© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical
Theory
Rey Ty
Northern Illinois University
© 2014 Rey Ty
1. Introduce yourself.
2. Identify any one theory
you know & tell us what it
is all about.
Activity
© 2014 Rey Ty
Uncritical Theory, Marxism,
Critical Theory,
Postcolonial Theory &
Critical Race Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Northe...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Dr. Rey Ty
International Training Office
Division of International Affairs
Northern Illinois University
© 2014 Rey Ty
I. Introduction
II. Findings
A. Traditional Theories
B. Classical Marxism
C. Critical Theory
1. In general
2...
© 2014 Rey Ty
OutlineI. Introduction
II. Findings
A. Traditional Theories
B. Classical Marxism
C. Critical Theory
1. In ge...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Ground Rules
Interrupt me
anytime!
© 2014 Rey Ty
Introduction
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Problem
1. In the 1960s, critical
theory has swept the
industrialized Western
Europe.
2. Critical t...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Problem
4. Other voices,
especially of
women &
people of color,
including people
of the African
Dia...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Problem
5. Critical theory is now
mainstreamed as one
of competing
perspectives in the
dominant dis...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Questions
1.What are the
major
characteristics
and
contributions
of critical
theory to
theory
build...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Questions
2. What are the key
features of the
critical
postcolonial
theories of the
African Diaspor...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Questions
3. What are the
chief
elements of
the critical
race theory of
the African
Diaspora in
the...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Questions
4. What about women & LGBTQ?
© 2014 Rey Ty
Research Questions
5. Nature & non-
human animals?
© 2014 Rey Ty
Objective
1. To review the general
contributions of various
authors to critical theory
2. To highlight the v...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Type of Research
1. Integrated critical survey of
literature
2. Original sources
3. In different languages
4...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Findings
© 2014 Rey Ty
Three Major Types of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
What We Do
© 2014 Rey Ty
Examples of
Traditional
Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Traditional Theories
•Examples:
1. Realism & Liberalism
2. Pedagogy & andragogy
3. Educational perennialism ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Traditional Theories
•Critique:
1.“objective”
2.“neutral”
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Opposition to
Traditional
Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
•Traditional
Theories:
–Neutral
•Critical
Theory:
–Partisan
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
• While traditional
theory is
disinterested &
therefore
uncritical, critical
theory...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
Horkheimer (1972, p. 183) is
critical of blind obedience to
“instrumental reason,” ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
Habermas (1889, p. 9)
critiqued the “project of
modernity” as based on
“objective s...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
-Adorno &
Horkheimer
-opposed to Auguste
Comte’s positivism (a
form of empiricism)
...
© 2014 Rey Ty
PositivismBritannica:
1.rationally justifiable assertion can be
scientifically verified or is capable of
log...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
-Adorno (2000, p. 176)
said that there is “no
ethics…in the
administered world”
and...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
-Added Adorno (1974, p. 57):
“People thinking in the forms
of free, detached, disin...
© 2014 Rey Ty
No to Traditional Theory
-Marcuse (2002, p. 41).
-“…specific possibilities
exist for the
amelioration of hum...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Classical
Marxism
© 2014 Rey Ty
Classical Marxism
Critical theory has its roots
in Marx (1967, p. 217), who
insisted that we must be
critica...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Classical Marxism
Marx & Engels
(1967, p. 647)
noted: “The
philosophers have
only interpreted the
world in v...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Classical Marxism
Engels (1967, p. 204) wrote:
“According to the materialist conception of history, the ulti...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Marxism• Class analysis
• Class struggle
© 2014 Rey Ty
Classical Marxism
1. Nature
2. Women
3. Labor
4. Youth
5. Workers of the World
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical
Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Critical theorists
wrongly believed that
they have “rejected
the economic
determinism of
o...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Ideologiekritik:
Critique
of
Ideology
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory• Max Horkheimer:
• Critical theory aims to
“transcend the tension
and abolish the
opposition...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory• Jürgen Habermas:
• "By logical inference from the
prevailing conditions and
institutions, c...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory• Herbert Marcuse:
• “…specific
possibilities exist
for the
amelioration of
human life and
sp...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Michel Foucault
• “the State
consists in the
codification of a
whole number of
power relat...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory• Theodor Adorno (1978,
p. 245) :
• The mass media
numbs sensitivity to
repression
• “the pre...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Herbert Marcuse
(pp. 310-311):
• “the meaning of
words and ideas”
are “established
by the ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Adorno (1978):
• “the cross-section
of attitudes
represents, not an
approximation to
the t...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
•For Habermas,
“communicative
process is the
basis for change”
(xxxx, p. 50).
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Marcuse (1978, p. 8) :
• “aesthetic
transformation” can be
achieved through “a
reshaping o...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Theory
• Marcuse (1989, p. 38):
• the hope for social
transformation springs
from “the outcasts &
o...
