Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Philosophical
Foundations of
Freire’s Pedagogy
Dr. Rey Ty
Philosophical
Foundations of
Freire’s Pedagogy
Dr. Rey Ty
Problem• Freire has written many
books: Need to identify
trends in his ontology,
gnosiology, axiology,
paradigm in his own...
Research Questions
• In Freire’s philosophy of education,
what are his…
–1. Ontology?
–2. Epistemology?
–3. Axiology?
–4. ...
1 Philosophy & Education
2 Paradigm in Education
4 Context
5 Education
6 Social Transformation
3 Ideology
Theory-Building
• 1. Socrates, Freire: Dialogue as
Epistemology, not Methodology
• 2. Aristotle: Taxonomy,
Typology
• 3. P...
1 Philosophy & Education
Paradigm in Education
Context
Education
Social Transformation
Ideology
Philosophy
Ontology Epistemology Axiology
Hope, 1996, p. 127
• Freire on Philosophy: “…
discussion turned
preponderantly on political
questions, and these led us
to...
Ontology:
The Chicken
& The Egg
Thinking
Being
Ontology
Matter &
Being
Consciousness
& Thinking
Which is Primary?
Which is Derivative?
Ontology
Matter Ideas
Materialism Idealism
Relationship
Between Thinking
& Being
Thinking, Ideas &
Consciousness
First
Being, Matter &
Practice
First
Idealism Materi...
Idealism
Subjective
Idealism
Objective
Materialism
Anti-Idealism• “This solution cannot be achieved in
idealistic terms. In order for the
oppressed to be able to wage the
st...
Materialism• “the historical, economic, and
social reasons that explain…”
(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope.
New York: ...
Oppressed, 1997, p. 35
• Materialism: “…no reality transforms
itself, and the duty which Lukács
ascribes to the revolution...
Oppressed, 1997, p. 35
• Freire quoted Marx & Engels on Dialectics
and Materialism: “The materialist doctrine
that men are...
Oppressed, 1997, p. 26
• Influence of Early Marx:
• “Concern for humanization
leads at once to the
recognition of
dehumani...
Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236)
• Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the
‘basist...
Early Freire
“democratic
process”
(Consciousness,
2002, p. 41)
Middle Freire
• Humanization (Oppressed,
1997, p.25)
• “humanist and libertarian”
(Ibid, p. 36)
• “critical consciousness”...
Mature Freire
• Non-discrimination
against “blacks,
women,
homosexuals, the
indigenous, the fat,
the old” (Heart,
2006, p....
Mutability &
Connections
Dialectics Metaphysics
Dialectics vs.
Metaphysics
Materialist
Dialectics
Idealist
Dialectics
Hegel,
Kant
Aristotle,
Heraclitus
Dialectics
1
Ancient Greek
Spontaneous
Materialist
Dialectics
2
German
Idealist
Dialectics
3
Marxist
Materialist
Dialectic...
Materialist
Philosophy
Changing Space Time
HistoricalDialectical Context
Partisan-
ship
Class,
Gender,
Ethnicity…
Resolvin...
Oppressed, 1997, p. 30
• Dialectics: “The oppressed suffer
from the duality which has
established itself in the innermost
...
Dialectics
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 33)
•Dialectical Method: “…
This can be done only by
means of the praxis:
reflection and a...
Dialectics• “action-reflection-action” (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of
hope. New York: Continuum, p. 53)
• “The relationsh...
Materialist Dialectics
(Oppressed, 1997, pp. 106-7)
• Quoting Lenin on the dialectical
relationship between theory and
pra...
Dialectics(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 133)
• Dialectics: “…a critical
understanding of l...
Time
Diachronic
History
Synchronic
Snapshot
Epistemology
(Gnosiology)
The world is
knowable
The world is
not Knowable
Materialism Idealism
Consciousness, 2002, p. 2
•Epistemology:
The “world [is] an
objective reality,
independent of
oneself, capable of
being kn...
