Rey Ty
Early, Middle & Late Freire:
Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts
or Complete Rupture?
Mercedes Sosa: Gracias A L...
Rey Ty
If you are burning
to say something,
raise your hand,
get recognized, &
speak up!
SpeakUp!
Rey Ty
Early, Middle &
Late Freire:
Partial Ontological &
Epistemic Shifts or
Complete Rupture?
Rey Ty
Introduction
Rey Ty
Early, Middle &
Late Freire:
Changing
Perspectives with the
Changing Times
Rey Ty
Paulo Freire
(September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997)
Rey Ty
Problem Statement
• Many write
about Freire
without really
reading
Freire.
• Hence,
misrepresent
Freire!
Rey Ty
Problem Statement
• Freire was
consistent in
struggling for
liberation.
• But he did
not speak
with “one”
voice!
Rey Ty
Problem Statement
• Freire spoke with
multiple voices
throughout his
life in different
contexts &
historical
moment...
Rey Ty
Research Questions
•Who is the
“real”
Freire?
•What are
the different
voices with
which Freire
spoke?
Rey Ty
Data Collection Methods
• Textual
evidence
from Freire’s
own books.
• No secondary
sources
allowed!
Rey Ty
Data Collection Methods
1. Young Freire: Freire, P.
(2002). Education for
critical consciousness &
Education as the...
Rey Ty
Limitations• Only one entry
per author is
listed here.
• Other (less
known)
authors are not
listed here.
Rey Ty
Findings
Rey Ty
Young
Freire
Rey Ty
Critical consciousness & Education
as the practice of freedom (2002)
Gabriel Marcel French Christian
existentialism...
Rey Ty
Christian
Existentialism
Young Freire
Rey Ty
Christian
Existentialism
Young Freire
Marcel, Maritain,
Jasper
Rey Ty
Committed
Sociologist
Young Freire
Mills, Mannheim
Rey Ty
Young Freire
•An educator who was
a Christian
existentialist &
sociologist calling for
political engagement
Rey Ty
Objectivity
(Consciousness, 2002, p. 2)
• Materialism: “To be human is
to engage in relationships
with others and w...
Rey Ty
Young Freire
•Epistemology: The
“world [is] an objective
reality, independent of
oneself, capable of
being known.”
...
Rey Ty
Young Freire’s Contributions
1.Cons-
ciousness
2.Cultural
Circles
Rey Ty
Education for critical consciousness
1. “fatalistic” and “naïve consciousness.”
2. “intransitive” or “magical
consc...
Rey Ty
Critique of Freire’s
“Consciousness”
•How to
measure?
•How to
develop?
Rey Ty
Critique of Freire’s
“Consciousness”
He later
abandoned
all talk
about
conscious-
ness!
Rey Ty
Critique of Freire’s
“Cultural Circles”
1. For literacy
programs
2. What about
contexts
with high
literacy
already?
Rey Ty
Rey Ty
Rey Ty
Rey Ty
Middle
Freire
Rey Ty
Ideology & Philosophy
(Oppressed, 1997, pp. 12-13)
• In his own words, he is influenced by:
• “Sartre and Mounier, ...
Rey Ty
Existentialism
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 29)
• Sartrean Existentialism: “The
oppressed, having internalized
the image of...
Rey Ty
Middle Freire
• Humanization (Oppressed,
1997, p.25)
• “humanist and libertarian” (Ibid,
p. 36)
• “critical conscio...
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005)
Emmanuel
Mounier
French philosopher who critiqued
Pope Pius XII for not saying
any...
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005)
Rosa Luxembourg Polish Jewish Marxist p. 39
Karl Marx German founder of Marxism p....
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005)
Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial,
pro-Third World existentialist ...
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005)
Louis Althusser Algerian-born French Marxist p. 159
Ernest “Che”
Guevarra
Argentin...
Rey Ty
Christian
Theologian
Middle Freire
ML King, Niebuhr,
Pope John XXIII,
Torres, Split,
Chenu
Rey Ty
Committed
Philosopher
Middle Freire
Mounier, Gasset &
Ortega, Unamuno
Rey Ty
Classical
Marxist
Middle Freire
Marx, Engels, Lenin,
Luxemburg
Rey Ty
Contradictions
(Oppressed, 1997, p. 29)
•Dialectical resolution of
contradictions: “But the
struggle to be more ful...
