital of any nationality in the Philippines, it reflected a pioneering act of faith in the future of the country.
      The tranvia system itself was described as state-of-the-art and second to none in East Asia.
      The Streetcar System
    • Over the years, Meralco's transportation service grew and improved. Bigger and better streetcars with double wheel-trucks and closed sides were added. One of the early additions to the trackage was a major one from Sta. Ana to Pasig, adding 7.2 miles (11.6 km) to the total.
      In 1920, Meralco embarked on a major five-year reconstruction program for its then 15-year old railway system. New streetcars were also designed and fabricated in the company shops. By 1924, the fleet consisted of about 170 cars.
      The Company also experimented with trackless trolley buses that later replaced the streetcars on Calle Santa Mesa between the Rotonda and San Juan Bridge.
      The MeralcoTranvia
    • Meralco management decided to expand its transportation service with its own autobuses after expanding the streetcar system no longer seemed economically viable. In 1927, 20 autobuses were first designed and fabricated in the company shops.
      When war broke out in 1941, the bus fleet had expanded to more than 190 units, while the streetcars had fallen to 109. By that time, however, the transportation business was no longer Meralco's main source of income.
    • The Electric Service
      Within less than a decade from 1905, the annual earnings of Meralco's Electric Department began to surpass those of Transportation. When war broke out in 1941, Meralco's earnings were roughly 80% electric, 10% autobuses and 10% railway.
    • The monopolist is the supply-side of the market and has complete control over the amount offered for sale.
      Limited by Demand