© 2014 Rey Ty
• Meaning Making
• Power & Oppression
• Change
Critical Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critique
•White
Privilege
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critique
•Male
Privilege
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Post-
colonial
Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Most theorists thus
far were White men.
• Let’s look at
theorists of the
African Diasp...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• People of the
African Diaspora
– alienation under
colonialism
–racism
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
•Cheikh
Anta
Diop
Postcolonial Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Cheikh Anta Diop
(Senegal, 1923-
1986)
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Cheikh Anta Diop. (1963). The Cultural
Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of
Patriarch...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Léopold
Sédar
Senghor
•Senegal
•1906-2001
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Senghor (Senegal)
–Poet & President
–Close ties with France:
Francophonie
–Indigenous ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Aimé Fernand
David Césaire
(Martinique,
1913-2008)
•-Fanon’s
teacher
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• In Discourse on
Colonialism, Césaire
(1972, p. 26)
criticized European
and U.S. coloni...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Frantz
Fanon
•(Martinique,
1925-1961)
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Desmond
Tutu
•(South
Africa,
Born 1931)
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Activist against apartheid
• Nobel Peace Prize
• Chaired Peace &
Reconciliation Commis...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Théophile
Obenga
•(Congo)
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Obenga (Congo)
–Philosopher,
historian, linguist,
Egyptologist (U
Geneva & Paris
Sorbo...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Léon-Gontran
Damas
•Born in French
Guiana
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Damas
–French poet &
politician
–Published
L’Étudiant Noir
literary review with
Sengho...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
•Kwame
Nkrumah
•Ghana
• Sept. 21, 1909-
April 27, 1972
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Nkrumah (1964, p. iv)
talked about the
“armed struggle…
against the forces of
reaction...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• In Black Skin, White
Masks, Fanon
(1967) recounted
the impact of
imperialism on the
su...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Fanon’s Wretched of
the Earth (1967),
which chronicled the
atrocities that French
troo...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Explaining the reason
for which the colonized
wage revolution against
the violence of ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
• Julius Nyerere
• Tanzania
• Ujamaa: unity,
oneness,
familyhood
• Hip Hop & Rap
Postcolonial Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Read Postcolonial Theorists!
© 2014 Rey Ty
Postcolonial Theory
• Black & White
• Color & “Race”
• Gender
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical
Legal
Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Legal Theory
• Critical legal theory (CLT) & critical race theory
(CRT) trace their roots to critic...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Legal Theory
1. Critical legal theory extends the
underlying thinking of critical
theory based on t...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical
Race
Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
© 2014 Rey Ty
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• Law is inherently political (Crenshaw,
Gotunda, Peller & Thomas, 1995, p. xvii):
• “T...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• Critical legal theory applies critical
theory to law.
• Critical race theory focuses ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• “The failure of the CLS scholars to address racism
in their analysis also renders the...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• Both CLS and CRT
claim that law is not a
neutral arbiter of
contested issues in
human...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• On the other hand,
critical race theory
argues that U.S. law
is in fact a system of
p...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• Not just Black & White
• Individual vs. Group
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Race Theory
• Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and
Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemolog...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Clash of Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
But
Where
Are the
Women?
© 2014 Rey Ty
Women & Girls
• “All elements…
concerning prejudice,
discrimination, war,
violence, distorted
interpretation...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Women & Girls• “There is a system of discrimination, extending far
beyond any small geographical region to t...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Women & Girls
• “Any attempt to provide religious
justification for refusing girls their right to
education ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
http://mic.com/articles/90079/36-men-show-us-what-real-men-s-activists-look-like?utm_source=policymicTWTR&ut...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Feminist Theories
•First Wave: Suffragettes
© 2014 Rey Ty
Feminist Theories
• 2nd
Wave: vs. social, cultural &
political inequality
© 2014 Rey Ty
Feminist Theories
• Betty Friedan. (1963).
Feminine Mystique.
• Wife & mom vs.
education & career
• Freudian...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Feminist Theories
• 3rd Wave: vs. social, cultural & political inequality
• Beyond White only: Different col...
© 2014 Rey Tyhttps://twitter.com/NancyPelosi/status/453558312907182080/photo/1
© 2014 Rey Ty
LGBTQ
© 2014 Rey Ty
LGBTQ
© 2014 Rey Ty
© 2014 Rey Ty
LBGTQ
© 2014 Rey Ty
Radical (Gender System) Feminism
1. Mary Daly (Beyond
God the Father)
2. Andrea Dworkin
3. Catherine MacKinn...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Egalitarian Feminist Theories of Justice
1. Virginia Held
2. Susan Moller Okin
3. Iris Marion Young
4. Sharo...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Socialist & Critical Theory Feminism
1. Barbara Ehrenreich
2. Ann Ferguson
3. Alison Jaggar
4. Nancy Fraser
© 2014 Rey Ty
Development & Environmental Ethics
Vandana
Shiva
© 2014 Rey Ty
Race & Gender
Lee, M., Johnson-
Bailey, J. (2004).