Rey Ty
Dialectics
(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York:
Continuum, p. 133)
• Dialectics: “…a critical
understand...
Rey Ty
Middle Freire• Freire (Oppressed, 1997, p. 35) quoted Marx
& Engels on Dialectics and Materialism:
“The materialist...
Rey Ty
Materialist Dialectics
(Oppressed, 1997, pp. 106-7)
• Quoting Lenin on the dialectical
relationship between theory ...
Rey Ty
Postcolonial
& Third-World
Marxist
Middle Freire
Mao, Castro, Che
Guevara, Fanon,
Debray, Memmi
Rey Ty
Western
Marxist
Middle Freire
Althusser, Lukacs,
Fromm, Marcuse,
Petrović
Rey Ty
Existentialism
Phenomenologist
Middle Freire
de Beauvoir, Sartre,
Husserl, Buber
Rey Ty
Middle Freire• Christian
• Classical Marxist
• “Western” Marxist
(Critical Theory)
• “Third World”
Marxist
• Existe...
Rey Ty
Early
Freire
Middle
Freire?
Are Young & Middle Freire
disjointed?
Maybe!
Rey Ty
Early
Freire
Middle
Freire?
Are Young & Middle Freire
disjointed?
Maybe!
MarxistChristian
Existentialist
Rey Ty
Christianity Marxism
Middle FreireYoung Freire
Existentialism
Rey Ty
Rey Ty
Committed
Sociologist
Committed
Philosopher
Classical &
Western
Marxism
Post-
colonialism
Middle FreireYoung Freire...
Rey Ty
Committed
Sociologist
Committed
Philosopher
Classical &
Western
Marxism
Post-
colonialism
Middle Freire:Young Freir...
Rey Ty
Middle Freire’s Contributions
1. Expose &
oppose
“banking
method” of
education
2. Propose
“problem-
solving”
educat...
Rey Ty
Critique of Freire’s “Problem-
Solving” Education
1. Romanticism
2. Like it or not,
instructors have
power
3. 100% ...
Rey Ty
Mature
Freire
Rey Ty
Ideology & Philosophy
(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope.
New York: Continuum, 1996)
• “explain and defend progre...
Rey Ty
Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236)
• Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the
...
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of hope (1996)
“defend progressive
postmodernity”
Postmodernism p. 10
“reject conservative
neoliberal
post...
Rey Ty
Mature Freire• In favor of progressives (Heart, 2006, p. 55)
• Opposed to neoliberals (Heart, 2006, p. 55)
• Oppose...
Rey Ty
Mature Freire
• Non-discrimination against
“blacks, women, homosexuals,
the indigenous, the fat, the old”
(Heart, 2...
Rey Ty
Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York:
Continuum, p. 236)
• Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the
...
Rey Ty
Pedagogy of hope (1996)
“postmodern” Postmodernism p. 13
Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial, pro-
Th...
Rey Ty
Materialism• “the historical, economic, and
social reasons that explain…”
(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of
hope. New...
Rey Ty
Late Freire• Classical Marxist
• “Third World”
Marxist
• Existentialist/
Phenomenologist
• Postcolonial
• U.S. Crit...
Rey Ty
Late Freire• He did not cite
Christian
authors
• But he
continued to
interact with
priests, etc.
Rey Ty
Late FreireMiddle Freire
Committed
Philosopher
Christian
Existentialism
Classical Marxism
Western Marxism
Postcolon...
Rey Ty
Late FreireMiddle Freire
Committed
Philosopher
Marx,
Engels,
Fanon,
Guevara,
Marcuse,
Memmi
Sartre
Postmodernism:
N...
Rey Ty
Late Freire:Middle Freire,
Committed
Philosopher
Christian
Existentialism
Classical Marxism
Western Marxism
Postcol...
