© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
S
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Contending
Approaches to
Refugee Services
International Burma Studies Conference
Oc...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
OutlineI. Introduction
A. Problem
B. Questions
C. Objectives
D. Theory
E. Research ...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Introduction
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Problem Statement
There are problems
in refugee services.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Problem Statement
1. Well-
intentioned
refugee service
providers offer
services whi...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Problem Statement
2. Refugees are
treated as
outsiders who lack
knowledge, skills,
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Problem Statement
3. Hence,
alternative
interventions
are needed for
refugee
empowe...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Questions
1. What are
the
mainstream
services
available to
refugees in
the...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Questions
1. What are
some
alternative
services
available to
refugees in
t...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Objective
•This research
describes the
traditional &
alternative refugee
s...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Assumptions
•
Cultures change
•
Historically & socially
determined
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Scholars-Practitioners
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Perspectives
1. Both Freire (2005) and Zinn
(2003) proposed teaching and
learning t...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Perspectives
2. Both Freire (1995)
and Zinn (2003)
were in favor of
teaching & lear...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Perspectives
3. By engaging in a dialogue, both (1) the
adult learners and (2) the ...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Perspectives
4. In this study, refugees themselves
and service providers engage in ...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Theoretical Framework
1.Power & Knowledge
(Foucault)
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Theoretical Framework
2. “Othering” (Derrida, 1973;
Foucault, 1990; & Lacan, 1964
&...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
1. Data collection was
based upon
a. site visits
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
1. Data collection was based
upon
b. participant observation
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
1. Data collection was based
upon
c. community dialogue
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
1. Data
collection was
based upon
d. document
analysis
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits
1.Catholic Charities of Rockford,
Illinois
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits
2. Jane Addam’s Hull House,
Illinois
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits
3. Heartland Alliance for Human
Needs & Human Rights, Illinois
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits
4. Refugee Resource & Research
Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana
Inte...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits
4. Refugee Resource & Research
Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana
Chin...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Dialogue5. Dialogue
with
community
organizers
at the John
H. Boner
Community
Center
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits6. Alliance of Filipinos for Immigrant
Rights & Empowerment (AFIRE Chic...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Field Visits7. Rock
Valley
College
Refugee
and
Immigrant
Services
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Government, Service Providers, &
Refugees in Relation to HRD PurposesGovernment
Age...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Human Resource Development
1 Performance
2 Learning
3 Change
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Lecture-Discussion
1. Illinois
Coalition
for
Immigrant
& Refugee
Rights
(ICIRR)
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Lecture-Discussion
2. Alliance of Filipinos for Immigrant
Rights & Empowerment (AFI...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Lecture-Discussion
3. The National Korean American
Service & Education Consortium
(...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Lecture-Discussion
4. Immigrant and political asylee
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
Broader
historical
& social
context
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
2. Case study research design:
a. A farm project in Indianapolis.