Challenges to the
classroom authority of
women of color. ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Race, Gender, & Capitalism
bell
hooks
© 2014 Rey Ty
Critical Human
Resource Development
Bierema; Fenwick; Sambrook; Kiran Trehan & Clare Rigg
© 2014 Rey Ty
Nature & Animals
© 2014 Rey Ty
Non-Traditional Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
Conclusion
© 2014 Rey Ty
Grounded Model
Critical Race Theory, Critical HRD
Feminism, Nature, Animals
Postcolonial Theory
Critical The...
© 2014 Rey Ty
What Matters?
Time & Space
History & Social Context
Change
X Abstract
© 2014 Rey Ty
•Multiculturalism
•Diversity
•Intersectionality
Neologism
© 2014 Rey Ty
SummaryI. Introduction
II. Findings
A. Traditional Theory
B. Classical Marxism
C. Critical Theory
1. In gene...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Summary1. The construction of social theory has
come a long way, thanks in part to the
contributions of peop...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Implications
1.Critical theory has implications
to educational practices.
Educators need to learn to be
awar...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Implications
2. Educators must discuss
authors of the African Diaspora
not only in Black Studies
courses or ...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Implications3. Instructors & learners must go
beyond English & learn other
languages (such as Swahili,
Arabi...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Implications
4. Always include women!
© 2014 Rey Ty
Non-Traditional Theories
© 2014 Rey Ty
What is most important for you?
1. Class
2. Sex
3. Gender
4. Sexuality
5. Color (Race, Ethnicity)
6. Nature
...
© 2014 Rey Ty
The Road Ahead
• Incomplete project
• What are missing?
• The only thing that is permanent is
change.
© 2014 Rey Ty
Reference1. Adorno, T. (1974). Minima moralia. (E. F. N. Jeffcott, Trans.). London. Verso.
2. Adorno, T. (19...
© 2014 Rey Ty
Rey Ty
© 2014 Rey Ty
Uncritical Theory, Marxism,
Critical Theory,
Postcolonial Theory &
Critical Race Theory
© 2014 Rey Ty
Northe...
© 2014 Rey TyThank You!
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Rey Ty, Critical Theory, Marxism, Postcolonial, Critical Race Theory, Critical Legal Theory

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2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory

  1. 1. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory Rey Ty Northern Illinois University
  2. 2. © 2014 Rey Ty 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Identify any one theory you know & tell us what it is all about. Activity
  3. 3. © 2014 Rey Ty Uncritical Theory, Marxism, Critical Theory, Postcolonial Theory & Critical Race Theory © 2014 Rey Ty Northern Illinois University
  4. 4. © 2014 Rey Ty Dr. Rey Ty International Training Office Division of International Affairs Northern Illinois University
  5. 5. © 2014 Rey Ty I. Introduction II. Findings A. Traditional Theories B. Classical Marxism C. Critical Theory 1. In general 2. Postcolonial Theory 3. Critical Legal & Race Theory a. Black b. Latin@ 4. Feminism & LGBTQ 5. Critical Human Resource Dev’t 6. Nature & Animal Rights III. Conclusion Dr. Rey Ty -Graduate-Level Class -Graham Hall 339, Northern Illinois University, -Wednesday, July 2, 2014 -Starting 6:45 PM http://www.slideshare.net/reyty1/2014-rey-ty-critical-theory Critical Theory
  6. 6. © 2014 Rey Ty OutlineI. Introduction II. Findings A. Traditional Theories B. Classical Marxism C. Critical Theory 1. In general 2. Postcolonial Theory 3. Critical Legal & Race Theory a. Black b. Latin@ 4. Feminism & LGBTQ 5. Critical HRD 6. Nature & Animal Rights III. Conclusion
  7. 7. © 2014 Rey Ty Ground Rules Interrupt me anytime!
  8. 8. © 2014 Rey Ty Introduction
  9. 9. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Problem 1. In the 1960s, critical theory has swept the industrialized Western Europe. 2. Critical theorists exposed and deconstructed the power of the dominant capitalist White male. 3. However, a problem arises. Most of the authors were Judeo- Christian White Western European males only.
  10. 10. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Problem 4. Other voices, especially of women & people of color, including people of the African Diaspora, were still not heard.
  11. 11. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Problem 5. Critical theory is now mainstreamed as one of competing perspectives in the dominant discourses. 6. However, critical writings by people of the African Diaspora are mainly tucked in Black Studies or suggested readings. 7. Rarely hear women’s & LGBTQ voices.
  12. 12. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Questions 1.What are the major characteristics and contributions of critical theory to theory building?
  13. 13. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Questions 2. What are the key features of the critical postcolonial theories of the African Diaspora in the Caribbean, Western Europe and the African Continent?