Rey Ty
Late Freire’s Contributions
• Include
“progressive
postmodernism”
without
abandoning
class struggle
Rey Ty
Critique of Freire’s
“Postmodernism”
• No textual proof
that he read
“progressive
postmodernism”
literature
Rey Ty
Conclusion
Rey Ty
Summary• At least three phases in the
development of Freire’s
thought
1. Early Freire
2. Middle Freire
3. Late Frei...
Rey Ty
What Do Textual
Evidence Show?
Rey Ty
Rey Ty
Note of Caution
Freire did not
reject his earlier
tools of analysis
in each stage
(Marxism,
postcolonialism,
etc.).
Rey Ty
Note of Caution
• Rather, Freire
refined &
enriched his
social
investigation
by adding
new tools of
analysis.
Rey Ty
Mature
Freire?
Early
Freire?
Middle
Freire?
Are there three
disjointed
Freires?
No!
Rey Ty
Middle
Freire
3 Overlapping
Freires? Yes!
Mature
Freire
Young
Freire
Rey Ty
Mature
Freire?
Early
Freire?
Middle
Freire?
Are there 3
overlapping
Freires?
Yes!Christian
Existentialist
Existenti...
Rey Ty
Middle
Freire Mature
Freire
Young
Freire
Apple, Arendt,
Aronowitz, Giroux,
Gramsci, Macedo,
Shor, Weil
Marx, Engels...
Rey Ty
Mature
Freire
Young
Freire
Christian
Existentialism
Progressive
Post-
modernism
Committed Sociologist
Classical Mar...
Rey Ty
Epistemic Breaks?
• Sure, Freire had
made paradigm
shifts.
• But they are more
of refinements by
adding “new”
tools...
Rey Ty
Epistemic Breaks?
•Shifts, Breaks,
Continuities,
Discontinuities
Rey Ty
Shifts or Ruptures?
•Did Freire
abandon
Christianity in
favor of science
& Marxism?
•Yes and No!?
Rey Ty
His Strength is His Weakness
• “You can’t win them all”?
• Freire had his cake & ate it too!
• Merge Religion, Phil...
Rey Ty
Paulo Freire
•Personality cult?
Rey Ty
Young Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire:
Complete Ontological and Epistemological Rupture or Partial Shi...
Rey Ty
Freire’s Dialectical Pedagogy
by Rey Ty
Early
Freire
Scientific
Freire
Mature
Freire
Philosophy
Dualism
Idealism
Me...
Rey Ty
Social Movement
Tasks Ahead:
Rey Ty
Tasks Ahead
1. All kinds of mass
democratic
movements
2. Struggle for
national liberation
3. Working people
4. Peac...
Rey Ty
Paulo Freire
(September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997)
Mercedes Sosa- Canción con todos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xE...
Rey Ty
Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted and
non-copyrighted images from the public doma...
Rey Ty
Early, Middle &
Late Freire:
Ontological &
Epistemic Shifts or
Rupture?
Rey Ty
Early, Middle &
Late Freire:
Changing
Perspectives with the
Changing Times
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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts, or Complete Rupture?

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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological, Epistemic Shifts, Complete Rupture

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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts, or Complete Rupture?

  1. 1. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Complete Rupture? Mercedes Sosa: Gracias A La Vida https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIrGQD84F1g Dr. Rey Ty Northern Illinois University
  2. 2. Rey Ty If you are burning to say something, raise your hand, get recognized, & speak up! SpeakUp!
  3. 3. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Complete Rupture?
  4. 4. Rey Ty Introduction
  5. 5. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Changing Perspectives with the Changing Times
  6. 6. Rey Ty Paulo Freire (September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997)
  7. 7. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Many write about Freire without really reading Freire. • Hence, misrepresent Freire!
  8. 8. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Freire was consistent in struggling for liberation. • But he did not speak with “one” voice!
  9. 9. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Freire spoke with multiple voices throughout his life in different contexts & historical moments!
  10. 10. Rey Ty Research Questions •Who is the “real” Freire? •What are the different voices with which Freire spoke?
  11. 11. Rey Ty Data Collection Methods • Textual evidence from Freire’s own books. • No secondary sources allowed!
