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(c) 2012 Rey Ty Strategic Peacebuilding Schirch

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(c) 2012 Rey Ty Strategic Peacebuilding Schirch

(c) 2012 Rey Ty Strategic Peacebuilding Schirch

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  • Thanks Leban Serto for your comments.
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  • Thank you for sharing this; Lisa Schirch's work on the Secondary violence theory is commendable - it takes us deeper into the discussion of Structural violence given by Johan Galtung and it has been very useful to to help understand the contextual and present situations of violence existing in many societies and countries. Leban Serto, Co-ordinator Peace Studies Department , Martin Luther Christian University, Shillong India. email:leban.serto@gmail.com
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  • 1. Strategic Peacebuilding © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • Definition
    • Values
    • Relational Skills
    • Analysis
    • Processes
    • Waging Conflict Nonviolently
    • Reducing Direct Violence
    • VIII. Transforming Relationships
    • Building Capacity
    • Strategic Design
    • Evaluating & Coordinating Peacebuiding
    • Reference
    • *Note: Not all chapters are discussed here.
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 3. Source: Schirch, Lisa. (2004). The little book of strategic peacebuilding . PA: Good Books. © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 4. Chapter II
    • Definition
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 5. Peacebuilding is not…
    • “ soft or idealistic” (Schirch, p. 9).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 6. Peacebuilding is not… “ the same as conflict transformation”, conflict resolution, or conflict management (Schirch, p. 10). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 7. Peacebuilding is not… “ only for post-war societies (Schirch, p. 10). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 8. Peacebuilding is not… “ based primarily on Western ideas (Schirch, p. 10). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 9. Peacebuilding … “ does not avoid conflict or ignore structural forms of violence and injustice” (Schirch, p. 10). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 10. Schirch, p. 12 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 11. Chapter III
    • Values
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 12. Peacebuilding … “ values meeting human needs and protecting human rights” (Schirch, p. 13). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 13. “ Material needs and rights
    • include food, shelter, water, healthcare, and resources to meet physical needs. They require societies to protect economic rights through distributive justice or a fair distribution of wealth, education, and employment opportunities for all people” (Schirch, p. 14).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 14. “ Social needs and rights
    • include a sense of human dignity, belonging & predictability in relationships, security from attack, participation & influence in making decisions that affect one’s life, & an ability to earn respect & recognition from others” (Schirch, p. 14).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 15. “ They require societies to protect social, civil, & political rights through procedural justice. This includes democratic structures, the enforcement of the rule of law, & social justice programs of empowerment & education that foster cross-cultural understanding” (Schirch, p. 14). Social Needs and Rights © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 16. include the ability to give life meaning through personal, cultural, & religious identities without persecution, threats, or intimidation” (Schirch, p. 14). “ Cultural needs and rights © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 17. “ Cultures & religion give people a sense of meaning, purpose, & identify” (Schirch, p. 14). Cultural Needs and Rights © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 18. “ These needs & rights require societies to protect religious freedoms, minority rights, & other social & civil rights through laws & education programs that foster understanding & tolerance” (Schirch, pp. 14-15). Cultural Needs and Rights © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 19. Chapter IV
    • Relational Skills
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 20. Relational Skills for Peacebuilding
    • Self-reflection
    • Active listening
    • Diplomatic & assertive speaking
    • Appreciative inquiry
    • Creative problem-solving
    • Dialogue
    • Negotiation
    • Mediation
    (Schirch, pp. 19-20). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 21. Chapter V
    • Analysis
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 22. Analysis for Peacebuilding
    • Understand the local context.
    • People who use violence always find a way to justify it.
    • All forms of violence are related.
    (Schirch, pp. 21-22). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 23. Structural Violence
    • “ Structural violence often leads to secondary violence , which includes civil wars, crime, domestic
    violence, substance abuse, and suicide” (Schirch, pp. 21-22). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 24. Schirch, p. 24 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 25. Chapter IX Transforming Relationships © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 26. Transforming Relationships Schirch, p. 46 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 27. Principles of Conflict Transformation
    • “ Identify experiences & issues that have cause a sense of harm, trauma, & injustice.”
    • “ Build relationships between people in conflict, which hopefully lead to forgiveness & to a process of reconciliation.”
    • “ Develop creative solutions that meet everyone’s needs” (Schirch, p. 48).
    4. “Empower all people involved to transform their own conflict” (Schirch, p. 49). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 28. Approaches in Conflict Transformation
    • Dialogue (Schirch, p. 49)
    • Principled Negotiation (p. 50)
    • Mediation (p. 50)
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 29. Doing Justice
    • “ legal and judicial systems” reduce “violence”.
    • But “restorative & transitional justice” transform “relationships” (Schirch, p. 51).
