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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts, or Complete Rupture?
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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts, or Complete Rupture?

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2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological, Epistemic Shifts, Complete Rupture

2013 09-28 Rey Ty, Early Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire, Partial Ontological, Epistemic Shifts, Complete Rupture

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  • 1. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Complete Rupture? Mercedes Sosa: Gracias A La Vida https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIrGQD84F1g Dr. Rey Ty Northern Illinois University
  • 2. Rey Ty If you are burning to say something, raise your hand, get recognized, & speak up! SpeakUp!
  • 3. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Partial Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Complete Rupture?
  • 4. Rey Ty Introduction
  • 5. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Changing Perspectives with the Changing Times
  • 6. Rey Ty Paulo Freire (September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997)
  • 7. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Many write about Freire without really reading Freire. • Hence, misrepresent Freire!
  • 8. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Freire was consistent in struggling for liberation. • But he did not speak with “one” voice!
  • 9. Rey Ty Problem Statement • Freire spoke with multiple voices throughout his life in different contexts & historical moments!
  • 10. Rey Ty Research Questions •Who is the “real” Freire? •What are the different voices with which Freire spoke?
  • 11. Rey Ty Data Collection Methods • Textual evidence from Freire’s own books. • No secondary sources allowed!
  • 12. Rey Ty Data Collection Methods 1. Young Freire: Freire, P. (2002). Education for critical consciousness & Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Continuum. 2. Middle Freire: Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. 3. Mature Freire: Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum.
  • 13. Rey Ty Limitations• Only one entry per author is listed here. • Other (less known) authors are not listed here.
  • 14. Rey Ty Findings
  • 15. Rey Ty Young Freire
  • 16. Rey Ty Critical consciousness & Education as the practice of freedom (2002) Gabriel Marcel French Christian existentialism p. 19 C. Wright Mills U.S. sociologist for political engagement p. 34 Jacques Maritain French Catholic philosopher p. 39 Karl Mannheim Jewish Hungarian-born anti- fascist sociologist p. 41 Karl Theodor Jaspers German existentialist p. 45
  • 17. Rey Ty Christian Existentialism Young Freire
  • 18. Rey Ty Christian Existentialism Young Freire Marcel, Maritain, Jasper
  • 19. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Young Freire Mills, Mannheim
  • 20. Rey Ty Young Freire •An educator who was a Christian existentialist & sociologist calling for political engagement
  • 21. Rey Ty Objectivity (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2) • Materialism: “To be human is to engage in relationships with others and with the world. It is to experience that world as an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.”
  • 22. Rey Ty Young Freire •Epistemology: The “world [is] an objective reality, independent of oneself, capable of being known.” (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2)
  • 23. Rey Ty Young Freire’s Contributions 1.Cons- ciousness 2.Cultural Circles
  • 24. Rey Ty Education for critical consciousness 1. “fatalistic” and “naïve consciousness.” 2. “intransitive” or “magical consciousness.” 3. become ‘transitive’ 4. Freire (2002, p. 4) defined conscientization as “learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions and to take actions against the oppressive elements of reality.” “Conscientizaçao represents the development of the awakening of critical awareness” (Freire, 2002, p. 19).
  • 25. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Consciousness” •How to measure? •How to develop?
  • 26. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Consciousness” He later abandoned all talk about conscious- ness!
  • 27. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Cultural Circles” 1. For literacy programs 2. What about contexts with high literacy already?
  • 28. Rey Ty
  • 29. Rey Ty
  • 30. Rey Ty
  • 31. Rey Ty Middle Freire
  • 32. Rey Ty Ideology & Philosophy (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 12-13) • In his own words, he is influenced by: • “Sartre and Mounier, Erich Fromm and Louis Althusser, Ortega y Gasset and Mao, Martin Luther King and Che Guevarra, Unamuno and Marcuse.” • Sartre, p. 57 • Reinhold Neibuhr, p. 59 • Hence: (Christian) Existentialism, Classical Marxism, Critical Theory/Western Marxism, New Social Movement
  • 33. Rey Ty Existentialism (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) • Sartrean Existentialism: “The oppressed, having internalized the image of the oppressor and adopted his guidelines, are fearful of freedom. Freedom would require them to eject this image and replace it with autonomy and responsibility.”
