ARAB WOMEN, ONLINE
LEARNING, & EMPOWERMENT:
GENDER, EDUCATION, CULTURE,
TRADITION, RELIGION, & CLASS
Rey Ty
Manal Alkarzon...
Outline•Abstract
I. Introduction
II. Literature Review
III. Methodology
IV. Findings
V. Conclusions and future research
•R...
Abstract
•This is a qualitative research
using Moore’s Transaction
Distance Theory to find
out Arab women’s
perspective on...
Introduction
Research Problem
•In the Arab world, wives and
mothers have difficulty in taking
time away from their families
due to thei...
Research Questions
(1) How do Arab
women describe
their experiences
in distance education
and their cultural
barriers?
Research Questions
(2) From Arab
women's perspective
how do online
courses support
their individual
learning?
Objectives
•Examine the perspectives of Arab
women on distance education & cultural
barriers
•and to find out how
distance...
Theoretical Framework
•Moore’s Transaction Distance
Theory (TDT, 1991).
•Transactional distance
learning takes place in
a ...
Importance of the Research
•Online classes have paved
the way for Arab women to
continue their education
and achieve their...
Conceptual Framework
• Arab women refer to women
who come from West Asia and
North Africa, coexisting with
people of other...
Conceptual Framework
• Power refers to “a whole
series of particular
mechanism, … which
seem likely to induce
behaviors or...
Conceptual Framework
• Gender refers to social
roles that women and
men are expected to
play in society, noting
that gende...
Conceptual Framework
• Traditionalism refers to
“persisting values and
attitudes” stressing
“family and community
relation...
Conceptual Framework
• Education can be formal,
non-formal, and informal: it
can take place in the
classroom and the stude...
Conceptual Framework
• Ever changing through time
and space, culture refers to
“that complex whole which
includes knowledg...
Conceptual Framework
• Forming part of human
knowledge, religion
principally comes from
“sacred texts” (Scupin,
2000, p. 1...
Conceptual Framework
•Social class refers
to the level of
economic wealth. In
layperson’s term,
there are the rich,
the mi...
Conceptual Framework
•Distance education “is a formalized
teaching and learning system
specifically designed to be carried...
Conceptual Framework
•Nontraditional learners “are
students 25 and older who return to
school for any reason--a GED,
degre...
Literature Review
•Lorenzetti (2007), distance
learning is an opportunity
that enables learners to manage
geographic dista...
Literature Review•Aljabre (2012), despite the
implementation of
distance learning
programs in Saudi
universities, resistan...
Literature Review
•Ojo and Olakulein (2006),
education increases
women's self-confidence
to be more creative and
to be dec...
Methodology
Methodology
Data collection
•Face-to-face interviews
•Artifacts.
•Four Participants
Methodology
Data Analysis
• Analytical memo approach.
•Informal language
was used.
 Most frequently used codes in
the tra...
Findings
Finding 1
•Online learning and Cultural
Barriers
Mai: “It (online class) helps me a
lot, especially for the late night
cla...
Finding 1• Amany: “My husband cannot
do anything for himself;
he cannot make even a cup of tea.
It is shameful in our coun...
Finding 2
•From Arab women's perspective:
Online courses support individual
learning
Yasmeen: "The teacher
was like an ins...
Finding 2
•Noor: “The most helpful
aspects from online
classes were the
individual learning.
For me individual learning
wa...
Conclusions
Summary•Arab women found online
learning a solution to
overcome their cultural
barriers. They can access
their material as...
Summary•Arab women found online
learning helped them to
change their learning style.
They started to search the
informatio...
Arab Women:
Problem, Solution, & Outcome
Problem
• Traditional
Culture
• Patriarchy
Solution
• Distance
Education
• Online...
•Implications for policy makers:
Officials of higher education
must consider online
learning could be
as a solution for al...
Implications for policy makers:
For policy makers,
higher education
administrators need
to realize that online
learning co...
Implications for practice:
Arab Women can use
online classes to
achieve their
educational goals.
• A future study
on women's perspectives
on distance education
is needed with larger
sampling for more
different perspecti...
•This research is useful
for Arab women because
it encourages higher
education leaders to
reconsider their approach
to onl...
Questions
References
• Aljabre, A. (2012). An exploration of distance learning in Saudi Arabian universities: Current practices and ...
Fair Use
• Fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public
domain & the web for non-commercial & nonpro...
ARAB WOMEN, ONLINE
LEARNING, & EMPOWERMENT:
GENDER, EDUCATION, CULTURE,
TRADITION, RELIGION, & CLASS
Rey Ty
Manal Alkarzon...