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
2. Case study
research
design:
b. a Weaving
Project in
Indianapoli...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
3. Maria Beltran-Figueroa is the executive
director of Refugee Res...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Research Process
4. Rey Ty is the Training Coordinator of the
International Trainin...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Limitations
• Visits to
Midwest
Refugee
Projects
–Illinois
–Indiana
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings
Context
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
ContextIndianapolis is
home to about
10,000 Burmese,
Iraqi, African,
Bhutanese,
Mes...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
ContextOver 4,000 are women and
girls.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
ContextAlthough they come
from varied cultures
& backgrounds, they
share a history ...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings
Services
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Traditional Services
Findings
1
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
1. Basic Needs Approach
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Field Visit & Dialogue with Karen Refugees
Rey
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
• This paper
discusses the
different ways by
which refugee
services are
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
The first model
promotes a
hierarchical
relation
between the
omniscient
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
The U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services (2011b) reveals that
se...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Traditional “banking”
teaching and learning
techniques are used in
which...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Because many well-
intentioned refugee service
workers lack deep knowled...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
The knowledge
base, skills and
values of the
refugees—the
“others”—are
r...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Refugee
services
reproduce the
structures and
functions of
U.S. society.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Refugee service
providers make
available knowledge
& skills that
refugee...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
Refugee service
providers expect
refugees to be at
their peak
performanc...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
In terms of learning,
they reproduce the
dominant interests
and culture,...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
By expecting the
refugees to learn the new
knowledge, skills, &
values s...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 1
The dominant
practice of
training and
development in
HRD is one of
“soci...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
1. Reproducing the existing
social relations in society,
the dominant cult...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
2. Deficit Model:
Refugees do not
have the
knowledge, skills,
and values t...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
3. Hence, refugees
need to acquire
knowledge, skills, &
values so that the...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
4. They are passive
recipients of
services. The
cultures of the
refugees a...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
5. Job training
and job offers
are mostly for
factory-based
labor.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
6. Training includes,
among others, preparing
résumés, dressing up for
int...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
7. Through the
categories of “us”
and the “others,”
the experiences
and kn...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
8. Refugees are
cultural outsiders
who learn from
refugee service
provider...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
9. By privileging
the cultural
insiders,
alternative beliefs
and practices...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
10. Refugees who
speak English well
become “powerful”
employees of refugee...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Othering
11. In a word,
refugees are
taught to
assimilate into
the mainstream
of so...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Alternative Services
Findings
2
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Theoretical Framework
2. Human Rights Based
Approach
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Karen Farm Project
Maria
Findings 2
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Refugees’
Farm
Projects
Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 22. Deconstructing
the dominant
approach, the
alternative post-
structural...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2•Alternative
interventions are,
therefore, needed to
uplift the economic,...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2•Faced with the
challenges of family life
obligations, limited or
lack of...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
The second
approach
promotes the
economic,
political, and
cultural
empow...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Questioning the
role of training
within the broader
context of social
ju...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
•Karen Farm
Project
–3 acres of the
Waterman 50-acre
“u-pick farm”
–No c...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
•Karen Farm
Project
–3 acres of the
Waterman 50-acre
“u-pick farm”
–No c...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2• Meet with the community
leader.
• Implemented in 2008.
• Asian vegetabl...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Instead of a top-down
implementation of
services that benefit
the refuge...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Refugees
are not
empty
vessels
but
partners.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Instead of assimilation,
refugee services
promote the integration
of ref...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
There are
about 800
Karens in
Indianapolis,
of which ten
Karen families
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Weaving
Project
Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
As a central part
of their culture,
weaving for some
of these women
was the only
so...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2It is a way to reconnect to a pleasant past
and their identity as a peopl...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Weaving for
Women
Project in
Indianapolis,
Indiana.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2This paper describes the
alternative but
complementary best
practice in r...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
A gender responsive approach to addressing
poverty reduction, Weaving fo...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2It is an expansion of an
existing weaving
project that benefits
Karen wom...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Ten Karen women who can not
participate in the larger Karen
farm project...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
The women refugees have a bi-
monthly meeting with the
project manager t...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Refugee Resource promotes a
participatory approach in its
implementation...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
Being a component of the Karen Farm Project, funds
to purchase seven bac...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
The women keep the looms
in their apartments where
all the weaving is do...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 21. The looms belong to Refugee
Resource.
2. New organization: Burmese
Com...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Findings 2• Refugee Resource bought
the materials (looms,
threads).
• Karen women g...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Access Expectations
Sustainability Politics
Research
PracticePractitioner
Context
O...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion• Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion• Summary
–Mainstream
refugee
services are
necessary
but not
sufficient
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion• Summary
–While all
refugees have
common
concerns,
women
refugees have
s...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion• Summary
–This paper
uncovered the
privileged views
and practices of
dom...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Contending
Approaches to
Refugee Services
Grounded
Model
Complementary, not binary
...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion•Summary
We are
not
dumb.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion
•Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion• Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion
•Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion
•Summary
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion•Implications
Combine both
Human Needs
Approach &
Human Rights
Based Appr...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Table 1: Deconstruction of Refugee Services
Perspectives
Issues Hegemony
Othering
(...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Refugee Service Practices in
Relation to HRD Purposes
Ideology
Elements *3. Critica...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Practice, Setting, and Organizational Needs
Linked to the Issue: Situation of Refug...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion•Implications
–Importance
of culture,
which is
ever-
changing.
