2011 Reyty Ferraro Conducting Research
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2011 Reyty Ferraro Conducting Research

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Rey Ty. (2011). Conducting Research. Source: Ferraro, G. (2006). Cultural anthropology: An applied perspective. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

Rey Ty. (2011). Conducting Research. Source: Ferraro, G. (2006). Cultural anthropology: An applied perspective. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

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2011 Reyty Ferraro Conducting Research 2011 Reyty Ferraro Conducting Research Presentation Transcript

  • Conducting Research
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Outline
    Stages of Research
    Data-Gathering Techniques
    Fieldwork
    Recent Trends
    Ethics of Research
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Stages of Research
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Pains & Gains of Fieldwork
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Recent Trends in Research
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “Since the 1970s, however, the postmodernists… have ushered in a new type of ethnography that has become known as reflexive or narrative ethnography” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “Being less concerned with scientific objectivity, narrative ethnographers are interested in co-producing ethnographic knowledge by focusing on the interaction between themselves and their informants” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “In fact, many ethnographers today use the term research collaborator rather than informant” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “These narrative ethnographers are no longer interested in producing descriptive accounts of another culture written with scientific detachment” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “Rather, their ethnographies are conscious reflections on how their own personalities and cultural influences combine with personal encounters with their informants to produce cultural data” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “The narrative or reflexive approach to ethnography involves a dialogue between informant and ethnographer” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “Such a postmodern approach… is needed because the traditional ethnographer can no longer presume to be able to obtain an objective description of other cultures” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “we should avoid drawing absolute lines between subjective and objective ethnographic methods.” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reflexive Methods
    “Instead, ethnography of the twenty-first century is moving toward a ‘methodological pluralism,’ whereby all forms of information and all methods are considered legitimate, provided they help us produce a richer and more accurate description of ethnographic reality” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 114).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “Because of the many first-hand ethnographic field studies conducted by the students of Boas and Malinowski, by 1945 sufficient data existed to begin testing hypotheses and building theory inductively” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “The emergence of statistical, cross-cultural comparative studies was made possible in the 1940s by George Peter Murdock and his colleagues at Yale University, who developed a coded data retrieval system known as the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)”(Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “The largest anthropological dta bank in the world, HRAF has vast amounts of information about more than 300 different cultures organized into more than 700 different cultural subject headings” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “The use of the simple coding system enables the cross-cultural researcher to access large quantities of data within minutes for the purpose of testing hypotheses and drawing statistical correlations” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “The creation of HRAF has opened up the possibility for making statistical comparisons among large numbers of cultures” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “…a host of studies using HRAF data have appeared in the literature, including…” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “… studies on the adoption of agriculture (Pryor 1986), sexual division of labor (White et al. 1981), female political participation (Ross 1986), reproduction rituals (Paige and Paige 1981), and magico-religious practitioners (Winkelman 1987)” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “potential methodological pitfalls” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115):
    “Much of the data contained in HRAF varies considerably in quality” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “potential methodological pitfalls” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115):
    “The coverage is uneven, with a greater amount of material coming from non-Western cultures” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “potential methodological pitfalls” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115):
    “Because the data describe a wide range of types of social system (such as tribes, clans, nations, and ethnic groups), one can question whether the units of analysis are comparable” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “potential methodological pitfalls” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115):
    “There is a problem determining the independence of individual cases, for if a cultural institution that is found in ten different societies, should they all be considered independent units?” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Statistical Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    “potential methodological pitfalls” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115):
    “There is a problem of functional unity: If, as the functionalists remind us, all parts of a culture are to some degree interconnected, how legitimate is it to pull a cultural trait from its original context and compare it to other cultural traits that have been similarly ripped from their contexts?” (Ferraro, 2006, p. 115).
    © 2011 Rey Ty
  • Reference
    Ferraro, G. (2006). Cultural anthropology: An applied perspective. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
    © 2011 Rey Ty