    • “ Where people can be identified clearly as victims & offeders, formal legal & criminal justice systems play an important role in establishing order & doing justice” (Schirch, p. 51).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 30. Doing Justice
    • “ Restorative & transitional justice processes identify the harms, needs, & responsibilities of the people involved in conflict and/or crime, & create solutions that meet those needs” (Schirch, p. 51).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 31. “ Restorative justice processes can serve either as an alternative or as a supplement to state-based criminal justice system” (Schirch, p. 51). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 32. Critique of Criminal Justice
    • Criminal justice “tends to focus on identifying what laws have been broken, and how the state should punish the offender. While this approach has some advantages, a key weakness is that offenders are held accountable to the state instead of to their victims” (Schirch, pp. 51-52).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 33. Critique of Criminal Justice
    • “ Victims are usually left out of the process of justice completely, and their needs and traumas are not addressed” (Schirch, p. 52).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 34. Critique of Criminal Justice
    • “ Offenders are not encouraged to understand & address their responsibility to those they have harmed” (Schirch, p. 52).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 35. Restorative Justice
    • “ Restorative justice engages people in joint processes of identifying obligations & responsibilities
    resulting from injustice or violence, meeting needs, and promoting healing” (Schirch, p. 52). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 36. Restorative Justice
    • “ Restorative justice focuses on the needs of victims, such as information about the crime, a place to tell their story of victimization, truth telling by the offenders, empowerment in the justice process, and restitution by offenders to victims” (Schirch, p. 52).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 37. “ Key Questions of Restorative Justice”
    • “ Who has been hurt?
    • What are their needs?
    • Who is obligated to meet those needs?
    • Who has been impacted or has a stake in this situation?
    • What processes can be used to involve these stakeholders in finding a solution?” (Schirch, p. 52).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 38. Transitional Justice
    • “ Transitional justice programs operate in post-war contexts where governmental authority is weak or non-existent, particularly in societies emerging from war or dictatorship” (Schirch, pp. 52-53).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 39. Transitional Justice
    • “ Transitional justice programs include setting up new legal and judicial systems that integrate the needs and desires of local people, cultures, and institutions based upon international human rights laws and standards” (Schirch, p. 53).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 40. Transitional Justice
    • “ They attempt to do justice with a view toward making peace. Increasingly, they
    include a truth and/or reconciliation commission that uses some restorative justice principles” (Schirch, p. 53). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 41. Truth & Reconciliation Processes
    • “ Truth & reconciliation processes aim to identify people or groups that attacked civilians, and to give victims a process to identify their needs and to receive symbolic & financial reparations. The
    sheer number of offenses and the delay in investigations into war crimes make identifying offenders difficult, time-consuming, and expensive” (Schirch, p. 53). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 42. Truth & Reconciliation Processes
    • “ Offenders are often unwilling to confess their crimes for fear of punishment and because they see their actions through the lens of self-defense or as an effort to achieve their own sense of justice” (Schirch, p. 53).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 43. Truth & Reconciliation Processes
    • “ Truth & reconciliation programs such as the South African Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC) may offer human rights violators some sort of amnesty in exchange for their admission of guilt. Amnesty programs give individual offenders incentives to reveal the facts of their crimes needed by victims & their families” (Schirch, p. 53).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 44. Truth & Reconciliation Processes
    • “ A compromise between amnesty programs and punishment-based justice may include more steps for holding offenders directly accountable to victims and for making reparations to them” (Schirch, p. 53).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 45. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation “ In many formal peace talks, facilitators organize elaborate meals for participants” (Schirch, p. 54).
