Islam
Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transfor...
Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
Acknowledgment <ul><li>Rey Ty & Awni Al-Karzon would like to thank the following for her support: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Li...
Abstract <ul><li>Islam is a religion of peace. </li></ul><ul><li>But many have a prejudicial attitude toward Muslims. </li...
Introduction
 
Statement of the Problem
 
Research Questions
Perspectives <ul><li>Role of  non-formal education  in providing adult, community education that brings about  community t...
Definition <ul><li>Non-formal education  is “any organized educational activity outside the established formal system...th...
Definition <ul><li>Conflict transformation  is the process of constructive change, involving comprehensive, pro-active, lo...
Definition <ul><li>Addressing the root causes of violent conflicts,  peace building  strategies seek to meet “basic needs ...
Organizational Level of Analysis
 
Findings
Findings I <ul><li>Misconceptions & Stereotypes about Islam </li></ul>
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Some biological anthropologists and scientists argue  male humans   have an innate pr...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Other biological anthropologists insist that  violence  is a result of  culture  and ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>The  sources of  ethnic  conflicts are historical, social, economic, political, cultu...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Prejudice  means  looking down on “a group  because of its assumed behavior, values, ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Muslims  in many parts of the world  face stereotypes and discrimination .  </li></ul>
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Stereotypes refer to “fixed ideas —often unfavorable—about what members of a group ar...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Discrimination   means “policies and practices that harm a group and its members”  (K...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In many parts of the world where Muslims are minorities, such as in the Philippines, ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In  Sri Lanka , Muslims are stereotyped as good in business and  earning money .  </l...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In the  Philippines , Muslims are typecast as lazy, uncivilized, dirty, and  war-mong...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>True, there are individuals who are Muslims who commit acts of terror but  individual...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Hence, characterizing all Muslims as terrorists is an  unjust stereotype, discriminat...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In post-9/11,  Muslims in the U.S. face  the same forms of  stereotypes  as the rest ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Islam and hence  Muslims are generally  stereotyped  as promoting violence and terror...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>While only 18-20% of the world’s Muslim population is Arab, the  U.S. Muslim populati...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>According to the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR, 2010), there are an  es...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>The  Muslim-American  population consists of a variety of ethnicities and nationaliti...
Findings II
 
 
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Fully covered in veil </li></ul>
Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Hijab </li></ul>
Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Hijab </li></ul>
Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Benazir Bhutto wears the veil fashionably </li></ul>
Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Muslim Jordanian Queen Rania defies stereotypes </li></ul>
Debates <ul><li>To counter Islamic extremism,  Syria   banned  the use of  the full face veil  at universities in 2010 in ...
Debates <ul><li>“ France’s  lower house of parliament has overwhelmingly approved a bill that would  ban wearing the Islam...
Debates <ul><li>Egypt’s highest Muslim authority, Sheikh Mohamed Tantawi, dean of al-Azhar University, “called full-face v...
Debates
Findings III
Findings III
Organizations   <ul><li>Many organizations and institutions are working to  uplift the status of Muslims and erase the neg...
International Training Office <ul><li>Bi-Communal Cyprus Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Lina Ong </li></...
International Training Office <ul><li>Grassroots Organizing by Women (GROW) Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Jaya Gayan...
International Training Office <ul><li>Philippine Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North-Sou...
International Training Office <ul><li>Work with  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) </li><...
Baitona <ul><li>Stereotyped as suffering from male domination, Palestinian women are expected to be submissive and play tr...
Baitona <ul><li>Established in 2003, Baitona for Community Development is a well-known and active NGO in Gaza Strip.  </li...
Baitona <ul><li>Empower women and increase their involvement in society and participation in economic development </li></u...
CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enhances “understanding of Islam </li></ul></ul><...
CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opposes domestic policies that limit civil rights...
CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>civil rights work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medi...
IMAN <ul><li>Responding to “inner-city poverty,” the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN, 2010) provides “space for Mus...
IMAN <ul><li>Propelled by “human compassion,” IMAN is a community-based non-profit organization “that works for social jus...
Conclusion
 
Summary <ul><li>Muslim minorities are survivors of name-calling & stereotypes in predominantly non-Muslim societies </li><...