  • 34. Rey Ty Middle Freire • Humanization (Oppressed, 1997, p.25) • “humanist and libertarian” (Ibid, p. 36) • “critical consciousness” (Ibid, p. 54) • “authentic liberation” (Ibid, p. 60) • “dialogue” & “love” (Ibid, p. 70) • “true humanists” (ibid, p. 77)
  • 35. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Emmanuel Mounier French philosopher who critiqued Pope Pius XII for not saying anything about Italy’s invasion of Albania p. 30 José Ortega y Gasset Spanish liberal philosopher (freedom to choose our destiny) p. 30 Mao Zedong Chinese classical “Third World” Marxism p. 30 Martin Luther King U.S. civil rights theologian p. 30 Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo Basque (Spanish) anti-fascist philosopher; his La Agonía del Cristianismo is in Index Librorum Prohibitorum p. 31
  • 36. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Rosa Luxembourg Polish Jewish Marxist p. 39 Karl Marx German founder of Marxism p. 51 Friedrich Engels German co-founder of Marxism p. 51 György Lucas Hungarian “Western” Marxist p. 52 Erich Fromm German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 59 Herbert Marcuse German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 60 Frantz Fanon Postcolonialism (Martinique) p. 62 Régis Debray French pro-Che Guevarra (studied under Louis Althusser in Paris) p. 64 Simone de Beauvoir French feminist existentialist p. 74
  • 37. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial, pro-Third World existentialist Marxist p. 76 Reinhold Niebuhr U.S. Protestant theologian combining Christianity with Marxism p. 78 Edmund Husserl Austrian/German; Phenomenology p. 83 Vladimir Lenin Classical Marxism; former USSR p. 125 Fidel Castro “Third World” Marxist p. 129 Gajo Petrović Former Yugoslavia; Marxist Humanist Praxis p. 137 Pope John XXIII Roman Catholic Church p. 140 Albert Memmi Postcolonialism; Jewish Tunisian p. 140
  • 38. Rey Ty Pedagogy of the oppressed (2005) Louis Althusser Algerian-born French Marxist p. 159 Ernest “Che” Guevarra Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 163 Camilo Torres Colombian theologian of liberation p. 163 “A Chilean priest” Roman Catholic Church p. 164 Martin Buber Austrian-born Jewish religious existentialist p. 167 Bishop Franic Split Roman Catholic Church p. 143 Marie-Dominique Chenu Progressive French Catholic theologian calling for reforms p. 172
  • 39. Rey Ty Christian Theologian Middle Freire ML King, Niebuhr, Pope John XXIII, Torres, Split, Chenu
  • 40. Rey Ty Committed Philosopher Middle Freire Mounier, Gasset & Ortega, Unamuno
  • 41. Rey Ty Classical Marxist Middle Freire Marx, Engels, Lenin, Luxemburg
  • 42. Rey Ty Contradictions (Oppressed, 1997, p. 29) •Dialectical resolution of contradictions: “But the struggle to be more fully human has already begun in the authentic struggle to transform the situation.”
  • 43. Rey Ty Dialectics (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 133) • Dialectics: “…a critical understanding of language in its dialectical relationship with thought and world: the dialectical interrelations of language, ideology, social classes, and education.”
  • 44. Rey Ty Middle Freire• Freire (Oppressed, 1997, p. 35) quoted Marx & Engels on Dialectics and Materialism: “The materialist doctrine that men are products of circumstances and upbringing, and that, therefore, changed men are products of other circumstances and changed upbringing, forgets that it is men that change circumstances and that the educator himself needs education.” Marx & Engels, Selected Works (NY: 1968, p. 28).
  • 45. Rey Ty Materialist Dialectics (Oppressed, 1997, pp. 106-7) • Quoting Lenin on the dialectical relationship between theory and practice: “ ‘Without a revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement’ means that a revolution is achieved with neither verbalism nor activism, but rather with praxis, that is, with reflection and action directed at the structures to be transformed.”
  • 46. Rey Ty Postcolonial & Third-World Marxist Middle Freire Mao, Castro, Che Guevara, Fanon, Debray, Memmi
  • 47. Rey Ty Western Marxist Middle Freire Althusser, Lukacs, Fromm, Marcuse, Petrović
  • 48. Rey Ty Existentialism Phenomenologist Middle Freire de Beauvoir, Sartre, Husserl, Buber
  • 49. Rey Ty Middle Freire• Christian • Classical Marxist • “Western” Marxist (Critical Theory) • “Third World” Marxist • Existentialist/ Phenomenologist • Postcolonial
  • 50. Rey Ty Early Freire Middle Freire? Are Young & Middle Freire disjointed? Maybe!