  • 46. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation
    • “ In trauma healing work, candle-light, prayers, or ceremonies help people feel safe to express their emotions & share their trauma” (Schirch, p. 54).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 47. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation
    • “ In the courtroom, symbols of justice help mark the special authority and seriousness of doing justice” (Schirch, p. 54).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 48. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation
    • “ Ritual helps transform people’s identity from being victims of trauma to survivors of trauma” (Schirch, p. 54).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 49. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation
    • “ In mediations, a closing ritual can help people identify themselves as fellow problem-solvers rather than parties to a conflict” (Schirch, p. 54).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 50. Ritual & Symbolic Transformation
    • “ In some cultures, traditional rituals of sacrificing a bull or goat, drinking a special tea or liquor, or holding a formal ceremony are essential to peacebuilding” (Schirch, p. 54).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 51. Summary
    • “ The quality of relati-onships between peacebuilders & the communities they serve impacts how effective they will be in mobilizing the communities where they serve” (Schirch, p. 55).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 52. Chapter X
    • Capacity Building
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 53. Approaches to Building Capacity
    • Education
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 54. Education
    • “ Peace education explores the causes of conflict & the conditions of peace” (Schirch, p. 57).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 55. Education
    • “ Conflict transformation training provides an opportunity to learn analytical, communication, & relationship skills” (Schirch, p 57).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 56. Education
    • “ Human rights education seeks to empower people to know & articulate their human rights & helps people know how to use international laws & judicial systems to protect these rights” (Schirch p. 57).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 57. Education
    • “ Environmental education increases awareness about the impact of human activity on the environment & about sustainable ways humans can live with minimal negative impact on the environment” (Schirch, p. 57).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 58. Education
    • “ The media is a form of education as it provides information & shapes peoople’s worldviews” (Schirch, p. 57).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 59. Development
    • Economic Development
    Schirch, p. 59 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 60. Development Political development Schirch, p. 59 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 61. Development Social or community development Schirch, p. 59 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 62. Development
    • Reconstruction
    Schirch, p. 60 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 63. Military Conversion
    • “ demobilize, resettle, & retrain former combatants to live & participate in their communities”
    Schirch, p. 61 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 64. Research & Evaluation
    • “ Researching the dynamics & causes of conflict can alleviate the conflict as people involved in the process gain greater insight…”
    “ Evaluative research aims to learn from current & past efforts to build peace. What worked? How did it work? What did not work?” (Schirch, p. 61). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 65. Chapter XI Strategic Design © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 66. The Strategic “What”
    • A Local Capacity for Peacebuilding (Schirch, p. 64)
    • Needs Assessment (p. 65)
    • Connectors & D ividers (p. 65)
    • Framing (p. 65)
    • Persuasion & Coercion (p. 66)
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 67. Levels of Transformation
    • Personal
    • Relational
    • Cultural
    • Structural
    • (Schirch, p. 67)
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 68. Schirch, p. 68 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 69. Key People & Critical Mass Vertical & Horizontal Capacity, Schirch, p. 71 © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 70. The Strategic “When” © 2012 Rey Ty Schirch, p. 75
  • 71. The Strategic “When”
    • Pre-Violence
    • Violence
    • Post-Violence
    • (Schirch, p. 75)
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 72. Pre-Violence
    • “ Before violence breaks out, structural forms of violence often exist….unfair distribution of resources or a violation of
    Human rights. Preventative peacebuild-ing programs intervene before mass vio-lence erupts…. (Schirch, p. 75) © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 73. Pre-Violence
    • “ Early warning & response projects aim to monitor conflicts in their early stage & send an alarm to the international community, govern-ments & nongovernmental organiza-tions before violence begins” (Schirch, p. 75).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 74. Pre-Violence
    • “ Through advocacy & other forms of strategic action, nonviolent activists can wage conflict by drawing national & international, national, & community leaders can work together to
    express & address the issues democratically, convincing people that negotiation rather violence is the best means for resolving the conflict” (Schirch, pp. 75-76). © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 75. Violence
    • “ Conflicts are ‘ripe’ for negotiation when power is roughly balanced and there is wide awareness of key issues” (Schirch, p. 76).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 76. Schirch, p. 78 © 2012 Rey Ty Evaluating Conflict Ripeness
  • 77. Principles of Strategic Peacebuilding Practice
    • Reflect on values
    • Analyze conflict & violence
    • Address basic needs & rights
    • Plan long term
    • Transform whole systems
    • Coordinate approaches & actors
    • Identify & create power
    • Empower others
    • See culture as a resource
    • Innovate & use creativity
    • (Schirch, pp. 70-80)
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 78. Post-Violence
    • “ After war, societies need to disarm & reintegrate armed people, address trauma, & rebuild infrastructure” (Schirch, pp. 76-77).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 79. Post-Violence
    • “ Capacity-building programs can help societies develop ongoing peace & human rights education, create opportunities for social & economic development, & channel research funds into creating democratic structures that are culturally based” (Schirch, p. 77).
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 80. Chapter XII Evaluating & Coordinating Peacebuilding © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 81. “ Without coordination, different approaches to building peace may contradict other approaches or simply fail to achieve their maximum impact” (Schirch, p. 83) © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 82. Summary
    • Introduction
    • Definition
    • Values
    • Relational Skills
    • Analysis
    • Processes
    • Waging Conflict Nonviolently
    • Reducing Direct Violence
    • VIII. Transforming Relationships
    • Building Capacity
    • Strategic Design
    • Evaluating & Coordinating Peacebuiding
    • Reference
    • *Note: Not all chapters are discussed here .
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 83. Reference:
    • Schirch, Lisa. (2004). The little book of strategic peacebuilding . PA: Good Books.
    © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 84. The End © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 85. What is your critique? Critical Reflection © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 86. © 2012 Rey Ty
  • 87. Music by
    • Ryan Harvey