Summary
Summary <ul><li>The  International Training Office  of NIU, of which Dr. Lina Ong is the Director, has several successful ...
Summary <ul><li>In violence-filled  Palestine , Baitona workers organize the community, help the poor, and provide service...
Summary <ul><li>In terms of crisis prevention and intervention,  CAIR  pro-actively projects the multiple images of Muslim...
Summary <ul><li>IMAN  (2010) in Chicago is a community-based organization which “works to serve and empower disadvantaged ...
Table 1: Interfaith Dialogue, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building Outcomes Issues Places Stereotypes of Muslims Ins...
Importance to Research & Practice <ul><li>This research shows how  social work and community development programs of organ...
Importance to Research & Practice <ul><li>This research shares the  best practices  of organizations in working to  dispel...
Implications <ul><li>Especially after 9/11, Muslims face real problems of  discrimination  on a daily basis.  </li></ul><u...
Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
 
References <ul><li>ABC News (2008) Common Misunderstandings about Muslims. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://abcnews.go.c...
Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transfor...
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Reyty Islam Ty Al Karzon Hunting Orig

  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building © 2010 Rey Ty, Awni Al-Karzon & Eric Hunting Islam:
  3. 3. Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
  4. 4. Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
  5. 5. E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
  6. 6. Acknowledgment <ul><li>Rey Ty & Awni Al-Karzon would like to thank the following for her support: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lina Ong, Director </li></ul><ul><li>International Training Office </li></ul><ul><li>Division of International Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Illinois University </li></ul>
  7. 7. Abstract <ul><li>Islam is a religion of peace. </li></ul><ul><li>But many have a prejudicial attitude toward Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes of Muslim minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Face discrimination daily </li></ul><ul><li>While there are basic tenets in Islam, Muslims, </li></ul><ul><li>But there are intra-faith debates </li></ul><ul><li>Especially after 9/11, Muslims are stereotyped as terrorists </li></ul><ul><li>Many institutions pro-actively react by implementing community education and popular education programs that promote interfaith understanding, conflict transformation, and peace building in energetic social movements. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction
  9. 10. Statement of the Problem
  10. 12. Research Questions
  11. 13. Perspectives <ul><li>Role of non-formal education in providing adult, community education that brings about community transformation which benefits society (Finger, 1989; Holst, 2002). </li></ul>
  12. 14. Definition <ul><li>Non-formal education is “any organized educational activity outside the established formal system...that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives” (Coombs, Prosser & Ahmed, 1973, p. 11). </li></ul>
  13. 15. Definition <ul><li>Conflict transformation is the process of constructive change, involving comprehensive, pro-active, long-term, social-justice-related actions on the levels of “direct interaction and social structures,” (Lederach, 2003, p. 14). </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the social and political causes of conflict (Lederach, 2003), conflict transformation aims to reduce violence, increase justice, and response to real-world social problems (Lederach, 2003). </li></ul>
  14. 16. Definition <ul><li>Addressing the root causes of violent conflicts, peace building strategies seek to meet “basic needs for security and order, shelter, food, and clothing” (Griffiths & O’Callaghan, 2003, p. 234). Peace building involves “the practical implementation of peaceful social change through socio-economic development” (Ryan, 1995, p. 102). By involving activities that meet the basic needs, peace building de-escalates the conflict and improves “the relationship of parties engaged in…social conflict” (Ryan, p. xiv). </li></ul>
  15. 17. Organizational Level of Analysis
  16. 19. Findings
  17. 20. Findings I <ul><li>Misconceptions & Stereotypes about Islam </li></ul>
  18. 21. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Some biological anthropologists and scientists argue male humans have an innate proclivity to be aggressive and to defend their territory with the use of violence (Wrangham & Peterson, 2005). </li></ul>
  19. 22. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Other biological anthropologists insist that violence is a result of culture and upbringing (Sussman, 2005). </li></ul>
  20. 23. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>The sources of ethnic conflicts are historical, social, economic, political, cultural, or religious injustice, discrimination, or prejudice , clinging to stereotypes about groups and relating them to individuals (Kottak, 2000). </li></ul>
  21. 24. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Prejudice means looking down on “a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes” (Kottak, 2000, p. 124). </li></ul>
  22. 25. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Muslims in many parts of the world face stereotypes and discrimination . </li></ul>
