Human Rights, Conflict Transformation & Peace Building (c) 2011-07-07a "Rey Ty"
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"Human Rights" "Conflict Transformation" "Peace Building" (c) 2011-07-07a "Rey Ty"

"Human Rights" "Conflict Transformation" "Peace Building" (c) 2011-07-07a "Rey Ty"

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Human Rights, Conflict Transformation & Peace Building (c) 2011-07-07a "Rey Ty" Human Rights, Conflict Transformation & Peace Building (c) 2011-07-07a "Rey Ty" Presentation Transcript

  • Human Rights, Conflict Transformation & Peace Building: 2011 Rey Ty The Role of the State, NGOs, Social Movements & Civil Society in the Struggle for Power, Social Justice & Social Change in the Philippines
  • Outline
    • Introduction
    • Literature Review
    • Research Process
    • Findings
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Introduction 2011 Rey Ty
  •  
  • Purpose of the Study
    • To investigate the role, experiences, perceptions of & social issues that affect popular educators actively involved in civil society, NGOs & social movements to bring about social transformation.
    2011 Rey Ty
  • 2011 Rey Ty
  • Conceptual Framework 2011 Rey Ty X Functionalism
  • Definition
    • Popular Education (Pop Ed) : Non-formal learning opportunities that social movements provide to people at the grassroots level, dealing with such issues as social justice, peace, human rights, gender, environment, and development (Claude, 2010; Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1988; Jarvis, 1999).
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Definition
    • Power : “a whole series of particular mechanisms, definable and defined, which seem likely to induce behaviors or discourses” (Foucault, 2007, p. 60).
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Definition 2011 Rey Ty “ any modification in the social organization of a society in any of its social institutions or social roles” (Tischler, 2002, p. 562)
  • Definition 2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review 2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • United Nations (1993)
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • Social Justice
    2011 Rey Ty Deductive Inductive Pre-conceived highest goals Social realities Chomsky (2006); Rawls (1971) Sen (2009); United Nations (2002); Zinn (2010);
  • Literature Review
    • Peace (United Nations University for Peace 2011)
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • “ Peace Building” as short hand
    2011 Rey Ty Terms Defined Source P. Making Negotiated resolution (Ryan, 1995) P. Keeping U.N. blue helmets United Nations P. Building Practical approach in resolving conflict Lederach (2009)
  • Human Rights Mediate Power & Justice in Historically & Socially Determined Contexts 2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • “ Conflict Transformation” as short hand
    2011 Rey Ty Terms Defined Source Conflict Prevention Avoid hostilities Goldstein (2004) C. Resolution Pacific, Short of W. & War U.N. & ICRC C. Settlement End C. thru peace agreement Goldstein (2004) C. Management Avoid, compete, compromise, accommodate or collaborate Zartman (2007) C. Transformation Constructive social-justice-related change Lederach (2003)
  • Literature Review
    • State-Civil Society Relations
    Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  • 2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society, Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social Movements Engaged in Work for Social Change
    Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  • Literature Review
    • The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society, Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social Movements Engaged in Work for Social Change
    Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  • Research Process 2011 Rey Ty
  • 2011 Rey Ty
  • Levels of Analysis 2011 Rey Ty
  • Philosophy of the Research 2011 Rey Ty Assumptions Questions Features 1. Ontology What is the nature of the world? There is an objective reality which people perceive subjectively . 2. Paradigm What are the sources of domination and liberation? Critical structuralism 3. Epistemology What is the relationship between the research and the research participants? The research participants and I are co-learners and co-producers of knowledge . 4. Axiology What are my and the research participants’ values? Unlike uncritical research, this study assigns immense importance to values . 5. Rhetoric How are the data presented? Data are presented in my and the research participants’ narratives in the personal voices. Terms appropriate to qualitative research will be used. 6. Methodology What is the research process? The research is inductive , contextualized , and does not use but develops an emerging grounded theory.
  • Positionality
    • Dialectics of Justice, Power & Change : Ontological Debates between Foucault vs. Chomsky
    • Interactive Materialism: Structure & Agency
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Qualitative Research Design 2011 Rey Ty Theory Building Defined Source 1. Analytic Induction Find commonalities & generality Krathwohl (1997) 2. Constant Comparative Method Constantly compare concepts with the new field data Krathwohl (1997) 3. Troublesome Trinity Data collection (theoretical sampling), constant comparison & category saturation Hood (2007)
  • Research Data Collection Methods
    • Qualitative Study
    • Interviews (Self-Reports)
    • Participant Observations
    • Archival Documents
    • Artifacts, Photos, Videos
    • Field Notes & Memos
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Sex of Research Collaborators 2011 Rey Ty Sex Number Female 19 Male 34 Total 53
  • Religions of Research Collaborators 2011 Rey Ty Indigenous Muslim Christian None Total Female 6 3 9 2 19 Male 3 12 16 2 34 Total 9 15 25 4 53