Dialogue as Epistemology
• Oppressed, 1997, p. 76: “…
revolutionary leaders do not go to the
people in order to bring them...
Oppressed, 1997, p. 109
• Dialogue as Epistemology:
• “Dialogue with the people is
radically necessary to every
authentic ...
Epistemology
(Consciousness, 2002, p. 146)
• “Education as a Gnosiological State”
• “The human being is a conscious
body. ...
Idealism vs. Materialism
•Idealism
–Truth is
subjective
•Materialism
–Truth is
objective
Objectivity
(Consciousness, 2002, p. 2)
• Materialism: “To be human is
to engage in relationships
with others and with the...
Anti-Subjectivism
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 34)
• Critique of Subjectivist view: “…the
oppressed must confront reality
critical...
Contradictions
Antagonistic
Non-
Antagonistic
Contradictions
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 29)
•Dialectical resolution of
contradictions: “But the
struggle to be more fully
huma...
Dogmatism
Universalizing
the Particular
Pragmatism
Extreme
Subjectivism
Solipsism
Adventurism
Romanticism
Voluntarism
Prob...
Research
Paradigm
Critical
Theory
Interpretivism Positivism
1 Philosophy & Education
2 Paradigm in Education
4 Context
5 Education
6 Social Transformation
3 Ideology
Ideology & Philosophy
(Oppressed, 1997, pp. 12-13)
• In his own words, he is influenced by:
• “Sartre and Mounier, Erich F...
Ideology & Philosophy
(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope.
New York: Continuum, 1996)
• “explain and defend progressive
p...
Sociology
of
Education
Conflict Conformity
Reality
Objectivity Subjectivity
Holistic
Analysis
Material
Base
Reflection
Existentialism
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 29)
• Sartrian Existentialism: “The
oppressed, having internalized the
image of the op...
1Philosophy & Education
2 Paradigm in Education
Context
Education
Social Transformation
3 Ideology
Left Center Right
Generalized Ideological Divide
Revo. Third Soc. Dem Libertarian Conservative Reactionary
Marxist World & Critical
Specific Ideological Divide
Radical Ideology Always
• “The radical, committed to human liberation,
does not become a prisoner of a ‘circle of
certaint...
Ideology
• In favor of progressives (Heart, 2006, p. 55)
• Opposed to neoliberals (Heart, 2006, p. 55)
• Opposed to sectar...
1Philosophy & Education
2 Paradigm in Education
4 Context
5 Education
6 Social Transformation
3 Ideology
Pedagogy
Critical
Pedagogy
Banking
Method
Education
• “the basic importance of education
as an act of cognition, not only of
the content, but of the “why” of
econom...
Materialist Philosophy
Critical Paradigm
Brazilian & Other 3W Contexts. Later West also.
3W & Education Programs, Later We...
Conclusion:
Summary & Implications
• Freire borrowed ideas from many thinkers
• Contribution: weave them together as his
•...
References:• Freire, P. (2006). Pedagogy of the heart. New
York: Continuum.
• Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the oppressed...
Thank You!
Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted
and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & th...
2013 rey ty philosophy of freire ontology epistemology logic ethics ideology
2013 rey ty philosophy of freire ontology epistemology logic ethics ideology
2013 rey ty philosophy of freire ontology epistemology logic ethics ideology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2013 rey ty philosophy of freire ontology epistemology logic ethics ideology

290

Published on

2013 rey ty, philosophy of freire, ontology, epistemology, logic, ethics, ideology

Published in: Education, Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
290
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "2013 rey ty philosophy of freire ontology epistemology logic ethics ideology"

  1. 1. Philosophical Foundations of Freire’s Pedagogy Dr. Rey Ty
  2. 2. Philosophical Foundations of Freire’s Pedagogy Dr. Rey Ty
  3. 3. Problem• Freire has written many books: Need to identify trends in his ontology, gnosiology, axiology, paradigm in his own words, especially as his perspectives have evolved through time
  4. 4. Research Questions • In Freire’s philosophy of education, what are his… –1. Ontology? –2. Epistemology? –3. Axiology? –4. Paradigm? –5. Context/s for education for social transformation?
