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  • One more thing to think about: the same thing happens when you go home!
  • Surface culture is sometimes referred to as the three “F’s”-food, fiestas, and famous people. It is those aspects of a culture that are easily observed such as the more superficial manifestation of culture like the different food or holidays that are characteristic of different cultures.
  • When cultures clash, it happens in the internal realm of values, beliefs, & assumptions. Each of these value polarities is a possible source of misunderstanding and discomfort.
  • When cultures clash, it happens in the internal realm of values, beliefs, & assumptions. Each of these value polarities is a possible source of misunderstanding and discomfort.
  • Here are five more value continua which tend to distinguish post-modern cultures from more traditional cultures. Toward which side do you tend? Can you use these to explain any interactions you have had with people from other cultures?
  • Here are five more value continua which tend to distinguish post-modern cultures from more traditional cultures. Toward which side do you tend? Can you use these to explain any interactions you have had with people from other cultures?
  • Time to pause and consider:
  • Let us make a careful distinction between these two terms.

Transcript

  • 1. Asalam Alaikum MABUYAY! Greetings of Peace! Rey
  • 2. DIVERSITY
  • 3. How was your trip?
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. I HAVE BEEN TO: Lanao del Sur Maguindanao
  • 9.
    • Lumad Communities
  • 10.
    • Northern Mindanao
    • Bukidnon,
    • Camiguin,
    • Misamis Oriental
  • 11. Central Mindanao North Cotabato South Cotabato
  • 12. Western Mindanao Lanao del Norte, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
  • 13. Southern Mindanao Davao Davao del Norte Davao del Sur
  • 14. Culture and the workplace
    • (A) Hofstede’s model
      • Power distance
      • Individualism vs. collectivism
      • Uncertainty avoidance
      • Masculinity vs. femininity
    • (B) Evaluation of this model
      • Cultural boundaries =/= national boundaries
      • Research may be culturally bound
      • Dated sample from a single company: IBM in the 1960s and 1970s
  • 15. Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
    • 1. COLD-CLIMATE CULTURE
    • 2. TASK ORIENTATION
    • 3. DIRECT COMMUNICATION
    • 4. INDIVIDUALISM
    • 5. PRIVACY
    • 6. DIFF. CONCEPT OF HOSPITALITY
    • 7. LOW CONTEXT (INFORMAL)
    • 8. PUNCTUAL
    • 1. HOT-CLIMATE CULTURE
    • 2. RELATIONSHIP ORIENTATION
    • 3. INDIRECT COMMUNCIATION
    • 4. GROUP IDENTITY
    • 5. INCLUSION
    • 6. DIFF. CONCEPT OF HOSPITALITY
    • 7. HIGH CONTEXT (FORMAL)
    • 8. FLEXIBLE TIME
  • 16.
    • COLD-CLIMATE CULTURES
    • 1. ARE TASK-ORIENTED.
    • 2. COMMUNICATIONS MUST PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION.
    • 3. THO INDIVIDUALS MAY BE OTHERWISE, THE SOCIETY IS LOGIC-ORIENTED.
    • 4. EFFICIENCY & TIME R HI PRIORITIES, & TAKING THEM SERIOUSLY IS A STATEMENT OF RESPECT 4 D OTHER PERSON.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 2. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 17.
    • HOT-CLIMATE CULTURES
    • 1. R RELATIONSHIP-BASED.
    • 2. COMMUNICATIONS MUST CREATE A “FEEL-GOOD” ATMOSPHERE.
    • 3. THO D INDIVIDUAL MAY BE OTHERWISE, D SOCIETY IS FEELING-ORIENTED.
    • 4. EFFICIENCY & TIME DO NOT TAKE PRIORITY OVER THE PERSON.
    • 5. IT IS INAPPROPRIATE 2 “TALK BUSINESS” UPON 1 ST ARRIVING AT A BUSINESS MEETING OR MAKING A BUSINESS PHONE CALL.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Ch. 2. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 18.
    • Cold-Climate: Direct Communication:
    • 1. Short, direct question show respect 4 d person’s time & professionalism.