  14. 14. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Questions 3. What are the chief elements of the critical race theory of the African Diaspora in the U.S.?
  15. 15. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Questions 4. What about women & LGBTQ?
  16. 16. © 2014 Rey Ty Research Questions 5. Nature & non- human animals?
  17. 17. © 2014 Rey Ty Objective 1. To review the general contributions of various authors to critical theory 2. To highlight the voices of women, LGBTQ, postcolonials & authors of the African Diaspora. 3. To present articulations about nature & animal rights.
  18. 18. © 2014 Rey Ty Type of Research 1. Integrated critical survey of literature 2. Original sources 3. In different languages 4. Dig deeper by searching for critical theory beyond the theories of Judeo-Christian White men. 5. Present the views of people of the African Diaspora who extended the dialogue & debate about human & social emancipation. 6. From traditional theory to critical theory, feminist theory, postcolonial theory & critical race theory, etc.
  19. 19. © 2014 Rey Ty Findings
  20. 20. © 2014 Rey Ty Three Major Types of Theories
  21. 21. © 2014 Rey Ty What We Do
  22. 22. © 2014 Rey Ty Examples of Traditional Theories
  23. 23. © 2014 Rey Ty Traditional Theories •Examples: 1. Realism & Liberalism 2. Pedagogy & andragogy 3. Educational perennialism & essentialism 4. Functionalism 5. Instructional theory 6. Educational technology 7. Organizational and leadership theory 8. Cognitive, Humanistic, & Behavioral Learning Theories
  24. 24. © 2014 Rey Ty Traditional Theories •Critique: 1.“objective” 2.“neutral”
  25. 25. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  26. 26. © 2014 Rey Ty Opposition to Traditional Theory
  27. 27. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories •Traditional Theories: –Neutral •Critical Theory: –Partisan
  28. 28. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory • While traditional theory is disinterested & therefore uncritical, critical theory is interested in realizing radical social transformation for human emancipation.
  29. 29. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory Horkheimer (1972, p. 183) is critical of blind obedience to “instrumental reason,” the scientific method and uncritical approval of empirical results, saying that “it is naïve and bigoted to think and speak only in the language of science,” rejecting rational science as the basis of valid knowledge on which arbitrary capitalism is constructed.
  30. 30. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory Habermas (1889, p. 9) critiqued the “project of modernity” as based on “objective science, universal morality and law, and autonomous art according to their inner logic,” for “the rational organization of everyday social life.”
  31. 31. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory -Adorno & Horkheimer -opposed to Auguste Comte’s positivism (a form of empiricism) -as it does not realistically portray social realities.
  32. 32. © 2014 Rey Ty PositivismBritannica: 1.rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof 2.No to metaphysics & theism. 3.Empirio-criticism, logical positivism, and logical empiricism, and analytic philosophy (also called linguistic philosophy).
  33. 33. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory -Adorno (2000, p. 176) said that there is “no ethics…in the administered world” and “the premise of ethics is the critique of the administered world.”
  34. 34. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory -Added Adorno (1974, p. 57): “People thinking in the forms of free, detached, disinterested appraisal were unable to accommodate…the…violence which in reality annuls such thinking.” Critical theorists envision a future society composed of free people, made possible with technical means already at hand.
  35. 35. © 2014 Rey Ty No to Traditional Theory -Marcuse (2002, p. 41). -“…specific possibilities exist for the amelioration of human life & specific ways & means of realizing these possibilities.”
  36. 36. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  37. 37. © 2014 Rey Ty Classical Marxism
  38. 38. © 2014 Rey Ty Classical Marxism Critical theory has its roots in Marx (1967, p. 217), who insisted that we must be critical, “not anticipate the world dogmatically” but be engaged in “relentless criticism for all existing conditions,” as well as not be “afraid of its findings” and “of conflict with the powers that be.”
  39. 39. © 2014 Rey Ty Classical Marxism Marx & Engels (1967, p. 647) noted: “The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.”
  40. 40. © 2014 Rey Ty Classical Marxism Engels (1967, p. 204) wrote: “According to the materialist conception of history, the ultimately determining element in history is the production and reproduction of real life. More than this neither Marx nor I have ever asserted. Hence, if somebody twists this into saying that the economic element is the only determining one, he transforms that preposition into a meaningful, abstract, senseless phrase. The economic situation is the basis, but the various elements of the superstructure—political forms of the class struggles and its results, to wit: constitutions established by the victorious class after a successful battle, etc., juridical forms, and even the reflexes of all these actual struggles in the brains of the participants, political, juristic, philosophical theories, religious views and their further development into systems of dogmas—also exercise their influence upon the course of the historical struggles and in many cases preponderate in determining their form. There is an interaction of all these elements in which, amid all the endless host of accidents…, the economic movement finally asserts itself as necessary.”