  23. 26. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Stereotypes refer to “fixed ideas —often unfavorable—about what members of a group are like” (Kottak, 2000, p. 125). </li></ul>
  24. 27. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Discrimination means “policies and practices that harm a group and its members” (Kottak, 2000, p. 125). </li></ul>
  25. 28. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In many parts of the world where Muslims are minorities, such as in the Philippines, the U.S. and Israel, Muslims are stereotyped as radicals and terrorists . </li></ul>
  26. 29. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In Sri Lanka , Muslims are stereotyped as good in business and earning money . </li></ul>
  27. 30. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In the Philippines , Muslims are typecast as lazy, uncivilized, dirty, and war-mongering . </li></ul>
  28. 31. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>True, there are individuals who are Muslims who commit acts of terror but individuals do not represent the whole group, as there are Christians, Hindus, Buddhists and Jews who commit terrorist acts. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Hence, characterizing all Muslims as terrorists is an unjust stereotype, discrimination, and prejudice . </li></ul>
  30. 33. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>In post-9/11, Muslims in the U.S. face the same forms of stereotypes as the rest of the Islamic world. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>Islam and hence Muslims are generally stereotyped as promoting violence and terrorism , are predominately Arab , and subjugate women by rigid interpretations of Islam. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>While only 18-20% of the world’s Muslim population is Arab, the U.S. Muslim population is comprised of a diverse background. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>According to the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR, 2010), there are an estimated 7 million Muslims residing in the U.S. currently. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Misconceptions & Stereotypes <ul><li>The Muslim-American population consists of a variety of ethnicities and nationalities, but primarily comprised of those of South Asian descent from the Indian subcontinent, and native-born African Americans (U.S. Department of State, 2010). </li></ul>
  35. 38. Findings II
  36. 41. Debates
  37. 42. Debates
  38. 43. Debates
  39. 44. Debates
  40. 45. Debates
  41. 46. Debates
  42. 47. Debates
  43. 48. Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Fully covered in veil </li></ul>
  44. 49. Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Hijab </li></ul>
  45. 50. Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Hijab </li></ul>
  46. 51. Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Benazir Bhutto wears the veil fashionably </li></ul>
  47. 52. Debates about Veiling <ul><li>Muslim Jordanian Queen Rania defies stereotypes </li></ul>
  48. 53. Debates <ul><li>To counter Islamic extremism, Syria banned the use of the full face veil at universities in 2010 in order to keep its secular identity (BBC, 2010 July 19). </li></ul>
  49. 54. Debates <ul><li>“ France’s lower house of parliament has overwhelmingly approved a bill that would ban wearing the Islamic full veil in public” (BBC, 2010 July 13). </li></ul>
  50. 55. Debates <ul><li>Egypt’s highest Muslim authority, Sheikh Mohamed Tantawi, dean of al-Azhar University, “called full-face veiling a custom that has nothing to do with the Islamic faith ” and “will issue a religious edict against the growing trend for full women’s veils, known as niqab ” (BBC 2010 August 9). </li></ul>
  51. 56. Debates
  52. 57. Findings III
  53. 58. Findings III
  54. 59. Organizations <ul><li>Many organizations and institutions are working to uplift the status of Muslims and erase the negative image and stereotypes to which Islam has been attached. </li></ul>
  55. 60. International Training Office <ul><li>Bi-Communal Cyprus Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Lina Ong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox Greek Cypriots & Muslim Turkish Cypriots </li></ul></ul>
  56. 61. International Training Office <ul><li>Grassroots Organizing by Women (GROW) Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Jaya Gayanayake, Dr. Phyllis Cunningham, & Dr. Laurel Jeris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Jorge Jeria, Dr. Gene Roth, Dr. Kay Forest, Dr. Sabiha Daudi, Dr. Cindy Campbell, Dr. Krishnamurthi Murali, Dr. Lina Ong, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission: to enhance “the capacities of leaders of four women’s NGOs in Sri Lanka to face challenges and to create opportunities to strengthening women’s participation in grassroots democracy.” (GROW I & II Websites) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 62. International Training Office <ul><li>Philippine Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North-South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lina Ong, Dr. Sue Russell </li></ul>
  58. 63. International Training Office <ul><li>Work with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner City Muslim Action Network (IMAN) </li></ul></ul>
  59. 64. Baitona <ul><li>Stereotyped as suffering from male domination, Palestinian women are expected to be submissive and play traditional roles only. </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs provide adult education opportunities that respond to the needs of Palestinian women. </li></ul>