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion•Implications
–They also get
to interact with
other women
who share the
s...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Conclusion•Implications
–Meaningful,
sustainable
economic value
of traditional
work
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Thank
You!
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
References• Alfred, M. V. & Chlup, D. T. (2010). Making the invisible, visible: Rac...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
References
• Apple, M. W. (1971). The hidden curriculum and the nature of conflict,...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
Contending
Approaches to
Refugee Services
International Burma Studies Conference
Oc...
© 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
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2012 10-06 Rey Ty and M. Beltran Figueroa. Contending Aprroaches for Refugee Services.

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2012 10-06 Rey Ty and M. Beltran Figueroa. Contending Approaches for Refugee Services for Karen Refugees in Indiana.

Ty, Rey and Maria Beltra Figueroa
Contending Approaches to Refugee Services
(Abstract)

There are problems in refugee services. Well-intentioned refugee service providers offer services which are inappropriate to the refugees' needs. Refugees are treated as outsiders who lack knowledge, skills, and values to be useful members of the new society where they live, as a consequence of which they become estranged in the host country. Hence, alternative interventions are needed for refugee empowerment. This paper discusses the different ways by which refugee services are provided to Karen refugees in Indiana. The first model is the traditional one, in which the omniscient cultural outsiders provide for all the basic needs of the refugees. Deconstructing the dominant approach, the alternative post-structuralist model uses a human rights-based and culturally sensitive approach to refugee work. Using the case study research design, this paper selects a farm project and a weaving project, both of which are in Indianapolis. Data collection was based upon site visits, participant observation, community dialogue, and document analysis. Maria Beltran-Figueroa is the executive director of Refugee Resource and Research Institute based in Indianapolis, Indiana. Rey Ty is the Training Coordinator of the International Training Office of Northern Illinois University who brings participants of international programs to field visits, including the Karen refugees in Indianapolis. The findings reveal that, on the one hand, the first model promotes a hierarchical relation between the superior service providers and the inferior service recipients. On the other hand, the second approach promotes the economic, political, and cultural empowerment of the Karen refugees. Policy implications will be discussed.

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2012 10-06 Rey Ty and M. Beltran Figueroa. Contending Aprroaches for Refugee Services.

  1. 1. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa S
  2. 2. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Contending Approaches to Refugee Services International Burma Studies Conference October 5-7, 2012 Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL U.S.A. Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  3. 3. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa OutlineI. Introduction A. Problem B. Questions C. Objectives D. Theory E. Research Process II. Findings A. Basic Needs Approach B. Human Rights Based Approach III. Conclusion A. Summary B. Implications
  4. 4. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Introduction
  5. 5. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Problem Statement There are problems in refugee services.
  6. 6. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Problem Statement 1. Well- intentioned refugee service providers offer services which are inappropriate to the refugees’ needs.
  7. 7. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Problem Statement 2. Refugees are treated as outsiders who lack knowledge, skills, and values to be useful members of the new society where they live, as a consequence of which they become estranged in the host country.
  8. 8. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Problem Statement 3. Hence, alternative interventions are needed for refugee empowerment.
  9. 9. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Questions 1. What are the mainstream services available to refugees in the U.S.A.?
  10. 10. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Questions 1. What are some alternative services available to refugees in the U.S.A.?
  11. 11. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Objective •This research describes the traditional & alternative refugee services in Indianapolis, Indiana, which empowers Karen (wo)men refugees from Southeast Asia.
  12. 12. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Assumptions • Cultures change • Historically & socially determined
  13. 13. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Scholars-Practitioners
  14. 14. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Perspectives 1. Both Freire (2005) and Zinn (2003) proposed teaching and learning to be based upon historical, social, economic, political and cultural contexts, the purpose of which is to apply a pedagogy that is based upon the realities of the learners, in this case, women refugees.