  12. 12. Rey Ty Data Collection Methods 1. Young Freire: Freire, P. (2002). Education for critical consciousness & Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Continuum. 2. Middle Freire: Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. 3. Mature Freire: Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum.
  13. 13. Rey Ty Limitations• Only one entry per author is listed here. • Other (less known) authors are not listed here.
  14. 14. Rey Ty Findings
  15. 15. Rey Ty Young Freire
  16. 16. Rey Ty Critical consciousness & Education as the practice of freedom (2002) Gabriel Marcel French Christian existentialism p. 19 C. Wright Mills U.S. sociologist for political engagement p. 34 Jacques Maritain French Catholic philosopher p. 39 Karl Mannheim Jewish Hungarian-born anti- fascist sociologist p. 41 Karl Theodor Jaspers German existentialist p. 45
  17. 17. Rey Ty Christian Existentialism Young Freire
  18. 18. Rey Ty Christian Existentialism Young Freire Marcel, Maritain, Jasper
  19. 19. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Young Freire Mills, Mannheim
  20. 20. Rey Ty Young Freire •An educator who was a Christian existentialist & sociologist calling for political engagement
  21. 21. Rey Ty Objectivity (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2) • Materialism: “To be human is to engage in relationships with others and with the world. It is to experience that world as an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.”
  22. 22. Rey Ty Young Freire •Epistemology: The “world [is] an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.” (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2)
  23. 23. Rey Ty Young Freire’s Contributions 1.Cons- ciousness 2.Cultural Circles
  24. 24. Rey Ty Education for critical consciousness 1. “fatalistic” and “naïve consciousness.” 2. “intransitive” or “magical consciousness.” 3. become ‘transitive’ 4. Freire (2002, p. 4) defined conscientization as “learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions and to take actions against the oppressive elements of reality.” “Conscientizaçao represents the development of the awakening of critical awareness” (Freire, 2002, p. 19).
  25. 25. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Consciousness” •How to measure? •How to develop?
  26. 26. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Consciousness” He later abandoned all talk about conscious- ness!
  27. 27. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Cultural Circles” 1. For literacy programs 2. What about contexts with high literacy already?
  28. 28. Rey Ty
  29. 29. Rey Ty
  30. 30. Rey Ty
  31. 31. Rey Ty Middle Freire
  32. 32. Rey Ty Ideology & Philosophy (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 12-13) • In his own words, he is influenced by: • “Sartre and Mounier, Erich Fromm and Louis Althusser, Ortega y Gasset and Mao, Martin Luther King and Che Guevarra, Unamuno and Marcuse.” • Sartre, p. 57 • Reinhold Neibuhr, p. 59 • Hence: (Christian) Existentialism, Classical Marxism, Critical Theory/Western Marxism, New Social Movement
  33. 33. Rey Ty Existentialism (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) • Sartrean Existentialism: “The oppressed, having internalized the image of the oppressor and adopted his guidelines, are fearful of freedom. Freedom would require them to eject this image and replace it with autonomy and responsibility.”