  60. 65. Baitona <ul><li>Established in 2003, Baitona for Community Development is a well-known and active NGO in Gaza Strip. </li></ul><ul><li>Baitona provides education, health, and relief to civil society in Palestine. </li></ul>
  61. 66. Baitona <ul><li>Empower women and increase their involvement in society and participation in economic development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training and income-generating projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership programs for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop the personal and intellectual strengths of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child-care facilities for women seeking jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning competencies to support women’s self-learning. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 67. CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enhances “understanding of Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empower American Muslims, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding </li></ul></ul>
  63. 68. CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opposes domestic policies that limit civil rights, permit racial, ethnic or religious profiling, infringe on due process, or that prevent Muslims and others from participating fully in American civic life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allies with secular and religious groups “that advocate justice and human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condemns all acts of violence against civilians by any individual, group or state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports equal and complementary rights and responsibilities for men and women </li></ul></ul>
  64. 69. CAIR <ul><li>Council on American-Islamic Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>civil rights work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education (including seminars, workshops, and conferences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>action alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voter registration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outreach and interfaith relations </li></ul></ul>
  65. 70. IMAN <ul><li>Responding to “inner-city poverty,” the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN, 2010) provides “space for Muslims in Urban America by inspiring the larger community towards critical civic engagement” that exemplifies “compassion in the work for social justice and human dignity beyond the barriers of religion, ethnicity, and nationality.” </li></ul>
  66. 71. IMAN <ul><li>Propelled by “human compassion,” IMAN is a community-based non-profit organization “that works for social justice, delivers a range of social services, and cultivates the arts in urban communities.” </li></ul>
  67. 72. Conclusion
  68. 74. Summary <ul><li>Muslim minorities are survivors of name-calling & stereotypes in predominantly non-Muslim societies </li></ul><ul><li>But Muslims are not all alike! </li></ul>
  69. 75. Summary
  70. 76. Summary <ul><li>The International Training Office of NIU, of which Dr. Lina Ong is the Director, has several successful programs for interfaith and inter-ethnic dialogue , community activism, leadership trainining, which bring together Christians, Muslims, and indigenous peoples, who return to their communities to implement various projects that promote interfaith goodwill and inter-ethnic understanding. </li></ul>
  71. 77. Summary <ul><li>In violence-filled Palestine , Baitona workers organize the community, help the poor, and provide services to empower women and children. </li></ul>
  72. 78. Summary <ul><li>In terms of crisis prevention and intervention, CAIR pro-actively projects the multiple images of Muslims in the U.S. and quickly responds when a burning issue affecting Muslims erupts. </li></ul>
  73. 79. Summary <ul><li>IMAN (2010) in Chicago is a community-based organization which “works to serve and empower disadvantaged individuals and communities” through direct services, organizing and social justice, and the arts and culture. </li></ul>
  74. 80. Table 1: Interfaith Dialogue, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building Outcomes Issues Places Stereotypes of Muslims Institutions Conflict Transformation Peace-Building Outcomes Cyprus Modern, but poor and dirty ITO NIU Youth activism and conflict transformation Increased bi-communal Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot interactions Israel and Palestine Bombers, terrorists Baitona Education, health, and relief Empowerment of women and children Philippines Uncivilized, war mongering, terrorists ITO NIU Interfaith dialogue, youth leadership, and community projects Coalition work among Muslims, indigenous peoples, and Christians Sri Lanka Good in business and earning money ITO NIU Development and income-generating projects Heightened cooperation and empowerment of grassroots Muslim, Tamil and Singhalese women U.S.A. Terrorists CAIR and IMAN Organizing, community education and social action Improved interfaith understanding, cooperation, coalition, and alliance work
  75. 81. Importance to Research & Practice <ul><li>This research shows how social work and community development programs of organizations and social movements play an important role in advancing the equal or civil rights of Muslims so that they will be empowered & treated fairly and equally in society at large. </li></ul>
