Japan Learns a Lesson! I n 1862, just before the start of the Meiji period, Tokugawa sent officials and scholars to China to study the situation there. A Japanese recorded in his diary from Shanghai… The Chinese have become servants to the foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to China but in fact it's no more than a colony of Great Britain and France.
China’s “Unequal Treaties” <ul><li>After the Opium War of 1839-1842, Japan was convinced that it had to Open Up to the West. </li></ul>
The Shi-shi (“Men of High Purpose”) <ul><li>Highly idealistic samurai who felt that the arrival of Westerners was an attack on the traditional values of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan was sacred ground. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The emperor, now a figurehead in Kyoto, was a God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Were furious at the Shogun for signing treaties with the West without the Emperor’s consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Their slogan Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians! </li></ul>
The Meiji Revolt - 1868 <ul><li>A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>Sakamoto Ryoma , the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state. </li></ul>
The Shogunate Is Overthrown! <ul><li>The last Shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Yoshinobu. </li></ul>
The Emperor Is “Restored” to Power MEIJI “Enlightened Rule”
Modernization by “Selective Borrowing” <ul><li>Popular board game . </li></ul><ul><li>Start by leaving Japan & studying in various Western capitals. </li></ul><ul><li>End by returning to Japan and becoming a prominent government official. </li></ul>
European Goods <ul><li>Europe began to “loom large” in the thinking of many Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>New slogan : Japanese Spirit; Western Technology! </li></ul>
The Japanese Became Obsessed with Western Styles Civilization and Enlightenment!
Everything Western Was Fashionable! Japanese soldiers with their wives.
The Rulers Set the Tone with Western Dress Emperor Meiji Empress Haruko (1868- 1912)
Changing Women’s Fashions 1900 Styles The First “Miss Japan” (1908)
Meiji Reforms Abolition of the feudal system Land Redistribution Human Rights & Religious Freedom Build a Modern Navy (British) Westernize the School System (Fr. & Ger.) Modernize the Army (Prussian) Emperor Worship Intensified Written Constitution (Germans) Modern Banking System
A Constitutional Government Copied from the Germans Satsuma & Choshu Families The Emperor of Japan The Diet (Legislative Body) House of Representatives House of Peers 1889 Constitution of Japan
Expansionism & the Rise of Military Power New players on the block?
Sino-Japanese War: 1894-1895 The Meiji Emperor was in Hiroshima during the Sino-Japanese War
Soldiers on the Battlefield During the Sino-Japanese War The Treaty of Shimonoseki ended the war.
Today—Tensions Between China & Japan EEZ -Exclusive Economic Zone. <ul><li>Offshore gas field in the East China Sea reveals recently strained relations between China & Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension over disputed gas field on the rise, exacerbating mutual mistrust dating back to the Sino-Japanese War. </li></ul>
The Russo-Japanese War: 1904-1905 The Battle of Tsushima : The results startled the world!
President Teddy Roosevelt Mediates the Peace The Treaty of Portsmouth , NH ended the Russo-Japanese War.
<ul><li>EMPIRE OF JAPAN TREATY </li></ul><ul><li>Kanagawa, March 31, 1854. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>This agreement, forced on the Tokugawa shogunate by Commodore Perry's menacing "black ships," ended over two centuries of virtual exclusion (the exception being the Dutch) of foreign traders from the coast of Japan. The intrusion of the U.S. in the first place (see President Fillmore's letter derived from the ill-treatment accorded American whaling crews when shipwrecked off the coast or landing for provisions or repairs. The treaty fully satisfied the U.S. government's concerns in this regard but left to the future the equally important matter of opening the country to foreign trade; concluded in 1858 with the signing of the Harris treaty. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Unequal Treaties was a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and the post-Meiji Restoration Empire of Japan, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This was a period during which these Asian states were largely unable to resist the military pressures from foreign powers as many unequal treaties were signed by those countries after military failure. </li></ul>
This is a List of Japanese board games . Name of the game Short description Western equivalent Renju Really just an advanced form of go-moku Pente; distant relative of tic-tac-toe Shogi Played on a 9x9 board; can use captured pieces against opponent Chess Sugoroku (one type) Race game Backgammon Sugoroku (another type) Race game Snakes and Ladders
<ul><li>The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was the largest Asian war in the twentieth century. From 1937 to 1941, it was fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Second Sino-Japanese War merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front in the Pacific Theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the two countries had fought intermittently since 1931, full-scale war started in earnest in 1937 and ended only with the surrender of Japan in 1945. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aiming to dominate China politically and militarily to secure its vast raw material reserves and other resources. </li></ul>