  34. 34. Rey Ty Middle Freire • Humanization (Oppressed, 1997, p.25) • “humanist and libertarian” (Ibid, p. 36) • “critical consciousness” (Ibid, p. 54) • “authentic liberation” (Ibid, p. 60) • “dialogue” & “love” (Ibid, p. 70) • “true humanists” (ibid, p. 77)
  35. 35. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Emmanuel Mounier French philosopher who critiqued Pope Pius XII for not saying anything about Italy’s invasion of Albania p. 30 José Ortega y Gasset Spanish liberal philosopher (freedom to choose our destiny) p. 30 Mao Zedong Chinese classical “Third World” Marxism p. 30 Martin Luther King U.S. civil rights theologian p. 30 Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo Basque (Spanish) anti-fascist philosopher; his La Agonía del Cristianismo is in Index Librorum Prohibitorum p. 31
  36. 36. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Rosa Luxembourg Polish Jewish Marxist p. 39 Karl Marx German founder of Marxism p. 51 Friedrich Engels German co-founder of Marxism p. 51 György Lucas Hungarian “Western” Marxist p. 52 Erich Fromm German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 59 Herbert Marcuse German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 60 Frantz Fanon Postcolonialism (Martinique) p. 62 Régis Debray French pro-Che Guevarra (studied under Louis Althusser in Paris) p. 64 Simone de Beauvoir French feminist existentialist p. 74
  37. 37. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial, pro-Third World existentialist Marxist p. 76 Reinhold Niebuhr U.S. Protestant theologian combining Christianity with Marxism p. 78 Edmund Husserl Austrian/German; Phenomenology p. 83 Vladimir Lenin Classical Marxism; former USSR p. 125 Fidel Castro “Third World” Marxist p. 129 Gajo Petrović Former Yugoslavia; Marxist Humanist Praxis p. 137 Pope John XXIII Roman Catholic Church p. 140 Albert Memmi Postcolonialism; Jewish Tunisian p. 140
  38. 38. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Louis Althusser Algerian-born French Marxist p. 159 Ernest “Che” Guevarra Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 163 Camilo Torres Colombian theologian of liberation p. 163 “A Chilean priest” Roman Catholic Church p. 164 Martin Buber Austrian-born Jewish religious existentialist p. 167 Bishop Franic Split Roman Catholic Church p. 143 Marie-Dominique Chenu Progressive French Catholic theologian calling for reforms p. 172
  39. 39. Rey Ty Christian Theologian Middle Freire ML King, Niebuhr, Pope John XXIII, Torres, Split, Chenu
  40. 40. Rey Ty Committed Philosopher Middle Freire Mounier, Gasset & Ortega, Unamuno
  41. 41. Rey Ty Classical Marxist Middle Freire Marx, Engels, Lenin, Luxemburg
  42. 42. Rey Ty Contradictions (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) •Dialectical resolution of contradictions: “But the struggle to be more fully human has already begun in the authentic struggle to transform the situation.”
  43. 43. Rey Ty Dialectics (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 133) • Dialectics: “…a critical understanding of language in its dialectical relationship with thought and world: the dialectical interrelations of language, ideology, social classes, and education.”
  44. 44. Rey Ty Middle Freire• Freire (Oppressed, 1997, p. 35) quoted Marx & Engels on Dialectics and Materialism: “The materialist doctrine that men are products of circumstances and upbringing, and that, therefore, changed men are products of other circumstances and changed upbringing, forgets that it is men that change circumstances and that the educator himself needs education.” Marx & Engels, Selected Works (NY: 1968, p. 28).
  45. 45. Rey Ty Materialist Dialectics (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 106-7) • Quoting Lenin on the dialectical relationship between theory and practice: “ ‘Without a revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement’ means that a revolution is achieved with neither verbalism nor activism, but rather with praxis, that is, with reflection and action directed at the structures to be transformed.”
  46. 46. Rey Ty Postcolonial & Third-World Marxist Middle Freire Mao, Castro, Che Guevara, Fanon, Debray, Memmi
  47. 47. Rey Ty Western Marxist Middle Freire Althusser, Lukacs, Fromm, Marcuse, Petrović
  48. 48. Rey Ty Existentialism Phenomenologist Middle Freire de Beauvoir, Sartre, Husserl, Buber
  49. 49. Rey Ty Middle Freire• Christian • Classical Marxist • “Western” Marxist (Critical Theory) • “Third World” Marxist • Existentialist/ Phenomenologist • Postcolonial
  50. 50. Rey Ty Early Freire Middle Freire? Are Young & Middle Freire disjointed? Maybe!
  51. 51. Rey Ty Early Freire Middle Freire? Are Young & Middle Freire disjointed? Maybe! MarxistChristian Existentialist
  52. 52. Rey Ty Christianity Marxism Middle FreireYoung Freire Existentialism
  53. 53. Rey Ty
  54. 54. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Committed Philosopher Classical & Western Marxism Post- colonialism Middle FreireYoung Freire Christian Existentialism
  55. 55. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Committed Philosopher Classical & Western Marxism Post- colonialism Middle Freire:Young Freire, Christian Existentialism Continuity, Shift & Change!
