include food, shelter, water, healthcare, and resources to meet physical needs. They require societies to protect economic rights through distributive justice or a fair distribution of wealth, education, and employment opportunities for all people” (Schirch, p. 14).
include a sense of human dignity, belonging & predictability in relationships, security from attack, participation & influence in making decisions that affect one’s life, & an ability to earn respect & recognition from others” (Schirch, p. 14).
“ Restorative & transitional justice processes identify the harms, needs, & responsibilities of the people involved in conflict and/or crime, & create solutions that meet those needs” (Schirch, p. 51).
Criminal justice “tends to focus on identifying what laws have been broken, and how the state should punish the offender. While this approach has some advantages, a key weakness is that offenders are held accountable to the state instead of to their victims” (Schirch, pp. 51-52).
“ Restorative justice focuses on the needs of victims, such as information about the crime, a place to tell their story of victimization, truth telling by the offenders, empowerment in the justice process, and restitution by offenders to victims” (Schirch, p. 52).
“ Transitional justice programs include setting up new legal and judicial systems that integrate the needs and desires of local people, cultures, and institutions based upon international human rights laws and standards” (Schirch, p. 53).
“ Offenders are often unwilling to confess their crimes for fear of punishment and because they see their actions through the lens of self-defense or as an effort to achieve their own sense of justice” (Schirch, p. 53).
“ Truth & reconciliation programs such as the South African Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC) may offer human rights violators some sort of amnesty in exchange for their admission of guilt. Amnesty programs give individual offenders incentives to reveal the facts of their crimes needed by victims & their families” (Schirch, p. 53).
“ Environmental education increases awareness about the impact of human activity on the environment & about sustainable ways humans can live with minimal negative impact on the environment” (Schirch, p. 57).
“ Early warning & response projects aim to monitor conflicts in their early stage & send an alarm to the international community, govern-ments & nongovernmental organiza-tions before violence begins” (Schirch, p. 75).
“ Capacity-building programs can help societies develop ongoing peace & human rights education, create opportunities for social & economic development, & channel research funds into creating democratic structures that are culturally based” (Schirch, p. 77).