China vs. the U. S. in Size China United States
SOURCE: Topic 5: “The Awakening Giant” by Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
Comparing China & the U. S. China United States Size 3.7 million square miles 3.6 million square miles Main physical barrier Himalayas Rockies Main River Yangtze / East - West Mississippi / North – South Population East Coast East Coast Connectivity problems North - South East - West
Countries & Regions Tibet Mongolia Southeast Asia Indian Subcontinent Russia N. Korea S> Korea Taiwan Philippines
Cities BEIJING Harbin Nanjing Guangzhou Xi’an Shanghai Taipei Lhasa Hong Kong Macao
Completed Political Map BEIJING Harbin Nanjing Guangzhou Xi’an Shanghai Taipei Lhasa Hong Kong Macao Tibet Mongolia Southeast Asia Indian Subcontinent N. Korea S> Korea Taiwan Philippines
Agricultural Regions in China Shabdong Peninsula Grand Canal Great Wall CHUNG KUO
Completed Topographic Map Huang-He River Yellow Sea Yangtze River Pacific Ocean Amur River Xi River South China Sea Sea of Japan Tian Shan Altai Mts. Greater Khingan Kunlun Shan Himalayan Mts. Tibetan Plateau Taklamakan Desert Gobi Desert Manchurian Plain North China Plain Tarim Basin Sichuan Basin Shabdong Peninsula Grand Canal Great Wall CHUNG KUO
Peking man was identified as a member of the human lineage by Davidson Black in 1927 on the basis of a single tooth.
The Zhoukoudian fossils date from about 550,000 to 230,000 years ago. Before being assigned to H. erectus , they were variously classified as Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus .
The original fossils were under study at the Peking Union Medical College in 1941 when, with Japanese invasion imminent, an attempt was made to smuggle them out of China and to the United States. The bones disappeared and have never been recovered, leaving only plaster casts for study.
Traditional Chinese history indicates that the Shang Dynasty consisted of 30 kings and seven different, successive, capitals. The Zhou, the dynasty that followed the Shang, are responsible for the recordings of the kings and capitals of the Shang Dynasty.
One of the most important technological developments of the Shang was the invention of writing.
They are the first group of people from China of which written records are found. The most common place these writings are found is on oracle bones used for divination.
The bones used for this purpose originally came from a number of animals, but were eventually done exclusively on turtle shells. A question was written on the bone, which was then fired and a T shaped crack was produced which was interpreted, and the interpretation was then written on the bone.
This god ruled as a supreme god over lesser gods, the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural forces and places.
Highly ritualized, ancestor worship became a part of the Shang religion. Sacrifice to the gods and the ancestors was also a major part of the Shang religion.
When a king died, hundreds of slaves and prisoners were often sacrificed and buried with him. People were also sacrificed in lower numbers when important events, such as the founding of a palace or temple, occurred.
The Zhou Dynasty is divided into subperiods. The first is the Western Zhou, which occurs from the time of their victory over the Shang until about 771 B.C. when they were forced east by barbarians from the north. The king was killed but his son was saved and moved east where a new capital was formed in Loyang. This began the period known as the Eastern Zhou.
The Eastern Zhou is further divided into two time periods, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. The Spring and Autumn Period occurred from about 770-476 B.C. During this time, the Zhou emperor steadily lost power due to the realization by the feudal lords that he was not powerful and could be beaten, which had been proven by the defeat in the west. The second half, the Warring States Period, is so named because of the power struggle between the large states of China that were trying to gain control over the entire area. It lasted from about 475 - 221 B.C.
Traditional Chinese history says that the Zhou were able to take over the Shang because the Shang had degenerated morally. Part of this belief may have been caused by the Zhou themselves, who are credited with the idea of the Mandate of Heaven. The Zhou used this idea to validate their takeover and subsequent ruling of the former Shang kingdom. The Mandate of Heaven says that Heaven, or tian, places the mandate, tianming, to rule on any family that is morally worthy of the responsibility. Also, the only way to know if the Mandate of Heaven had been removed from the ruling family was if they were overthrown. If the ruler is overthrown, then the victors had the Mandate of Heaven.
The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations.
The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
The Dynastic Cycle A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here