  5. 5. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  6. 6. Theory-Building • 1. Socrates, Freire: Dialogue as Epistemology, not Methodology • 2. Aristotle: Taxonomy, Typology • 3. Plato, Hegel,Marx & Engels: Analysis, Dialectics, Synthesis
  7. 7. 1 Philosophy & Education Paradigm in Education Context Education Social Transformation Ideology
  8. 8. Philosophy Ontology Epistemology Axiology
  9. 9. Hope, 1996, p. 127 • Freire on Philosophy: “… discussion turned preponderantly on political questions, and these led us to philosophical, ethical, ideological, and epistemological questions.”
  10. 10. Ontology: The Chicken & The Egg
  11. 11. Thinking Being Ontology
  12. 12. Matter & Being Consciousness & Thinking Which is Primary? Which is Derivative?
  13. 13. Ontology Matter Ideas Materialism Idealism
  14. 14. Relationship Between Thinking & Being Thinking, Ideas & Consciousness First Being, Matter & Practice First Idealism Materialism
  15. 15. Idealism Subjective Idealism Objective Materialism
  16. 16. Anti-Idealism• “This solution cannot be achieved in idealistic terms. In order for the oppressed to be able to wage the struggle for their liberation, they must perceive the reality of the oppression not as a closed world from which there is no exit but as a limiting situation which they can transform.” Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
  17. 17. Materialism• “the historical, economic, and social reasons that explain…” (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 8) • “I am hopeful…out of an existential, concrete imperative.” (Hope, 1996, p. 8) • “reading the world” (Heart, 2006, p. 76)
  18. 18. Oppressed, 1997, p. 35 • Materialism: “…no reality transforms itself, and the duty which Lukács ascribes to the revolutionary party of ‘explaining to the masses their own action’ coincides with our affirmation of the need for the critical intervention of the people in reality through praxis. The pedagogy of the oppressed, which is the pedagogy of the people engaged in the fight for their own liberation, has its roots here.”
  19. 19. Oppressed, 1997, p. 35 • Freire quoted Marx & Engels on Dialectics and Materialism: “The materialist doctrine that men are products of circumstances and upbringing, and that, therefore, changed men are products of other circumstances and changed upbringing, forgets that it is men that change circumstances and that the educator himself needs education.” Marx & Engels, Selected Works (NY: 1968, p. 28).
  20. 20. Oppressed, 1997, p. 26 • Influence of Early Marx: • “Concern for humanization leads at once to the recognition of dehumanization, not only as an ontological possibility but as an historical reality.”
  21. 21. Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236) • Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the ‘basistic,’ voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?” • “It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them.”
  22. 22. Early Freire “democratic process” (Consciousness, 2002, p. 41)
  23. 23. Middle Freire • Humanization (Oppressed, 1997, p.25) • “humanist and libertarian” (Ibid, p. 36) • “critical consciousness” (Ibid, p. 54) • “authentic liberation” (Ibid, p. 60) • “dialogue” & “love” (Ibid, p. 70) • “true humanists” (ibid, p. 77)
  24. 24. Mature Freire • Non-discrimination against “blacks, women, homosexuals, the indigenous, the fat, the old” (Heart, 2006, p. 106)
  25. 25. Mutability & Connections Dialectics Metaphysics
  26. 26. Dialectics vs. Metaphysics Materialist Dialectics Idealist Dialectics Hegel, Kant Aristotle, Heraclitus
  27. 27. Dialectics 1 Ancient Greek Spontaneous Materialist Dialectics 2 German Idealist Dialectics 3 Marxist Materialist Dialectics Heraclitus, Aristotle Kant, Hegel Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao
  28. 28. Materialist Philosophy Changing Space Time HistoricalDialectical Context Partisan- ship Class, Gender, Ethnicity… Resolving Contrad
  29. 29. Oppressed, 1997, p. 30 • Dialectics: “The oppressed suffer from the duality which has established itself in the innermost being.” • Resolving Contradictions: “The pedagogy of the oppressed is an instrument for their critical discovery that both they and their oppressors are manifestations of dehumanization.”