  56. 56. Rey Ty Middle Freire’s Contributions 1. Expose & oppose “banking method” of education 2. Propose “problem- solving” education
  57. 57. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Problem- Solving” Education 1. Romanticism 2. Like it or not, instructors have power 3. 100% sure instructors can’t “deposit” any knowledge at all?
  58. 58. Rey Ty Mature Freire
  59. 59. Rey Ty Ideology & Philosophy (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, 1996) • “explain and defend progressive postmodernity & it will reject conservative, neoliberal postmodernity” (p. 10) • “progressively postmodern” (p. 96) • “progressive postmodern” (p. 132)
  60. 60. Rey Ty Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236) • Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the ‘basistic,’ voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?” • “It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them.”
  61. 61. Rey Ty Pedagogy of hope (1996) “defend progressive postmodernity” Postmodernism p. 10 “reject conservative neoliberal postmodernity” Postmodernism p. 10 Henry Giroux U.S. Critical Pedagogy p. 11 Donaldo Macedo Cape Verdean-American Critical Theory p. 11 Ira Shor U.S. Critical Pedagogy (Bronx, NY) p. 11 Stanley Aronowitz U.S. urban sociology; combine Marxist political economy & culture p. 11 Michael Apple U.S. critical education theory p. 11
  62. 62. Rey Ty Mature Freire• In favor of progressives (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to neoliberals (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to sectarianism (Hope, 1996, p. 50) • Opposed to sexist language” (Hope, 1996, p. 65): “it is not a grammatical problem, but an ideological one” (Hope, 1996, p. 67) • Opposed to “authoritarian vanguardist leaders” (Hope, 1996, p. 114) • Opposed to “any back-alley neoliberal knows very well that such view is absolute nonsense…” (Heart, 2006, p. 75).
  63. 63. Rey Ty Mature Freire • Non-discrimination against “blacks, women, homosexuals, the indigenous, the fat, the old” (Heart, 2006, p. 106)
  64. 64. Rey Ty Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236) • Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the ‘basistic,’ voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?” • “It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them.”
  65. 65. Rey Ty Pedagogy of hope (1996) “postmodern” Postmodernism p. 13 Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial, pro- Third World existentialist Marxist p. 17 Frantz Fanon Postcolonialism (Martinique) p. 17 Gramsci, Antonio Italian Marxist p. 18 M. Ponty Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 18 Simone Weil Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 18 Herbert Marcuse German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 18 Ernest “Che” Guevarra Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 43 Marx & Engels Classical Marxism p. 88 Albert Memmi Postcolonialism; Jewish Tunisian p. 105
  66. 66. Rey Ty Materialism• “the historical, economic, and social reasons that explain…” (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 8) • “I am hopeful…out of an existential, concrete imperative.” (Hope, 1996, p. 8) • “reading the world” (Heart, 2006, p.
  67. 67. Rey Ty Late Freire• Classical Marxist • “Third World” Marxist • Existentialist/ Phenomenologist • Postcolonial • U.S. Critical Theory/Pedagogy • Progressive Postmodernity
  68. 68. Rey Ty Late Freire• He did not cite Christian authors • But he continued to interact with priests, etc.
  69. 69. Rey Ty Late FreireMiddle Freire Committed Philosopher Christian Existentialism Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism 3rd World Marxism Postmodernism
  70. 70. Rey Ty Late FreireMiddle Freire Committed Philosopher Marx, Engels, Fanon, Guevara, Marcuse, Memmi Sartre Postmodernism: No authors cited
  71. 71. Rey Ty Late Freire:Middle Freire, Committed Philosopher Christian Existentialism Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism 3rd World Marxism Postmodernism Continuity, Shift & Change!
  72. 72. Rey Ty Late Freire’s Contributions • Include “progressive postmodernism” without abandoning class struggle
  73. 73. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Postmodernism” • No textual proof that he read “progressive postmodernism” literature
  74. 74. Rey Ty Conclusion
  75. 75. Rey Ty Summary• At least three phases in the development of Freire’s thought 1. Early Freire 2. Middle Freire 3. Late Freire • Each with its distinct “flavor”
  76. 76. Rey Ty What Do Textual Evidence Show?