  41. 41. © 2014 Rey Ty Marxism• Class analysis • Class struggle
  42. 42. © 2014 Rey Ty Classical Marxism 1. Nature 2. Women 3. Labor 4. Youth 5. Workers of the World
  43. 43. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  44. 44. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory
  45. 45. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Critical theorists wrongly believed that they have “rejected the economic determinism of orthodox Marxism,” which Marx & Engels never asserted, “yet carried on the Marxist tradition of critiquing society” (Griffin, 2003, p. 30).
  46. 46. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Ideologiekritik: Critique of Ideology
  47. 47. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory• Max Horkheimer: • Critical theory aims to “transcend the tension and abolish the opposition between the individual’s purposefulness, spontaneity, and rationality, and those work-process relationships upon which the society it built.” (Horkheimer, 1982, p. 210)
  48. 48. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory• Jürgen Habermas: • "By logical inference from the prevailing conditions and institutions, critical theory may also be able to determine the basic institutional changes which are the prerequisites for the transition to a higher stage of development: higher in the sense of a more rational and equitable use of resources, minimization of destructive conflicts, and enlargement of the realm of freedom." Marcuse, H. (1969, p. 3). Essays on Liberation. Boston: Beacon
  49. 49. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory• Herbert Marcuse: • “…specific possibilities exist for the amelioration of human life and specific ways and means of realizing these possibilities.” (Marcuse, 2002, p. 41)
  50. 50. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Michel Foucault • “the State consists in the codification of a whole number of power relations,” adding that “truth isn’t outside power or lacking power” (p. 131).
  51. 51. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory• Theodor Adorno (1978, p. 245) : • The mass media numbs sensitivity to repression • “the pre-formation of people’s minds has increased to a degree that” leaves no “room for an awareness of it” by “the people themselves.”
  52. 52. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Herbert Marcuse (pp. 310-311): • “the meaning of words and ideas” are “established by the publicity of the powers that be, and verified in their practices.”
  53. 53. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Adorno (1978): • “the cross-section of attitudes represents, not an approximation to the truth, but a cross-section of social illusion.”
  54. 54. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory •For Habermas, “communicative process is the basis for change” (xxxx, p. 50).
  55. 55. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Marcuse (1978, p. 8) : • “aesthetic transformation” can be achieved through “a reshaping of language, perception, and understanding” in order to “reveal the essence of… the repressed potentialities of” human beings “and nature.”
  56. 56. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Theory • Marcuse (1989, p. 38): • the hope for social transformation springs from “the outcasts & outsiders, the exploited & persecuted of other racesraces & colors, the unemployed & the unemployable.”
  57. 57. © 2014 Rey Ty • Meaning Making • Power & Oppression • Change Critical Theory
  58. 58. © 2014 Rey Ty Critique •White Privilege
  59. 59. © 2014 Rey Ty Critique •Male Privilege
  60. 60. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  61. 61. © 2014 Rey Ty Post- colonial Theory
  62. 62. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Most theorists thus far were White men. • Let’s look at theorists of the African Diaspora now! • Caribbean, U.S., Africa, Europe, etc. • Different languages
  63. 63. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • People of the African Diaspora – alienation under colonialism –racism
  64. 64. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory
  65. 65. © 2014 Rey Ty •Cheikh Anta Diop Postcolonial Theory
  66. 66. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Cheikh Anta Diop (Senegal, 1923- 1986)
  67. 67. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Cheikh Anta Diop. (1963). The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity. Chicago: Third World Press. • Global Division of Peoples: • “I…analyze the structure of the African & the Aryan families &… show…in no way universal” (p. 8). • a shared cultural continuity across African peoples that was more important than the varied development of different ethnic groups shown by differences among languages & cultures over time.
  68. 68. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Léopold Sédar Senghor •Senegal •1906-2001
  69. 69. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Senghor (Senegal) –Poet & President –Close ties with France: Francophonie –Indigenous “African” socialism –Négritude: African characteristics
  70. 70. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Aimé Fernand David Césaire (Martinique, 1913-2008) •-Fanon’s teacher
  71. 71. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • In Discourse on Colonialism, Césaire (1972, p. 26) criticized European and U.S. colonialism, racism, and decadence, exclaiming that “the barbarism of Western Europe” is “only surpassed…by the barbarism of the Untied States”.