  30. 30. Dialectics (Oppressed, 1997, p. 33) •Dialectical Method: “… This can be done only by means of the praxis: reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it.”
  31. 31. Dialectics• “action-reflection-action” (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 53) • “The relationship, language-thought-world, is a dialectical, processual, contradictory relationship.” (Hope, 1996, p. 68) • “Subjectivism or mechanistic objectivism are both antidialectical, and thereby incapable of apprehending the permanent tension between consciousness and the world” (Hope, 1996, p. 100) • “for dogmatic, mechanistic positions, the consciousness… takes shape as…epiphenomenon…for dialectic, the importance of consciousness is in the fact that, not being the maker of reality, neither is it, at the opposite pole, a pure reflex of reality.” (Hope, 1996, p. 101) • “dialectical comprehension of the relationship bet. world & awareness, bet. econ. production & cult. production, that it seems valid to me to call progressive educators’ attention to the contradictory movement between culture’s ‘negativities’ & ‘positivities’.” (Hope, 1996, p. 107)
  32. 32. Materialist Dialectics (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 106-7) • Quoting Lenin on the dialectical relationship between theory and practice: “ ‘Without a revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement’ means that a revolution is achieved with neither verbalism nor activism, but rather with praxis, that is, with reflection and action directed at the structures to be transformed.”
  33. 33. Dialectics(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 133) • Dialectics: “…a critical understanding of language in its dialectical relationship with thought and world: the dialectical interrelations of language, ideology, social classes, and education.”
  34. 34. Time Diachronic History Synchronic Snapshot
  35. 35. Epistemology (Gnosiology) The world is knowable The world is not Knowable Materialism Idealism
  36. 36. Consciousness, 2002, p. 2 •Epistemology: The “world [is] an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.”
  37. 37. Dialogue as Epistemology • Oppressed, 1997, p. 76: “… revolutionary leaders do not go to the people in order to bring them a message of ‘salvation,’ but in order to come to know through dialogue with them both their objective situation and their awareness of that situation—the various levels of perception of themselves and of the world in which and with which they exist.”
  38. 38. Oppressed, 1997, p. 109 • Dialogue as Epistemology: • “Dialogue with the people is radically necessary to every authentic revolution.” • “The earlier the dialogue begins, the more truly revolutionary will the movement be.”
  39. 39. Epistemology (Consciousness, 2002, p. 146) • “Education as a Gnosiological State” • “The human being is a conscious body. His or her consciousness, with its ‘intentionality’ towards the world, is always conscious of something. It is in a permanent state of moving towards reality. Hence the condition of the human being is to be in constant relationship to the world.”
  40. 40. Idealism vs. Materialism •Idealism –Truth is subjective •Materialism –Truth is objective
  41. 41. Objectivity (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2) • Materialism: “To be human is to engage in relationships with others and with the world. It is to experience that world as an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.”
  42. 42. Anti-Subjectivism (Oppressed, 1997, p. 34) • Critique of Subjectivist view: “…the oppressed must confront reality critically, simultaneously objectifying and acting upon that reality. A mere perception of reality not followed by this critical intervention will not lead to a transformation of objective reality—precisely because it is not a true perception.”
  43. 43. Contradictions Antagonistic Non- Antagonistic
  44. 44. Contradictions (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) •Dialectical resolution of contradictions: “But the struggle to be more fully human has already begun in the authentic struggle to transform the situation.”