  • 51. Rey Ty Early Freire Middle Freire? Are Young & Middle Freire disjointed? Maybe! MarxistChristian Existentialist
  • 52. Rey Ty Christianity Marxism Middle FreireYoung Freire Existentialism
  • 53. Rey Ty
  • 54. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Committed Philosopher Classical & Western Marxism Post- colonialism Middle FreireYoung Freire Christian Existentialism
  • 55. Rey Ty Committed Sociologist Committed Philosopher Classical & Western Marxism Post- colonialism Middle Freire:Young Freire, Christian Existentialism Continuity, Shift & Change!
  • 56. Rey Ty Middle Freire’s Contributions 1. Expose & oppose “banking method” of education 2. Propose “problem- solving” education
  • 57. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Problem- Solving” Education 1. Romanticism 2. Like it or not, instructors have power 3. 100% sure instructors can’t “deposit” any knowledge at all?
  • 58. Rey Ty Mature Freire
  • 59. Rey Ty Ideology & Philosophy (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, 1996) • “explain and defend progressive postmodernity & it will reject conservative, neoliberal postmodernity” (p. 10) • “progressively postmodern” (p. 96) • “progressive postmodern” (p. 132)
  • 60. Rey Ty Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236) • Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the ‘basistic,’ voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?” • “It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them.”
  • 61. Rey Ty Pedagogy of hope (1996) “defend progressive postmodernity” Postmodernism p. 10 “reject conservative neoliberal postmodernity” Postmodernism p. 10 Henry Giroux U.S. Critical Pedagogy p. 11 Donaldo Macedo Cape Verdean-American Critical Theory p. 11 Ira Shor U.S. Critical Pedagogy (Bronx, NY) p. 11 Stanley Aronowitz U.S. urban sociology; combine Marxist political economy & culture p. 11 Michael Apple U.S. critical education theory p. 11
  • 62. Rey Ty Mature Freire• In favor of progressives (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to neoliberals (Heart, 2006, p. 55) • Opposed to sectarianism (Hope, 1996, p. 50) • Opposed to sexist language” (Hope, 1996, p. 65): “it is not a grammatical problem, but an ideological one” (Hope, 1996, p. 67) • Opposed to “authoritarian vanguardist leaders” (Hope, 1996, p. 114) • Opposed to “any back-alley neoliberal knows very well that such view is absolute nonsense…” (Heart, 2006, p. 75).
  • 63. Rey Ty Mature Freire • Non-discrimination against “blacks, women, homosexuals, the indigenous, the fat, the old” (Heart, 2006, p. 106)
  • 64. Rey Ty Gnosiology(Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 236) • Materialist Gnosiology: “How is the ‘basistic,’ voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?” • “It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them.”
  • 65. Rey Ty Pedagogy of hope (1996) “postmodern” Postmodernism p. 13 Jean-Paul Sartre French pro-Mao, pro-postcolonial, pro- Third World existentialist Marxist p. 17 Frantz Fanon Postcolonialism (Martinique) p. 17 Gramsci, Antonio Italian Marxist p. 18 M. Ponty Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 18 Simone Weil Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 18 Herbert Marcuse German “Frankfurt School” of Critical Theory p. 18 Ernest “Che” Guevarra Argentine/Cuban “Third World” Marxist p. 43 Marx & Engels Classical Marxism p. 88 Albert Memmi Postcolonialism; Jewish Tunisian p. 105
  • 66. Rey Ty Materialism• “the historical, economic, and social reasons that explain…” (Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Continuum, p. 8) • “I am hopeful…out of an existential, concrete imperative.” (Hope, 1996, p. 8) • “reading the world” (Heart, 2006, p.
  • 67. Rey Ty Late Freire• Classical Marxist • “Third World” Marxist • Existentialist/ Phenomenologist • Postcolonial • U.S. Critical Theory/Pedagogy • Progressive Postmodernity
  • 68. Rey Ty Late Freire• He did not cite Christian authors • But he continued to interact with priests, etc.
  • 69. Rey Ty Late FreireMiddle Freire Committed Philosopher Christian Existentialism Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism 3rd World Marxism Postmodernism
  • 70. Rey Ty Late FreireMiddle Freire Committed Philosopher Marx, Engels, Fanon, Guevara, Marcuse, Memmi Sartre Postmodernism: No authors cited
  • 71. Rey Ty Late Freire:Middle Freire, Committed Philosopher Christian Existentialism Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism 3rd World Marxism Postmodernism Continuity, Shift & Change!