  • Data Analysis 2011 Rey Ty Generation of a Grounded Theory Explaining Popular Educators’ Response to Social Reality Steps Knowledge Production 1. Open Coding Classification and Description of Categories 2. Theoretical or Axial Coding Interpretation of the Relationships among the Categories 3. Selective Coding Construction of a Narrative Storyline based on the Interpretation 4. Visual Representation Constructive of a Visual Logic Model , Matrix, Table, or Diagram
  • Findings 2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • Verbatim excerpts
    • Historical roots & causes of the armed conflict
    • Learning experiences
    • Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • Historical root
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • Historical root
    2011 Rey Ty Causes Corruption Feudalism Foreign Domination Non-Recognition of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, including Access to Health, Education “ Patriarchalism/male chauvinism and Christian chauvinism in relation to non-Christian communities”
  • Findings
    • Historical root
    2011 Rey Ty Hegemonic Power Holders Power Struggle for Counter-Hegemony vs. Oppression & Injustice Government, Armed Forces, foreign corporations, landlords, local big business, religious hierarchy
    • Peasant, labor, women’s, Indigenous, Bangsa Moro (Muslim) & other peoples & community organizations; grassroots religious groups
    • Rebels: NDF, MNLF, MILF
  • Findings
    • Historical root
    “ As with the national situation, the ‘ Mindanao Problem ’ involves foreign domination, poverty, inequality, corruption, and discrimination, all of which lead to endless internal armed conflict between the Philippine government and various rebel groups, such as the National Democratic Front (NDF) and its member organizations, Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). As we work towards a just and long-lasting peace, we enjoin all parties to the armed conflict to respect the laws of war.” (Agustin) 2011 Rey Ty *Bangsa Moro & Lumad*
  • Findings
    • 2. Learning experiences
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • Learning experiences
    • Knowledge Base
      • Development
      • Human Rights
      • Peace
      • Justice
      • Social Change
      • Volunteer Community Social Action
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • Learning experiences
    • Instructional & Learning Experience
      • International Human Rights Advocacy
      • Paralegal Training
      • Public Speaking
      • Culture, Art, Theater, Sports & Dance for Change
      • Planning for Social Change
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty Galtung (1969): systematic, long-term ways social structures negatively affect people as they cannot meet their basic needs; e.g. poverty & oppression
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    Work for Social Change 2011 Rey Ty Action Thrusts Mobilization Learning Doing Effects Focus Bridging the Gap Leadership Community Projects Impact of Actions or Social Results Content Dialogue, workshops Skills development Relief, welfare, development, advocacy Interpersonal and social change Concrete Examples Physically getting together Training and critical reflection Food aid, disaster relief, income generation Immediate relief, economic improvement, consciousness raising
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Findings
    • 3. Educational strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Ty’s Spiral Development Model 2011 Rey Ty
  •  
  • Ty’s Spiral Development Model
  •  
  •  
  • Conclusion 2011 Rey Ty
  • Conclusions
    • Context matters: Inductive approach
    • Social action & social change
    • Process : study historical & social realities, learn concepts & skills, challenge power, engage in social action, & social change
    • Who benefits ? At whose expense?:
      • challenge dominant structure
      • alternative strategies
    • Ordinary people matter: in leadership role for social transformation
    2011 Rey Ty
  • So What? Contributions of Study
      • Historical & socially determined perspectives
      • Realities of armed conflict & the struggle for justice & peace
      • Alternative approaches to counter injustice
      • Insights into civil society
      • Critique of power & justice
      • Socially constructed model grounded on the data
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Now What? Implications for Policy
    • Realization of human rights & social justice to attain peace
    • Allocate resources for education advancing social justice & peace
    • Government funders must assist pop ed but not dictate content & strategies
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Now What? Implications for Adult & Community Education
    • Pop ed as catalyst for social change
    • Social movements are learning sites
    • Organize hitherto unorganized people: organizational capacity building
    • Participatory action research ( PAR )
    • Sway public policy for changes : empower poor, marginalized, exploited & oppressed
    • Struggle for HR, justice & peace is a lifelong, intergenerational process
    2011 Rey Ty
  • Now What? Implications for Further Research
    • State Actors
    • Combatants
    • Qualitative Ethnography : Micro-narrative
    • Quantitative :
      • Gender, religion & ethnicity (IV) & social change (DV)
      • HR & Peace education (IV) & social change (DV)
    2011 Rey Ty
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    2011 Rey Ty
  • Thank You.
  • My activist-friends of the DeKalb Network for Peace & Justice hosted a party after my presentation. Thanks!
  • In memory of
    • My Dad, Ty Eng Po
    • My Mom, Nenita Racaza
    • My Brother, Winifredo
  • Thanks to
    • Cele Meyer & Lolly Voss for organizing & hosting the party!
  • Photos by
    • Leslie Shive
    • Cynthia Winkler
    • Doug Winkler
  • Videos by
    • Leslie Shive
  • Thanks to
    • The International Training Office for refreshments & photo & video documentation