Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano Topics Outline
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Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano Topics Outline Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano Topics Outline Presentation Transcript

  • The Ties that Bind: Social Injustice, Armed Conflict, Transformative Peace Education, & Social Change in the Southern Philippines Rey Ty
  • Introduction
    • “ Through the eyes of a child the words rebellion, war, revolution,& conflicts made me wonder why these things happen.”
    • “ I wish to see… peace...”
    • “ I have my own distinct passion for peace. “
    From an Artifact: (A Female Muslim Student Leader)
  •  
  • Description: Philippine Peace Education Program at NIU 2003-2008
    • About 5-8 Adult Leaders
    • 124 Persons Trained at NIU
    • More women! 
    • April 2008: 27 more
    • Total: 151 (2008)
    • State Department Grant
    • Each year: 21-26 Youth/Student Leaders (15-17 Years Old)
  •  
  • Purpose
    • 1. To depict the perceptions of participants in the Philippine peace education programs at NIU, 2003 to 2007
    • 2. To investigate how the participants get involved in actually transforming a war-ravaged region
  • Framework
    • Freire’s Critical Pedagogy (1970)
    • Interpretation of Cultures, Thick Description (Geertz, 1973)
    • Stories, Live as Lived (Abu-Lughod, 1993)
  • Conceptual Framework Personal Care Environmental Care Intercultural Solidarity & Common Humanity Human Rights & Responsibilities Justice & Compassion Conflict Resolution Peace
  • Conceptual Framework Conflict Resolution Non- Judicial Quasi- Judicial Judicial -Negotiations -Inquiry -Mediation -Conciliation -Arbitration -Adjudication -Domestic Courts -International Courts
  • Literature on the Components of Peace: 45 Peer Reviewed Journal Articles Authors Components Johnson & Johnson (2005) Rauch & Steiner (2006) United Nations University for Peace (2007) Conflict resolution Negotiation and mediation Peace education Conflict resolution Constructive controversy discourse Values Civic values X Justice and compassion Common goals & fate Human rights and responsibilities Unity in Diversity Integrated school Development education and global learning Intercultural solidarity and common humanity Environment X Environmental education Environmental care The Individual X X Personal care
  • Literature on the Content of Peace Education: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Content Recognize shared values Nolan (2007) Respect differences Nolan (2007) Analyze social systems Galtung (1969) Bischoff & Moore (2007) Challenge oppressive social structures Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Inculcate values such as justice and human rights values Narsee (2005) Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Promote mutual understanding Magolda (2002) Consider the historical and social contexts Jones (2005) Conduct needs assessment Jones (2005) Move toward moral inclusion Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Work with community Bretherton, Weston, & Zbar (2005) Study the long-term impact Davies (2005)
  • Instructional Strategies of Successful Peace Education Programs: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Instructional Strategies Critical thinking Mahrouse (2006) Engage in active, practical learning Biachoff & Moore (2007) Be practical, not didactic Wessells (2005) Use oral history Bischoff & Moore (2007) Listen to collective narratives Al-Jafar & Buzzelli (2004) Kupermintz & Salomon (2005) Critically assess the importance of cognitive, emotional, motivational or behavioral components Yablon (2007) Use technology Vrasidas & Associates (2007) Avoid Euro-centrism Berlowitz, Long, & Jackson (2006) Avoid blindly importing U.S. models Jones (2005) Ask participants what the content and methodologies they believe are appropriate Tatar & Horenczyk (2003)
  • Critique of the Literature
    • 1. Components of Peace
      • Gender!
      • Ethnicity, class, & religion !
    • 2. Content of Peace Education Program
      • Contextual!
      • Economic & Social Justice issues too
      • Armed conflict!
    • 3. Teaching & Learning Strategies
      • Must not just be reactive
      • Community based!
      • Workshops great but not all!
  • Methodology: Description of Site & Participants Interviewees Online Open-Ended Questionnaire Online Questionnaire Respondents Focus Group in Albuquerque, New Mexico Focus Group in Salt Lake City, Utah 1 A.A. 2 A.G.A. 3 A.R.B. A.R.B. 4 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 5 M.K. M.K. M.K. 6 Tess D.L. 7 L.J. L.J. 8 J.L. 9 C.D.O. 10 L.D.O. 11 C.P. 12 S.R. (Anthro Pofessor) + Rommel 13 K.W. (Anthro Professor) K.W. (Anthro Professor) TOTAL 4 36/98 2003-2005 Batch 12/26 2005-2006 Batch 3 3
  • Data Collection Procedures
      • Interviews
      • Focus Groups
      • Observation
      • Artifacts
      • Online Qualitative Survey Questionnaires
  • Data Analysis
      • Open Coding
      • Predominant Coding Categories
      • Inductive Analysis
  • Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batches 2003-2005)
    • Questionnaire 1
    • Respondents
      • 36/98 Total # of Participants Replied
    Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batch 2006-2007)
    • Questionnaire 2
    • Total # of Participants: 26
    • 11 Respondents from Participants, Faculty & Staff
  • Online Questionnaire: 36 Respondents (Batches 2003-2006)
  • Online Questionnaire: 11 Respondents (Batch 2006-2007)
  • Artifacts Archival Documents, Photos, Art Work & Photo Essays
  • Research Questions
    • 1. How do people involved in the peace education program perceive social injustice in the southern Philippines?