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Arab Women, Online Learning, & Empowerment: Gender, Education, Culture, Tradition, Religion, & Class:
Rey Ty, Ed.D.
Manal Alkarzon, MBA Awni Alkarzon, Ph.D. Northern Illinois University

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Arab Women, Online Learning, & Empowerment: Gender, Education, Culture, Tradition, Religion, & Class:

  1. 1. ARAB WOMEN, ONLINE LEARNING, & EMPOWERMENT: GENDER, EDUCATION, CULTURE, TRADITION, RELIGION, & CLASS Rey Ty Manal Alkarzon & Awni Alkarzon Northern Illinois University
  2. 2. Outline•Abstract I. Introduction II. Literature Review III. Methodology IV. Findings V. Conclusions and future research •References
  3. 3. Abstract •This is a qualitative research using Moore’s Transaction Distance Theory to find out Arab women’s perspective on distance education & cultural barriers.
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. Research Problem •In the Arab world, wives and mothers have difficulty in taking time away from their families due to their domestic roles and different family responsibilities (Omar,2005). Mixing religion with culture.
  6. 6. Research Questions (1) How do Arab women describe their experiences in distance education and their cultural barriers?
  7. 7. Research Questions (2) From Arab women's perspective how do online courses support their individual learning?
  8. 8. Objectives •Examine the perspectives of Arab women on distance education & cultural barriers •and to find out how distance education can increase the individual learning for Arab women.
  9. 9. Theoretical Framework •Moore’s Transaction Distance Theory (TDT, 1991). •Transactional distance learning takes place in a setting when Instructors and learners are physically separated.
  10. 10. Importance of the Research •Online classes have paved the way for Arab women to continue their education and achieve their educational goals. They can access their classes when they are free.
  11. 11. Conceptual Framework • Arab women refer to women who come from West Asia and North Africa, coexisting with people of other backgrounds. Note that not all Arab women are the same: there are intra- state differences as well as interstate differences among Arab women along a spectrum from social conservatism to social liberalism (Ty, Alkarzon, & Hunting, 2010).
  12. 12. Conceptual Framework • Power refers to “a whole series of particular mechanism, … which seem likely to induce behaviors or discourses” (Foucault, 2007, p. 60). Empowerment refers to the process of gaining such inducement to behavior or discourse.
  13. 13. Conceptual Framework • Gender refers to social roles that women and men are expected to play in society, noting that gender roles vary in each society from one historical moment and context to another (Ty, Glowacki-Dudka, & Berger, 2012).
  14. 14. Conceptual Framework • Traditionalism refers to “persisting values and attitudes” stressing “family and community relationships, which inhibits individual freedom and initiative,” and “keeps premodern societies backward” (Scupin, 2000, p. 286).
  15. 15. Conceptual Framework • Education can be formal, non-formal, and informal: it can take place in the classroom and the students obtain a degree or a diploma, it can be a short- term course leading to a certificate, or learning that takes place at home, in organizations, or in any other setting, respectively (Ty, 2011).
  16. 16. Conceptual Framework • Ever changing through time and space, culture refers to “that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Tylor, 1871, as cited in Scupin, 2000, p. 38).
  17. 17. Conceptual Framework • Forming part of human knowledge, religion principally comes from “sacred texts” (Scupin, 2000, p. 13). Religion serves the social function of influencing the beliefs and practices of the people, affects social change, or is a social product people invented to maintain order (Ty, 2013).
  18. 18. Conceptual Framework •Social class refers to the level of economic wealth. In layperson’s term, there are the rich, the middle class, and the poor or low income.
  19. 19. Conceptual Framework •Distance education “is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication”. http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/distance-learning-e-learning
  20. 20. Conceptual Framework •Nontraditional learners “are students 25 and older who return to school for any reason--a GED, degree, or professional certification”. • http://adulted.about.com/od/whatisadultlearning/g/What-Is-A-Non- Traditional-Student.htm
  21. 21. Literature Review •Lorenzetti (2007), distance learning is an opportunity that enables learners to manage geographic distance and time to receive their education and interact with Instructors and learners.
  22. 22. Literature Review•Aljabre (2012), despite the implementation of distance learning programs in Saudi universities, resistance to online programs still exists, because of the lack of trust.
  23. 23. Literature Review •Ojo and Olakulein (2006), education increases women's self-confidence to be more creative and to be decision makers instead of relying on others in their decisions.