  77. 77. Rey Ty
  78. 78. Rey Ty Note of Caution Freire did not reject his earlier tools of analysis in each stage (Marxism, postcolonialism, etc.).
  79. 79. Rey Ty Note of Caution • Rather, Freire refined & enriched his social investigation by adding new tools of analysis.
  80. 80. Rey Ty Mature Freire? Early Freire? Middle Freire? Are there three disjointed Freires? No!
  81. 81. Rey Ty Middle Freire 3 Overlapping Freires? Yes! Mature Freire Young Freire
  82. 82. Rey Ty Mature Freire? Early Freire? Middle Freire? Are there 3 overlapping Freires? Yes!Christian Existentialist Existential, Marxist, Postcolonial & Postmodern Existentialist, Marxist, Postcolonial
  83. 83. Rey Ty Middle Freire Mature Freire Young Freire Apple, Arendt, Aronowitz, Giroux, Gramsci, Macedo, Shor, Weil Marx, Engels, Fanon, Guevarra, Memmi, Marcuse, Sartre Jaspers, Mannheim, Marcel, Maritain, C.W. Mills Bouvoir, Castro, Debray, Fromm, MLKing, Lenin, Lukacs, Luxemburg, Niebuhr, Pope John XXIII Christian Existentialism
  84. 84. Rey Ty Mature Freire Young Freire Christian Existentialism Progressive Post- modernism Committed Sociologist Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism Middle Freire Committed Philosopher The Verdict
  85. 85. Rey Ty Epistemic Breaks? • Sure, Freire had made paradigm shifts. • But they are more of refinements by adding “new” tools of analysis, not rejection of “older” frameworks of analysis.
  86. 86. Rey Ty Epistemic Breaks? •Shifts, Breaks, Continuities, Discontinuities
  87. 87. Rey Ty Shifts or Ruptures? •Did Freire abandon Christianity in favor of science & Marxism? •Yes and No!?
  88. 88. Rey Ty His Strength is His Weakness • “You can’t win them all”? • Freire had his cake & ate it too! • Merge Religion, Philosophy & Science • Merge Christianity & Marxism • Merge Faith & Science • He ends up as agnostic (neither theist nor atheist). • Fuzzy middle.
  89. 89. Rey Ty Paulo Freire •Personality cult?
  90. 90. Rey Ty Young Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire: Complete Ontological and Epistemological Rupture or Partial Shifts? A Grounded Model of Freire’s Pedagogy and Implications to Education by Dr. Rey Ty Phases History of Ideas Philosophy Ontology Epistemology Implications to Education Young Freire Classical Thought; Medieval Thought Critique of Superstitions; Christian Existentialism Objective Idealism Metaphysical Dualism Christian values Scientific Freire Modern Thought Variants of Marxism and Leninism Dialectical Materialism Historical Materialist Monism Historical, economic, social and political analysis Mature Freire Postmodern Thought Progressive Postmodernism Not Subjective Idealism Relativism; deconstruction Power, Privilege Diversity, Cultural analysis, Multiculturalism, Narratives, Discourses
  91. 91. Rey Ty Freire’s Dialectical Pedagogy by Rey Ty Early Freire Scientific Freire Mature Freire Philosophy Dualism Idealism Meta-physics Monism Historical Dialectical Materialism Post-Modernism Narratives Relativism Differences Authors Marx, Lenin Implications to Education Action Fill in the Blanks
  92. 92. Rey Ty Social Movement Tasks Ahead:
  93. 93. Rey Ty Tasks Ahead 1. All kinds of mass democratic movements 2. Struggle for national liberation 3. Working people 4. Peace movement 5. Struggle against exploitation, & injustice 6. Work for peace, justice & equality
  94. 94. Rey Ty Paulo Freire (September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997) Mercedes Sosa- Canción con todos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEIsqUJCHHQ
  95. 95. Rey Ty Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes. • This work is distributed free of charge. • The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any profit from its distribution. • Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non- profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. • This work contains original work of commentary and critical analysis. • Quotations are attributed to the original authors & sources.
  96. 96. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Rupture?
  97. 97. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Changing Perspectives with the Changing Times
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