  15. 15. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Perspectives 2. Both Freire (1995) and Zinn (2003) were in favor of teaching & learning that are sensitive to issues related to culture, ethnicity, gender, & class.
  16. 16. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Perspectives 3. By engaging in a dialogue, both (1) the adult learners and (2) the community and adult educators become co-learners in critically analyzing social realities and co- constructors of knowledge, which leads to the development of programs relevant to the learners.
  17. 17. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Perspectives 4. In this study, refugees themselves and service providers engage in a dialogue that led to the birth of the farm project & weaving project for refugee women.
  18. 18. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Theoretical Framework 1.Power & Knowledge (Foucault)
  19. 19. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Theoretical Framework 2. “Othering” (Derrida, 1973; Foucault, 1990; & Lacan, 1964 & 1966; Said, 1978)
  20. 20. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 1. Data collection was based upon a. site visits
  21. 21. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 1. Data collection was based upon b. participant observation
  22. 22. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 1. Data collection was based upon c. community dialogue
  23. 23. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 1. Data collection was based upon d. document analysis
  24. 24. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits 1.Catholic Charities of Rockford, Illinois
  25. 25. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits 2. Jane Addam’s Hull House, Illinois
  26. 26. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits 3. Heartland Alliance for Human Needs & Human Rights, Illinois
  27. 27. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits 4. Refugee Resource & Research Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana Interact with People with Intimate Knowledge & Personal Experiences
  28. 28. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits 4. Refugee Resource & Research Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana Chin Farm Project Karen Farm Project
  29. 29. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Dialogue5. Dialogue with community organizers at the John H. Boner Community Center
  30. 30. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits6. Alliance of Filipinos for Immigrant Rights & Empowerment (AFIRE Chicago)
  31. 31. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Field Visits7. Rock Valley College Refugee and Immigrant Services
  32. 32. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Government, Service Providers, & Refugees in Relation to HRD PurposesGovernment Agency Civil Society Service Provider Refugees Served Approaches HRD Purposes & Services Provided 1. Office of Refugee Resettlement Catholic Charities of Rockford, Heartland Alliance for Human Needs & Human Rights, Rock Valley College Refugee and Immigrant Services, Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (ICIRR), and World Relief. All refugees in their communities Traditional Resettlement adjustment and assimilation (learning) and employment (performance) 2. Department of Agriculture Refugee Resource All refugees in the community Non-Traditional Culturally appropriate resettlement adjustment based on human rights approach, specifically a farm project for Karen refugees (change) 3. Next steps: Other government agencies? Eritreans, Iraqis, Somalians & other refugees? Non-Traditional Culturally appropriate resettlement adjustment based on human rights approach. Specifically…?
  33. 33. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Human Resource Development 1 Performance 2 Learning 3 Change
  34. 34. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Lecture-Discussion 1. Illinois Coalition for Immigrant & Refugee Rights (ICIRR)
  35. 35. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Lecture-Discussion 2. Alliance of Filipinos for Immigrant Rights & Empowerment (AFIRE Chicago)
  36. 36. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Lecture-Discussion 3. The National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (NAKASEC), Chicago, Illinois
  37. 37. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Lecture-Discussion 4. Immigrant and political asylee
  38. 38. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process Broader historical & social context
  39. 39. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 2. Case study research design: a. A farm project in Indianapolis. Participatory action research
  40. 40. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 2. Case study research design: b. a Weaving Project in Indianapolis . Participatory action research
  41. 41. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  42. 42. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 3. Maria Beltran-Figueroa is the executive director of Refugee Resource and Research Institute based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
  43. 43. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Research Process 4. Rey Ty is the Training Coordinator of the International Training Office of Northern Illinois University which brings participants of international programs to field visits, including the Karen refugees in Indianapolis.
  44. 44. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Limitations • Visits to Midwest Refugee Projects –Illinois –Indiana
  45. 45. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings Context
  46. 46. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa ContextIndianapolis is home to about 10,000 Burmese, Iraqi, African, Bhutanese, Meskhetian Turks & other refugees.