    • 2. In what ways is the role of peace education programs depicted ?
    • 3. What knowledge, skills and values do the Philippine peace education programs provide to community leaders?
    • 4. In what ways do participants of these educational programs accept, act out, reject, or convert these knowledge, skills, and values?
  • Findings: In their own words & drawings…
  • Findings #1: Social Problems
    • Social Volcano
    • Injustice Muslim-Christian Divide
    • Ethnic Divide
    • Oppression of Indigenous Peoples
    • Suffering
    • Environmental Destruction
    • Corruption
    • Criminality
    • Repression
  • Roots of the Conflict
    • Historically, never conquered by Spain
    • State-sponsored & individual migration to the homelands of the Moros & indigenous peoples
    • 1970—Jabidah massacre in Corregidor
    • Moro National Liberation Front launched
    • War over their marginalization, discrimination, loss of their territory, lack of recognition in Philippine history, their identity, religion, and a desire to live in an Islamic state more recently.
  •  
  • Findings #1: Social Problems
    • Secessionist, separatist groups
    • Abu Sayyaf, MILF, MNLF, CPP-NPA
    • Christian majority vs. non-Christian minorities
    • Kidnapping
    • corruption
    • economically deprived people
  • Stereotypes & Prejudice
    • “ Pagans, Immoral, Traitors”
    • Prejudice
  • Findings #2: Peace Education
    • This is good
    • life changing
    • change in me
    • change in others....
    • much confidence
    • change the life of others
    • the program has help me a lot
    • I am more empowered now!
    • realize that there is unity in diversity
    • This program is an excellent one
  • Findings #2: Peace Education
    • think this is the best kind of work that anyone could be doing
    • This is the best approach
    • this is long-term health maintenance almost. Now we already have the disease. We are trying to get at the roots and produce things that will be there for generations. I think it’s the best kind of program.
    • change my attitude towards people of other cultures & religions
    • Stereotypes…were totally eradicated by the program
    • helped me a lot in dealing with different cultures
    • made me a better person
  • Findings #3: (View #1) Personal Transformation
    • life-changing experience.
    • friendlier to other people of other faiths.
    • changed me positively...
    • changed my life's mission
    • empowered
    • strengthened further my committment
    • a big impact in my life.
    • i became more sensitive with other religion
  • The Individual !
  • Findings #4: : (View #2) Social Transformation
    • see the world & themselves in a different perspective
    • empower young people
    • empowered the IP youth
    • empower & educate their communities.
  • Conclusion: The Ties that Bind
  • Charting Their Destiny Together
  • Weaving a Tapestry for a Common Future Together
    • Dove of peace
    • Sun of hope
    • Gender Equality
    • Inter-Ethnic Equality
  • Conclusion: Summary
    • In their own words & w/o being asked, many stated that the NIU peace education program has a direct impact on their change for the better: personal transformation & action to promote social change
      • 1. Context of Social Injustice
      • 2. Life-changing experience with NIU Peace Education
        • For themselves
        • Spread to others in their communities
      • 3. Personal Empowerment
        • Self
        • others
      • 4. Spread Peace to Society
        • Community
        • world
  • Conclusion: The Ties that Bind
    • Broader significance of my study
      • Peace education programs in general
    • Implications for teachers & educational policy
      • Interactive learning strategies
      • Non-formal educational settings
      • Skills transfer too! (on conflict resolution)
    • Suggestions for further research
      • Include women always!
      • Other contexts: African, Latin American, Eastern European
      • Intra-faith dialogue too
  • Their Recommendations
    • more interactive discussions
    • more public schools
    • open to all
    • More workshops
    • a structure with which to work on our projects.
    • effective structure
    • adult participants who effectively participate in the activities & help the youth participants.
    • mingle with other people
    • more interaction with youth in the U.S.
  • From Living the Collective Past To Weaving the Collective Future Together
  •  
  •  
  • Woman as a Symbol of Peace
  • Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  • Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  • Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  • Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  • Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  • Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  • Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  • Sun, Globe, Work for Peace
  • Dove, Globe, & Growth
  • Symbols of Peace
  • Abstract: Dove & Kites
  • U.S.-Philippine Unity & Peace
  • Global Peace
  • Local & Global Peace
  • Glossary of Terms
    • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG): A terrorist group in the southern Philippines
    • ACCESS : Access to Community and Civic Enrichment for Students
    • IP: indigenous peoples (who insist on having an “s” at the end)
    • Lumad : Indigenous peoples
    • Maguindanao, Maranao & Tausug : major ethnic groups in the southern Philippines with Islam as their religion
    • Mindanao : Southern Philippines
    • MILF : Moro Islamic Liberation Front
    • MNLF : Moro National Liberation Front
    • Moro People : People of different ethnicities in the southern Philippines who are Muslims
    • PYLP : Philippines Youth Leadership Project
    • Subanon, Talaandig & T’Boli : some major ethnic groups who belong to the Lumad (or indigenous peoples’ group)
    • Tri-People : Indigenous peoples, Muslims, & Christians
  • Thank You!