  72. 72. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Frantz Fanon •(Martinique, 1925-1961)
  73. 73. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory
  74. 74. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Desmond Tutu •(South Africa, Born 1931)
  75. 75. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Activist against apartheid • Nobel Peace Prize • Chaired Peace & Reconciliation Commission • Campaign vs. AIDS, TB, homophobia
  76. 76. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Théophile Obenga •(Congo)
  77. 77. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Obenga (Congo) –Philosopher, historian, linguist, Egyptologist (U Geneva & Paris Sorbonne) –UNESCO’s history of Africa
  78. 78. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Léon-Gontran Damas •Born in French Guiana
  79. 79. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Damas –French poet & politician –Published L’Étudiant Noir literary review with Senghor & Amié
  80. 80. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory •Kwame Nkrumah •Ghana • Sept. 21, 1909- April 27, 1972
  81. 81. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Nkrumah (1964, p. iv) talked about the “armed struggle… against the forces of reaction and counter- revolution,” saw the sharp “class struggle in Africa” & “exposed the close links between the interests of neo-colonialism and the indigenous bourgeoisie.”
  82. 82. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • In Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon (1967) recounted the impact of imperialism on the subjugated peoples.
  83. 83. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth (1967), which chronicled the atrocities that French troops committed in Algeria, inspired movements for “national liberation” (pp. 196-197) against colonialism.
  84. 84. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Explaining the reason for which the colonized wage revolution against the violence of the colonizers, Fanon (1967, p. 28) wrote: “Their first encounter was marked by violence,” adding that “the exploitation of the natives by the settler—was carried on by dint of a great array of bayonets & cannon.”
  85. 85. © 2014 Rey Ty • Julius Nyerere • Tanzania • Ujamaa: unity, oneness, familyhood • Hip Hop & Rap Postcolonial Theory
  86. 86. © 2014 Rey Ty Read Postcolonial Theorists!
  87. 87. © 2014 Rey Ty Postcolonial Theory • Black & White • Color & “Race” • Gender
  88. 88. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  89. 89. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Legal Theory
  90. 90. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Legal Theory • Critical legal theory (CLT) & critical race theory (CRT) trace their roots to critical theory. Noted Crenshaw, Gotunda, Peller & Thomas (1995, p. 108): • “Critical scholars derive their visions of legal ideology in part from the work on Antonio Gramsci, an Italian neo-Marxist theorist who developed an approach to understanding domination….In examining domination as a combination of physical coercion and ideological control, Gramsci articulates the concept of hegemony, the means by which a system of attitudes and beliefs, permeating both popular consciousness and the ideology of elites, reinforces existing social arrangements and convinces the dominated classes that the existing order is inevitable.”
  91. 91. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Legal Theory 1. Critical legal theory extends the underlying thinking of critical theory based on the Frankfort School to Legal Theory. 2. Critical race theory is a racialized response to critical theory. Both CLS and CRT claim that law is not a neutral arbiter of contested issues in human relations.
  92. 92. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  93. 93. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory
  94. 94. © 2014 Rey Ty
  95. 95. © 2014 Rey Ty
  96. 96. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • Law is inherently political (Crenshaw, Gotunda, Peller & Thomas, 1995, p. xvii): • “The faith of liberal lawyers in the gradual reform of American law through the victory of the superior rationality of progressive ideas depended on a belief in the central ideological myth of the law/politics distinction, namely that legal institutions employ a rational, apolitical, and neutral discourse with which to mediate the exercise of social power.”
  97. 97. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • Critical legal theory applies critical theory to law. • Critical race theory focuses on race. • Critical race theory asserts that powerful interests in society oppress, but the oppression, as far as African-Americans are concerned, is based on centrality of white privilege.
  98. 98. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • “The failure of the CLS scholars to address racism in their analysis also renders their critique of rights and their overall analysis of law in America incomplete. Specifically, this failure leads to inability to appreciate fully the transformative significance of the civil rights movement in mobilizing black Americans and generating new demands. Further, the failure to consider the reality of those most oppressed by American institutions means that the CLS account of the hegemonic nature of legal thought overlooks a crucial dimension of American life itself—the ideological role of racism itself” (Crenshaw, Gotunda, Peller & Thomas, 1995, p.110).
  99. 99. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • Both CLS and CRT claim that law is not a neutral arbiter of contested issues in human relations. • Hermeneutically, the basic difference is that, on the one hand, critical legal theory maintains that U.S. law is in fact a political system of thought and action which is meant to protect the entrenched elite.
  100. 100. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • On the other hand, critical race theory argues that U.S. law is in fact a system of protection of the centrality of white privilege which subjugates African- Americans to a dominant system of thought & action based on white privilege.
  101. 101. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • Not just Black & White • Individual vs. Group
  102. 102. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Race Theory • Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing People of Color as Holders and Creators of Knowledge • Dolores Delgado Bernal, etc.
  103. 103. © 2014 Rey Ty Clash of Theories
  104. 104. © 2014 Rey Ty But Where Are the Women?
  105. 105. © 2014 Rey Ty Women & Girls • “All elements… concerning prejudice, discrimination, war, violence, distorted interpretations of religious texts, physical and mental abuse, poverty, and disease fall disproportionately on women and girls” (Carter, 2014, p. 1). Source: Jimmy Carter. (2014). A Call to Action: Women Religion Violence and Power. NY: Simon & Schuster.