  47. 47. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa ContextOver 4,000 are women and girls.
  48. 48. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa ContextAlthough they come from varied cultures & backgrounds, they share a history of persecution and alienation and isolation upon arrival & during the resettlement process.
  49. 49. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings Services
  50. 50. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Traditional Services Findings 1
  51. 51. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 1. Basic Needs Approach
  52. 52. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Field Visit & Dialogue with Karen Refugees Rey
  53. 53. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 • This paper discusses the different ways by which refugee services are provided to refugees. 1.The first model is the traditional or mainstream, in which the omniscient cultural outsiders provide for all the basic needs of the refugees.
  54. 54. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 The first model promotes a hierarchical relation between the omniscient service providers and the service recipients.
  55. 55. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2011b) reveals that service providers offer invaluable services to refugees in the U.S.A.: • housing, • food and living allowance, • health services, • cultural adjustment & acculturation, • resume writing, • interview preparation, • & employment.
  56. 56. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Traditional “banking” teaching and learning techniques are used in which omniscient teachers impart new knowledge, skills, and values to learners who are empty vessels (Freire, 2005).
  57. 57. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Because many well- intentioned refugee service workers lack deep knowledge of the social history and cultures of refugees whom they serve, one-way transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitudes leads to inefficiency, mismatched employment, low overall satisfaction, & low quality of life of refugees.
  58. 58. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 The knowledge base, skills and values of the refugees—the “others”—are rendered invisible. On the other hand, this paper presents alternatives.
  59. 59. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Refugee services reproduce the structures and functions of U.S. society.
  60. 60. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Refugee service providers make available knowledge & skills that refugees need to fill the labor force, based on their class, ethnicity, & gender.
  61. 61. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 Refugee service providers expect refugees to be at their peak performance in the workplace, mostly in factory work.
  62. 62. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 In terms of learning, they reproduce the dominant interests and culture, as they decide what knowledge, language, and values the refugees need to accept.
  63. 63. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 By expecting the refugees to learn the new knowledge, skills, & values so that they assimilate to the mainstream society, refugee service providers also legitimize the economy, politics, & ideology of the state.
  64. 64. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 1 The dominant practice of training and development in HRD is one of “social control” (Cunningham, 1988, p. 133).
  65. 65. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 1. Reproducing the existing social relations in society, the dominant culture in the hidden curriculum (Apple, 1971) is legitimized and shapes the training that refugees receive from the service providers. Powerful refugee service providers help powerless refugees.
  66. 66. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 2. Deficit Model: Refugees do not have the knowledge, skills, and values to fit into society.
  67. 67. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 3. Hence, refugees need to acquire knowledge, skills, & values so that they can be gainfully employed and be a part of the host country where they live.
  68. 68. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 4. They are passive recipients of services. The cultures of the refugees are ignored, if not negated.
  69. 69. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 5. Job training and job offers are mostly for factory-based labor.
  70. 70. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 6. Training includes, among others, preparing résumés, dressing up for interviews, eye contact, and other related practices and values based on those of the dominant economic and political group.
  71. 71. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 7. Through the categories of “us” and the “others,” the experiences and knowledge base of refugees are marginalized.
  72. 72. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 8. Refugees are cultural outsiders who learn from refugee service providers who are cultural insiders.
  73. 73. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 9. By privileging the cultural insiders, alternative beliefs and practices of cultural outsiders are made invisible.
  74. 74. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 10. Refugees who speak English well become “powerful” employees of refugee service organizations, creating a new hierarchy in the host country.
  75. 75. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Othering 11. In a word, refugees are taught to assimilate into the mainstream of society.
  76. 76. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Alternative Services Findings 2
  77. 77. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Theoretical Framework 2. Human Rights Based Approach
  78. 78. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Karen Farm Project Maria Findings 2
  79. 79. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Refugees’ Farm Projects Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  80. 80. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  81. 81. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 22. Deconstructing the dominant approach, the alternative post- structuralist model uses a human rights-based and culturally sensitive approach to refugee work.