  76. 82. Importance to Research & Practice <ul><li>This research shares the best practices of organizations in working to dispel myths about Muslims. </li></ul>
  77. 83. Implications <ul><li>Especially after 9/11, Muslims face real problems of discrimination on a daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The efforts of adult and community educators to dispel misconceptions about Islam and Muslims prove to be constructive, effective, and successful. </li></ul><ul><li>More community and adult educators need to take up this challenge of working to break myths and stereotypes, in particular, with respect to Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>They can do their share in facilitating the common folk’s knowledge about Muslims and Islam based on facts so that Muslims in society at large will be treated fairly, as everyone else in society wants to be treated fairly. </li></ul>
  78. 84. Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
  79. 85. Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
  80. 86. E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
  81. 88. References <ul><li>ABC News (2008) Common Misunderstandings about Muslims. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1. </li></ul><ul><li>Baitona. Baitona. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from www.baitona.org. </li></ul><ul><li>BBC. (2010 August 9). Egypt cleric ‘to ban full veils.’ Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8290606.stm. </li></ul><ul><li>BBC. (2010 July 13). French MPs vote to ban Islamic full veil in public. Retrieved July 13, 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10611398. </li></ul><ul><li>BBC. (2010 July 19). Syria bans face veils at universities Retrieved August 2, 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-10684359. </li></ul><ul><li>CAIR. (2010). Our vision, mission and core principles. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.cair.com/AboutUs/VisionMissionCorePrinciples.aspx. </li></ul><ul><li>CAIR. (2010). CAIR Chicago. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://chicago.cair.com/. </li></ul><ul><li>Coombs, P. H., Prosser, R. C. & Ahmed, M. (1973). New paths to learning for children and youth . New York: International Council for Educational Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>English translation of the Meaning of the Quran . (2005). (S. V. Ahamed, Trans.). Lombard, IL: Book of Signs Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Finger, M. (1989). New social movements and their implications for adult education. Adult Education Quarterly , 40 (1), 15-22. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffiths, M. & O’Callaghan, T. (2003). International relations: Key concepts . New York: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>GROW. (2010). Grassroots Organizing by Women (GROW). Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.niu.edu/srilankaproj/. </li></ul><ul><li>GROW II. (2010). Grassroots Organizing by Women II (GROW II). Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.niu.edu/grow2/. </li></ul><ul><li>International Training Offce. (2010). International Training Office. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from www.niu.edu/ito. </li></ul><ul><li>Holst, J. (2002). Social movements, civil society, and radical education . West Point, CT: Bergin and Garvey. </li></ul><ul><li>IMAN. (2010). About IMAN. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.imancentral.org/. </li></ul><ul><li>ITO. (2010). International Training Office. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from www.niu.edu/ito. </li></ul><ul><li>Kottak, C. P. (2000). Anthropology: The exploration of human diversity . (8 th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Lederach, J. P. (2003). The little book of conflict transformation . Intercourse, PA: Good Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Lederach, J. P. & Mansfield, K. (2010). Strategic Peacebuilding Pathways. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from http://kroc.nd.edu/alumni/career-resources/strategic-peacebuilding-pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald, Kevin. (2006). Global Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan, S. (1995). Ethnic conflict and international relations . Aldershot, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalker, J. (2001). Misogyny, women, and obstacles to tertiary education: A vile situation. Adult Education Quarterly, 51 (4), 288-305. </li></ul><ul><li>Sussman, R. W. (2005). Demonic males: Exploring our basic human nature. In K. M. Endicott & R. L. Welsch (Eds.). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology (3 rd ed.) (pp. 18-25). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Department of State. Being Muslim in America. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://www.america.gov/publications/books/being-muslim-in-america.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrangham, R. & Peterson, R. (2005). Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. In K. M. Endicott & R. L. Welsch (Eds.). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology (3 rd ed.) (pp. 26-35). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. </li></ul>
  82. 89. Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building © 2010 Rey Ty, Awni Al-Karzon & Eric Hunting Islam:

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