  106. 106. © 2014 Rey Ty Women & Girls• “There is a system of discrimination, extending far beyond any small geographical region to the entire globe; it touches every nation, perpetuating and expanding the trafficking in human slaves, body mutilations, and even legitimized murder on a massive scale. This system (p. 1) is based on the presumption that men and boys are superior to women and girls, and it is supported by some male religious leaders who distort the Holy Bible, the Koran, and other sacred texts to perpetuate their claim that females are, in some basic ways, inferior to them, unqualified to serve God on equal terms. Many men disagree but remain quite in order to enjoy the benefits of their dominant status. This false premise provides a justification for sexual discrimination in almost every realm of secular and religious life. Some men even cite this premise to justify physical punishment of women and girls. Contributing to the abuse of women and girls is an acceptance of violence, from unwarranted armed combat to excessive and biased punishment for those who violate the law” (Carter, 2014, p. 2).
  107. 107. © 2014 Rey Ty Women & Girls • “Any attempt to provide religious justification for refusing girls their right to education or for condoning practices such as female genital cutting, child marriage, exploitation, or enslavement [is] a betrayal of the very principles that religious leaders have the role to defend” by “Sheikh Muhamed Chérif Dioup, Islamic Rights Specialist and Child Protection Officer, Tostan, Senegal” (Carter, 2014, p. 181).
  108. 108. © 2014 Rey Ty http://mic.com/articles/90079/36-men-show-us-what-real-men-s-activists-look-like?utm_source=policymicTWTR&utm_medium=main&utm_campaign=social
  109. 109. © 2014 Rey Ty Feminist Theories •First Wave: Suffragettes
  110. 110. © 2014 Rey Ty Feminist Theories • 2nd Wave: vs. social, cultural & political inequality
  111. 111. © 2014 Rey Ty Feminist Theories • Betty Friedan. (1963). Feminine Mystique. • Wife & mom vs. education & career • Freudian “penis envy” • Critique: White Middle- Class Suburban Women
  112. 112. © 2014 Rey Ty Feminist Theories • 3rd Wave: vs. social, cultural & political inequality • Beyond White only: Different colors, religions, cultures, etc.
  113. 113. © 2014 Rey Tyhttps://twitter.com/NancyPelosi/status/453558312907182080/photo/1
  114. 114. © 2014 Rey Ty LGBTQ
  115. 115. © 2014 Rey Ty LGBTQ
  116. 116. © 2014 Rey Ty
  117. 117. © 2014 Rey Ty LBGTQ
  118. 118. © 2014 Rey Ty Radical (Gender System) Feminism 1. Mary Daly (Beyond God the Father) 2. Andrea Dworkin 3. Catherine MacKinnon 4. (Marilyn Friedman)
  119. 119. © 2014 Rey Ty Egalitarian Feminist Theories of Justice 1. Virginia Held 2. Susan Moller Okin 3. Iris Marion Young 4. Sharon Lloyd
  120. 120. © 2014 Rey Ty Socialist & Critical Theory Feminism 1. Barbara Ehrenreich 2. Ann Ferguson 3. Alison Jaggar 4. Nancy Fraser
  121. 121. © 2014 Rey Ty Development & Environmental Ethics Vandana Shiva
  122. 122. © 2014 Rey Ty Race & Gender Lee, M., Johnson- Bailey, J. (2004). Challenges to the classroom authority of women of color. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. No.102, pp.55-64.
  123. 123. © 2014 Rey Ty Race, Gender, & Capitalism bell hooks
  124. 124. © 2014 Rey Ty Critical Human Resource Development Bierema; Fenwick; Sambrook; Kiran Trehan & Clare Rigg
  125. 125. © 2014 Rey Ty Nature & Animals
  126. 126. © 2014 Rey Ty Non-Traditional Theories
  127. 127. © 2014 Rey Ty Conclusion
  128. 128. © 2014 Rey Ty Grounded Model Critical Race Theory, Critical HRD Feminism, Nature, Animals Postcolonial Theory Critical Theory Classical Marxism Traditional Theory
  129. 129. © 2014 Rey Ty What Matters? Time & Space History & Social Context Change X Abstract
  130. 130. © 2014 Rey Ty •Multiculturalism •Diversity •Intersectionality Neologism
  131. 131. © 2014 Rey Ty SummaryI. Introduction II. Findings A. Traditional Theory B. Classical Marxism C. Critical Theory 1. In general 2. Postcolonial Theory 3. Critical Legal & Race Theory a. Black b. Latin@ 4. Critical HRD 5. Feminism & LGBTQ 6. Nature & Animal Rights III. Conclusion
  132. 132. © 2014 Rey Ty Summary1. The construction of social theory has come a long way, thanks in part to the contributions of people of the African Diaspora. 2. In opposition to traditional positivistic theory was born revolutionary Marxism. 3. Not satisfied with both uncritical traditional theory and classical Marxism, critical theorists revised Marxism to meet the needs of advanced industrialized Western societies.
