Hellenic Age to the Hellenistic Age The period began in 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great
Many scientists and philosophers had accompanied Alexander’s expeditions to the Near East They gained knowledge about plants, animals, geography and astronomy Acquired new skills and ideas from the different peoples of the empire-mathematics, and astronomy from the Near East, medical knowledge from Egypt New Learning Continues
<ul><li>Known as the center of the Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Egypt in 332 BC by Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>After Alexander’s death Ptolemy ruled Egypt. By 304 BC he established a new dynasty, whose rulers encouraged scholarship in Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>They set up the greatest library and research center </li></ul><ul><li>The museum had botanical gardens, zoo, and an observatory for studying the stars </li></ul>Alexandria
<ul><li>The library had about 500,000 books written on papyrus scrolls </li></ul><ul><li>The library had the works of Homer, the plays of Athenian Dramatists, and the medical books from Hippocrates’ school </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred writings of the Hebrews were translated into Greek </li></ul>Alexandria
<ul><li>Euclid: organized earlier knowledge of geometry into logical system. He worked out hundreds of geometrical proofs, writing textbook that became the basic work in geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Eratosthenes: scholar and head librarian of Alexandria. Using geometry, he estimated the earth’s circumference with remarkable accuracy. He correctly declared that the oceans of the earth were connected, and he made accurate maps of the world he knew </li></ul>Hellenistic Scientists
<ul><li>Aristarchus: a mathematician and astronomer from the island of Samos. He argued that the sun was the center of the universe, but this idea was not accepted by other scientists. People used to believe in an earth-centered universe for another 1, 700 years </li></ul><ul><li>Archimedes: studied in Alexandria but stayed in the island of Sicily. His work in mathematics and physics led him to discover the principles of the lever and the pulley as well as calculating the weight of an object in water. He was also famous for the weapon known as catapult </li></ul>Hellenistic Scientists
<ul><li>They believed that they could use reason to discover rules to explain and direct human conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenic Age: Philosophers had been concerned particularly with individual as a citizen of the polis </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic Age: Greek city-states were no longer the center of political life. Philosophers gave more thought to the individual as an individual rather that a member of the community </li></ul>Philosophers new challenges
<ul><li>Epicureanism </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Epicurus who’s a teacher and a writer </li></ul><ul><li>He advised against trying to gain wealth, political power, or fame, since such attempts increase anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>People should not give into strong emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies “should be free from pain” and minds “released from worry or fear” </li></ul><ul><li>Epicurean: someone whose main interest is in pleasure, especially in eating </li></ul>New rules in living
<ul><li>Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Zeno who met his followers in an open walk way known as Stoa (a market place in Athens) </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates was one of the stoics </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized on dignity, self-control and reason </li></ul><ul><li>A person should accept what life brings and remain indifferent to pain, pleasure and unhappiness </li></ul><ul><li>It influenced both Romans and the early Christians </li></ul>New rules in living
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