  • 72. Rey Ty Late Freire’s Contributions • Include “progressive postmodernism” without abandoning class struggle
  • 73. Rey Ty Critique of Freire’s “Postmodernism” • No textual proof that he read “progressive postmodernism” literature
  • 74. Rey Ty Conclusion
  • 75. Rey Ty Summary• At least three phases in the development of Freire’s thought 1. Early Freire 2. Middle Freire 3. Late Freire • Each with its distinct “flavor”
  • 76. Rey Ty What Do Textual Evidence Show?
  • 77. Rey Ty
  • 78. Rey Ty Note of Caution Freire did not reject his earlier tools of analysis in each stage (Marxism, postcolonialism, etc.).
  • 79. Rey Ty Note of Caution • Rather, Freire refined & enriched his social investigation by adding new tools of analysis.
  • 80. Rey Ty Mature Freire? Early Freire? Middle Freire? Are there three disjointed Freires? No!
  • 81. Rey Ty Middle Freire 3 Overlapping Freires? Yes! Mature Freire Young Freire
  • 82. Rey Ty Mature Freire? Early Freire? Middle Freire? Are there 3 overlapping Freires? Yes!Christian Existentialist Existential, Marxist, Postcolonial & Postmodern Existentialist, Marxist, Postcolonial
  • 83. Rey Ty Middle Freire Mature Freire Young Freire Apple, Arendt, Aronowitz, Giroux, Gramsci, Macedo, Shor, Weil Marx, Engels, Fanon, Guevarra, Memmi, Marcuse, Sartre Jaspers, Mannheim, Marcel, Maritain, C.W. Mills Bouvoir, Castro, Debray, Fromm, MLKing, Lenin, Lukacs, Luxemburg, Niebuhr, Pope John XXIII Christian Existentialism
  • 84. Rey Ty Mature Freire Young Freire Christian Existentialism Progressive Post- modernism Committed Sociologist Classical Marxism Western Marxism Postcolonialism Middle Freire Committed Philosopher The Verdict
  • 85. Rey Ty Epistemic Breaks? • Sure, Freire had made paradigm shifts. • But they are more of refinements by adding “new” tools of analysis, not rejection of “older” frameworks of analysis.
  • 86. Rey Ty Epistemic Breaks? •Shifts, Breaks, Continuities, Discontinuities
  • 87. Rey Ty Shifts or Ruptures? •Did Freire abandon Christianity in favor of science & Marxism? •Yes and No!?
  • 88. Rey Ty His Strength is His Weakness • “You can’t win them all”? • Freire had his cake & ate it too! • Merge Religion, Philosophy & Science • Merge Christianity & Marxism • Merge Faith & Science • He ends up as agnostic (neither theist nor atheist). • Fuzzy middle.
  • 89. Rey Ty Paulo Freire •Personality cult?
  • 90. Rey Ty Young Freire, Scientific Freire, and Mature Freire: Complete Ontological and Epistemological Rupture or Partial Shifts? A Grounded Model of Freire’s Pedagogy and Implications to Education by Dr. Rey Ty Phases History of Ideas Philosophy Ontology Epistemology Implications to Education Young Freire Classical Thought; Medieval Thought Critique of Superstitions; Christian Existentialism Objective Idealism Metaphysical Dualism Christian values Scientific Freire Modern Thought Variants of Marxism and Leninism Dialectical Materialism Historical Materialist Monism Historical, economic, social and political analysis Mature Freire Postmodern Thought Progressive Postmodernism Not Subjective Idealism Relativism; deconstruction Power, Privilege Diversity, Cultural analysis, Multiculturalism, Narratives, Discourses
  • 91. Rey Ty Freire’s Dialectical Pedagogy by Rey Ty Early Freire Scientific Freire Mature Freire Philosophy Dualism Idealism Meta-physics Monism Historical Dialectical Materialism Post-Modernism Narratives Relativism Differences Authors Marx, Lenin Implications to Education Action Fill in the Blanks
  • 92. Rey Ty Social Movement Tasks Ahead:
  • 93. Rey Ty Tasks Ahead 1. All kinds of mass democratic movements 2. Struggle for national liberation 3. Working people 4. Peace movement 5. Struggle against exploitation, & injustice 6. Work for peace, justice & equality
  • 94. Rey Ty Paulo Freire (September 19, 1921 - May 2, 1997) Mercedes Sosa- Canción con todos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEIsqUJCHHQ
  • 95. Rey Ty Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes. • This work is distributed free of charge. • The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any profit from its distribution. • Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non- profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. • This work contains original work of commentary and critical analysis. • Quotations are attributed to the original authors & sources.
  • 96. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Ontological & Epistemic Shifts or Rupture?
  • 97. Rey Ty Early, Middle & Late Freire: Changing Perspectives with the Changing Times