  133. 133. © 2014 Rey Ty Implications 1.Critical theory has implications to educational practices. Educators need to learn to be aware of “the predominance of ideology in their everyday thoughts and actions and in the institutions of civil society” (Brookfield, 2001, pp. 20-21).
  134. 134. © 2014 Rey Ty Implications 2. Educators must discuss authors of the African Diaspora not only in Black Studies courses or just “suggested readings,” but also integrated and mainstreamed in all other areas of study. Blacks & non- Blacks benefit reading them.
  135. 135. © 2014 Rey Ty Implications3. Instructors & learners must go beyond English & learn other languages (such as Swahili, Arabic, Pidgin, African languages & dialects, French, & German), so that literature hitherto untapped can be read—& read in the original languages in which they were written.
  136. 136. © 2014 Rey Ty Implications 4. Always include women!
  137. 137. © 2014 Rey Ty Non-Traditional Theories
  138. 138. © 2014 Rey Ty What is most important for you? 1. Class 2. Sex 3. Gender 4. Sexuality 5. Color (Race, Ethnicity) 6. Nature 7. Non-Human Animals 8. Others. Please specify _________
  139. 139. © 2014 Rey Ty The Road Ahead • Incomplete project • What are missing? • The only thing that is permanent is change.
  140. 140. © 2014 Rey Ty Reference1. Adorno, T. (1974). Minima moralia. (E. F. N. Jeffcott, Trans.). London. Verso. 2. Adorno, T. (1978). Sociology and empirical research. In P. Connerton, (Ed.), Critical sociology (pp.237-257). Middlesex, U.K.: Penguin. 3. Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy. (R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. 4. Adorno, T. & Horkheimer, M. (1997). Dialectic of Enlightenment. (J. Cumming, Trans.). New York: Continuum. 5. Bottomore, T. (1989). The Frankfurt school. London: Tavistock Publications. 6. Césaire, A. (1972). Discourse on colonialism. (J. Pinkham, Trans.). New York: Monthly Review Press. 7. Crenshaw, K., Gotunda, N., Peller, G., & Thomas, K. (Eds.). (1995). Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement. New York: The New Press. 8. Damas, L. G. (1938). Retour de Guyane. Paris: Gallimard. 9. Diop. C.A. (1974). The African origin of civilization: myth or reality. (M. Cook, Trans.). New York: L. Hill. 10. Diop, C. A. (1963). The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity. Chicago: Third World Press. 11. Fanon, F. (1967a). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press. 12. Fanon, F. (1967b). Wretched of the earth. (C. Farrington, Trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. 13. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham, & K. Soper, Trans.). New York: Pantheon Books. 14. Gramsci, A. (1993). Letters from prison. New York: Columbia University Press. 15. Griffin, E. (2003). A first look at communication theory. (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. 16. Habermas, J. (1990). Modernity—An incomplete project. (S. Ben-Habib, Trans.). In H. Foster, (Ed.). Postmodern culture (pp. 3-15). London: Pluto Press. 17. Horkheimer, M. (1972). Critical theory: Selected essays. (M. J. O’Connell, Trans.). New York: Herder & Herder. 18. Horkheimer, M. (1976). Traditional and critical theory. In P. Connerton, (Ed.), Critical sociology (pp.206-224). Middlesex, U.K.: Penguin. 19. Marcuse, H. (1969). Essays on Liberation. Boston: Beacon. 20. Marcuse, H. (1976). Repressive tolerance. In P. Connerton, (Ed.), Critical sociology (pp. 301-329). Middlesex, U.K.: Penguin. 21. Marcuse, H. (1978). The aesthetic dimension: Toward a Marxist critique of aesthetics. Boston: Beacon Press. 22. Marcuse, H. (2002). One-dimensional man: Studies in ideology of advanced industrial society (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. 23. Marx, K. (1967). Writings of the young Marx on philosophy and society. (L. D. Easton & K. H. Guddat, Trans.). New York: Anchor Books. 24. Marx, K. (1994). Karl Marx: Selected writings. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 25. Marx, K., Engels, F. & Lenin, V. (1973). A reader in Marxist philosophy. H. Selsam & H. Martel, (Eds.). New York: International Publishers. 26. Nkrumah, K. (1964). Consciencism: Philosophy and ideology for decolonization. New York: Monthly Review Press. 27. Senghor, L. S. (1967). Fondements de l'africanité́ ou Négritude et arabité́. Paris: Présence africaine.
  141. 141. © 2014 Rey Ty Rey Ty
  142. 142. © 2014 Rey Ty Uncritical Theory, Marxism, Critical Theory, Postcolonial Theory & Critical Race Theory © 2014 Rey Ty Northern Illinois University
  143. 143. © 2014 Rey TyThank You!
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