  24. 24. Methodology
  25. 25. Methodology Data collection •Face-to-face interviews •Artifacts. •Four Participants
  26. 26. Methodology Data Analysis • Analytical memo approach. •Informal language was used.  Most frequently used codes in the transcript were “culture” and “individual learning”. “Online learning”
  27. 27. Findings
  28. 28. Finding 1 •Online learning and Cultural Barriers Mai: “It (online class) helps me a lot, especially for the late night classes, and the family wouldn’t like a girl to come home really late at night”.(cultural barriers) .
  29. 29. Finding 1• Amany: “My husband cannot do anything for himself; he cannot make even a cup of tea. It is shameful in our country that men cook or enter the kitchen to help their wives.” • 90% of Arab are Muslims. Mixing between religion and culture. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_Muslims_and_Ara bs
  30. 30. Finding 2 •From Arab women's perspective: Online courses support individual learning Yasmeen: "The teacher was like an instructor, giving us instructions, material, and assignments to do”.
  31. 31. Finding 2 •Noor: “The most helpful aspects from online classes were the individual learning. For me individual learning was a new type of learning and I thought it was a good type, and I liked it.”
  32. 32. Conclusions
  33. 33. Summary•Arab women found online learning a solution to overcome their cultural barriers. They can access their material assignment when ever they want.
  34. 34. Summary•Arab women found online learning helped them to change their learning style. They started to search the information they need. (Individual Learning)
  35. 35. Arab Women: Problem, Solution, & Outcome Problem • Traditional Culture • Patriarchy Solution • Distance Education • Online Learning Outcome • Empowerment • Degree Attainment • Career
  36. 36. •Implications for policy makers: Officials of higher education must consider online learning could be as a solution for all students in general. It reduces cost and time.
  37. 37. Implications for policy makers: For policy makers, higher education administrators need to realize that online learning could be one solution for female students in the Middle East.
  38. 38. Implications for practice: Arab Women can use online classes to achieve their educational goals.
  39. 39. • A future study on women's perspectives on distance education is needed with larger sampling for more different perspectives.
  40. 40. •This research is useful for Arab women because it encourages higher education leaders to reconsider their approach to online learning, curriculum, and higher education system.
  41. 41. Questions
  42. 42. References • Aljabre, A. (2012). An exploration of distance learning in Saudi Arabian universities: Current practices and future possibilities. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology,2 (2), 132-137. • Al-Radhi, K. (2008). Distance learning/e-learning for Iraq: Concept and road map. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 34, 34-37. • Carter, J. (2014). A Call to Action: Women Religion Violence and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster. • Kwapong, O. (2007). Widening access to tertiary education for women in Ghana through distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(4), 65-79. • Lorenzetti, J. (2007). How to provide distance education in a challenging environment. Distance Education Report, 17(11), 3-7. • Moore, M. (1991). Editorial: Distance education theory. The American Journal of Distance Education, 5(3), 1-6. • New women in new China. (1972). Peking: Foreign Languages Press. • Ojo, O. D., & Olakulein, F. K. (2006). Distance education as a women empowerment strategy in Africa. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 7, 271-280. • Omar, A. (2005). The potential of distance and open learning in Kuwait: A case study of the Arab Open University- Kuwait branch (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Digital Dissertations and Theses database. (Document ID No. 974467471). • Scupin, R. (2000). Cultural anthropology: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. • Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2009). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of Distance Education (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall. • Ty, R. (2013). The state, NGOs, social movements, and civil society: The struggle for power, human rights, social justice, and social change. Saarbrücken, Germany. Lambert Academic Publishing. • Ty, R., Alkarzon, A., & Hunting, E. J. (2010). Islam: Misconceptions, current trends and the role of social movements and education in promoting development, conflict, and peace building. In Proceedings of the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. • Ty, R., Glowacki-Dudka, & Berger, J. (2012). Deconstructing culture: An interdisciplinary critique of contending theories of culture. In Proceedings of the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference. Edmond, OK: University of Central Oklahoma. • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2002). Open and distance learning: Trends, policy and strategy considerations. Paris: UNESCO.
  43. 43. Fair Use • Fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes. • This work is distributed free of charge. • The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any profit from its distribution. • Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. This work contains original work of commentary and critical analysis. • Quotations are attributed to the original authors and sources.
  44. 44. ARAB WOMEN, ONLINE LEARNING, & EMPOWERMENT: GENDER, EDUCATION, CULTURE, TRADITION, RELIGION, & CLASS Rey Ty Manal Alkarzon & Awni Alkarzon Northern Illinois University

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