  82. 82. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2•Alternative interventions are, therefore, needed to uplift the economic, political, social, cultural and psychological conditions of refugees.
  83. 83. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2•Faced with the challenges of family life obligations, limited or lack of language proficiency and non- transferable skills, refugee women need to have an opportunity to be gainfully employed aside from keeping in touch with their own cultures.
  84. 84. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 The second approach promotes the economic, political, and cultural empowerment of the Karen refugees.
  85. 85. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Questioning the role of training within the broader context of social justice (Gilley & Associates, 2002) is part of critical reflection (Elliott & Turnbull, 2006).
  86. 86. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 •Karen Farm Project –3 acres of the Waterman 50-acre “u-pick farm” –No conditions. –10 families involved.
  87. 87. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 •Karen Farm Project –3 acres of the Waterman 50-acre “u-pick farm” –No conditions. –10 families involved.
  88. 88. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2• Meet with the community leader. • Implemented in 2008. • Asian vegetables & herbs: long beans, roselle, amaranth, bitter melon, young corn, & Thai Basil. • Farming makes them happy and it reminds them of their work in Burma.
  89. 89. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2
  90. 90. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Instead of a top-down implementation of services that benefit the refugees, this project relies on two related bottom-up approaches: (1) cultural sensitivity (Obaid, 2011) and (2) human rights-based approach (UNDP, 2006).
  91. 91. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Refugees are not empty vessels but partners.
  92. 92. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Instead of assimilation, refugee services promote the integration of refugees who are partners in advocacy & development work, taking into account their prior knowledge, skills & values.
  93. 93. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 There are about 800 Karens in Indianapolis, of which ten Karen families are involved in the Karen Farm Project.
  94. 94. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Weaving Project Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  95. 95. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  96. 96. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa As a central part of their culture, weaving for some of these women was the only source of reconnecting with one’s identity, comfort & income in the refugee camps. Findings 2
  97. 97. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2It is a way to reconnect to a pleasant past and their identity as a people and a creative way to help heal the trauma of displacement.
  98. 98. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Weaving for Women Project in Indianapolis, Indiana.
  99. 99. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2This paper describes the alternative but complementary best practice in refugee service of the Weaving for Refugee Women Project of Refugee Resource and Research Institute of Indianapolis, which does not conform to but adds to the traditional services with which refugees are provided.
  100. 100. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 A gender responsive approach to addressing poverty reduction, Weaving for Women also aims to address social & mental health issues that confront women refugees in their resettlement process.
  101. 101. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2It is an expansion of an existing weaving project that benefits Karen women who are part of the Karen Farm Project (Beltran- Figueroa & Ty, 2011) that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funds.
  102. 102. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Ten Karen women who can not participate in the larger Karen farm project are involved in the weaving project.
  103. 103. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 The women refugees have a bi- monthly meeting with the project manager to discuss progress & challenges.
  104. 104. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Refugee Resource promotes a participatory approach in its implementation of projects.
  105. 105. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 Being a component of the Karen Farm Project, funds to purchase seven back-strap looms and thread and other weaving materials came from the Farmers Market Promotion Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to benefit women who can not work in the farm.
  106. 106. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2 The women keep the looms in their apartments where all the weaving is done.
  107. 107. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2
  108. 108. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 21. The looms belong to Refugee Resource. 2. New organization: Burmese Community Center for Education a. staff & president are Karen & Karenni b. Grassroots organization c. Know their communities d. Slowly pass on the project to them until it becomes a partnership. 3. From the profits: they plan to buy looms so that more can participate.
  109. 109. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Findings 2• Refugee Resource bought the materials (looms, threads). • Karen women get the profits from the sale of products. • After selling 25 bags (first batch), Refugee Resource will stop buying threads for the weavers.