  45. 45. Dogmatism Universalizing the Particular Pragmatism Extreme Subjectivism Solipsism Adventurism Romanticism Voluntarism Problems Consciousness, 2002, p. 9
  46. 46. Research Paradigm Critical Theory Interpretivism Positivism
  47. 47. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  48. 48. Ideology & Philosophy (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 12-13) • In his own words, he is influenced by: • “Sartre and Mounier, Erich Fromm and Louis Althusser, Ortega y Gasset and Mao, Martin Luther King and Che Guevarra, Unamuno and Marcuse.” • Sartre, p. 57 • Reinhold Neibuhr, p. 59 • Hence: (Christian) Existentialism, Classical Marxism, Critical Theory/Western Marxism, New Social Movement
  49. 49. Ideology & Philosophy (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, 1996) • “explain and defend progressive postmodernity & it will reject conservative, neoliberal postmodernity” (p. 10) • “progressively postmodern” (p. 96) • “progressive postmodern” (p. 132)
  50. 50. Sociology of Education Conflict Conformity
  51. 51. Reality Objectivity Subjectivity
  52. 52. Holistic Analysis Material Base Reflection
  53. 53. Existentialism (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) • Sartrian Existentialism: “The oppressed, having internalized the image of the oppressor and adopted his guidelines, are fearful of freedom. Freedom would require them to eject this image and replace it with autonomy and responsibility.”
  54. 54. 1Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education Context Education Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  55. 55. Left Center Right Generalized Ideological Divide
  56. 56. Revo. Third Soc. Dem Libertarian Conservative Reactionary Marxist World & Critical Specific Ideological Divide
  57. 57. Radical Ideology Always • “The radical, committed to human liberation, does not become a prisoner of a ‘circle of certainty’ within which reality is also imprison.” • “The fact that I have not personally participated in revolutionary action, however, does not negate the possibility of my reflecting on this theme.” (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 21-22) • “The radical is a Subject to the degree that he perceives historical contradictions in increasingly critical fashion; however, he does not consider himself the proprietor of history.” (Consciousness, 2002, p. 12)
  58. 58. Ideology • In favor of progressives (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to neoliberals (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to sectarianism (Hope, 1996, p. 50) • Opposed to sexist language” (Hope, 1996, p. 65): “it is not a grammatical problem, but an ideological one” (Hope, 1996, p. 67) • Opposed to “authoritarian vanguardist leaders” (Hope, 1996, p. 114) • Opposed to “any back-alley neoliberal knows very well that such view is absolute nonsense…” (Heart, 2006, p. 75).
  59. 59. 1Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  60. 60. Pedagogy Critical Pedagogy Banking Method
  61. 61. Education • “the basic importance of education as an act of cognition, not only of the content, but of the “why” of economic, social, political, ideological, and historical facts, which explain…our conscious body, under which we find ourselves placed” (Hope, 1996, p. 102)
  62. 62. Materialist Philosophy Critical Paradigm Brazilian & Other 3W Contexts. Later West also. 3W & Education Programs, Later West too Social Transformation in Different Contexts Third World Ideology
  63. 63. Conclusion: Summary & Implications • Freire borrowed ideas from many thinkers • Contribution: weave them together as his • He defies categorization, as his thought was dynamic & ever-changing • 1. Ontology: Materialist • 2. Epistemology: Knowability, Dialogue • 3. Axiology: Social Justice • 4. Paradigm: Critical – Nationalism, Christian existentialism, classical Marxism, Western Marxism (critical theory), progressive postmodern • 5. Context: Brazil, Third World & the West later
  64. 64. References:• Freire, P. (2006). Pedagogy of the heart. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (2002). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (1997). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. • Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
  65. 65. Thank You!
  66. 66. Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes. • This work is distributed free of charge. • The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any profit from its distribution. • Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non- profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. • This work contains original work of commentary and critical analysis. • Quotations are attributed to the original authors and sources.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×