  110. 110. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion
  111. 111. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Access Expectations Sustainability Politics Research PracticePractitioner Context Outcomes Alternative Refugee Services Karen Refugees in Indianapolis; factory work; Farm Project; Weaving Dialogue, Visits Karen Refugees use the looms; decide on materials, design, use, sale & profits Traditional vs. alternative views & practices in refugee services ; local community Alternative refugee services; Karen Weaving Project Freire & Zinn; Participatory Action Research Refugee Resource & Research Institute Human rights-based & culturally sensitive approach Cultural, Political & Economic Empowerment of (Wo)men Refugees
  112. 112. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion• Summary
  113. 113. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion• Summary –Mainstream refugee services are necessary but not sufficient
  114. 114. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion• Summary –While all refugees have common concerns, women refugees have specific concerns
  115. 115. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion• Summary –This paper uncovered the privileged views and practices of dominant approach to refugee services.
  116. 116. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Contending Approaches to Refugee Services Grounded Model Complementary, not binary Summary
  117. 117. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Summary
  118. 118. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Summary
  119. 119. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion•Summary We are not dumb.
  120. 120. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion •Summary
  121. 121. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion• Summary
  122. 122. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion •Summary
  123. 123. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion •Summary
  124. 124. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion•Implications Combine both Human Needs Approach & Human Rights Based Approach
  125. 125. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  126. 126. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Table 1: Deconstruction of Refugee Services Perspectives Issues Hegemony Othering (Exotic Others) Alternative or The Third Way 1. Views Us (Top-Down) The others All of us (Bottom Up) 2. People White citizens International refugees Unity in Diversity 3. Roles Service Providers Beneficiaries Partners 4. Basis of Services Hidden curriculum in training No knowledge, skills and values Prior knowledge, skills and values 5. Immigration The Others’ Assimilation to the Hegemony Integration 6. Power & Privilege Powerful Powerless Empowerment of Refugees 7. Side Insiders Outsiders Together 8. Culture Dominant Culture Marginalized Culture Multiculturalism 9. Relationship Donors Recipients Social Justice
  127. 127. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Refugee Service Practices in Relation to HRD Purposes Ideology Elements *3. Critical HRD 2 . Liberal HRD 1. Conservative HRD Purposes Change Learning Performance Social structures Transform Reform Status Quo Refugees As subjects with human dignity endowed with prior knowledge, skills and values and agency to accept and resist As individuals with distinct identities capable of learning People as vulnerable objects needing help Integration as function of refugee services Refugee empowerment & service provider accountability Learning about U.S. society, economy, and culture; salad bowl metaphor Assimilation; melting pot metaphor Knowledge Be proud of and use prior knowledge Learn new skills needed for work Knowledge for assimilation to society Skills Do what they do best for self- fulfillment Fill Labor Needs of the Economy A good worker Values Human rights that take into account gender, ethnicity, class and other differences Tolerance & mutual respect Adapt to the dominant culture, values and language Practice Outcomes Refugee services which are culturally appropriate & ensures human-rights based empowerment of refugees Refugee services that provide refugees with improved learning to integrate into the mainstream Refugee services provide increased job opportunities © 2011 Maria Beltran-Figueroa & Rey Ty
  128. 128. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Practice, Setting, and Organizational Needs Linked to the Issue: Situation of Refugees and Problematizing the Resettlement Practices HRD, Refugee Services & Gaps Number HRD Purpose Traditional Refugee Service Mandates Outside-the-Box Refugee Services One Perfor- mance Preconceived Employment Services: Entry-Level Factory Work Livelihood based on the Skills and Cultural Practices of Refugees, e.g. Farming Two Learning Preconceived Adjustment based on Assimilation Integration but Not Assimilation; Recognition of Cultural Pluralism Three Change None! Culturally Appropriate & Human Rights Based Projects© 2011 Maria Beltran-Figueroa & Rey Ty
  129. 129. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion•Implications –Importance of culture, which is ever- changing.
  130. 130. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion•Implications –They also get to interact with other women who share the same struggles & concerns.
  131. 131. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Conclusion•Implications –Meaningful, sustainable economic value of traditional work
  132. 132. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Thank You!
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  135. 135. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa Contending Approaches to Refugee Services International Burma Studies Conference October 5-7, 2012 Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL U.S.A. Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
  136. 136. © 2012 Rey Ty & Maria Beltran-Figueroa
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