    • 2. A yes is a yes & a no is a no. There r no hidden meanings.
    • 3. An honest, direct answer is information only. It does not reflect on how d person feels about u.
    • 4. U can say what u think (nicely), & it will usually not be taken personally.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 3. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 19.
    • Hot-Climate: Indirect Communication:
    • 1. It’s all about being friendly.
    • 2. Every question must be phrased so that u don’t offend others by its directness.
    • 3. Use a 3 rd party 4 accurate info if u sense that a direct question will be 2 harsh, or not get the results u r seeking.
    • 4. A yes may mean yes, no, or maybe. So, avoid a yes-no question.
    • 5. Avoid embarrassing people.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 3. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 20.
    • COLD-CLIMATE: INDIVIDUALIST CULTURE
    • 1. I AM A SELF-STANDING PERSON, W/ MY OWN IDENTITY.
    • 2. EVERY 1 SHOULD HAVE AN OPINION & CAN SPEAK 4 HER/HIMSELF.
    • 3. TAKING INITIATIVE W/IN A GROUP IS GOOD & EXPECTED.
    • 4. 1 MUST KNOW HOW TO MAKE 1’S OWN DECISIONS.
    • 5. MY BEHAVIOR REFLECTS ON ME, NOT ON THE GROUP.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 4. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 21.
    • HOT-CLIMATE: GROUP-ORIENTED CULTURE
    • 1. I BELONG, THEREFORE I AM.
    • 2. MY IDENTITY IS TIED 2 D GROUP (FAMILY, TRIBE…)
    • 3. TAKING INITIATIVE W/IN A GROUP CAN BE GREATLY DETERMINED BY MY ROLE.
    • 4. I DO NOT EXPECT 2 HAVE 2 STAND ALONE.
    • 5. MY BEHAVIOR REFLECTS ON D WHOLE GROUP.
    • THE SOUTHERN U.S. WOULD BE A HOT-CLIMATE CULTURE THAT DOES NOT NECESSARILY FIT D GROUP ORIENTATION.
    • 6. TEAM MEMBERS EXPECT DIRECTION FROM THE LEADER.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 4. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 22.
    • Cold-Climate (Privacy) Cultures:
    • 1. People enjoy having time & space 2 themselves.
    • 2. People r expected 2 ask permission 2 borrow something or 2 interrupt a conversation.
    • 3. Each 1 is considered 2 b d steward of 1’s possessions & has d responsibility 2 maintain & protect them.
    • 4. In a community setting, it might be common 2 label 1’s food, tools, etc. 2 set them apart from d group’s common possessions.
    • 5. It is acceptable 2 hold private conversations or make exclusive plans w/ a few people, not including everyone.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 5. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 23.
    • Hot-Climate (Inclusion) Cultures:
    • 1. r group-oriented culture.
    • 2. Individuals know they r automatically included in conversation, meals, & d other activities of d group.
    • 3. Possessions r 2 be used freely by all: food, tools, etc.
    • 4. It is not desirable 2 b left 2 oneself.
    • 5. It is rude 2 hold a private conversation or make plans that exclude others present.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 5. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 24. Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 6. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
    • Cold-Climate Hospitality:
    • 1. H. is taken very seriously & is planned 4
    • 2. It is usu. Not as spontaneous. D host usu needs advanc notice of a visit.
    • 3. Travelers r expected 2 make their own arrangemts other than what is specifically communicated 2 the host ahead of time.
    • 4. Guests need 2 expect 2 pay 4 their transportation & restaurants if visiting in d U.S. If d host plans 2 pay, s/he usu will say so.
    • 5. H. is a special occasion, taking d full attention of d host.
  • 25.
    • Hot-Climate Hospitality:
    • 1. H. is spontaneous, oft w/o an advance invitation.
    • 2. It is d context 4 relationship (even a business relationship).
    • 3. H. usu. Takes place in d home.
    • 4. A gift is usu. Expected.
    • 5. Food & drinks r involved.
    • 6. Travelers r taken in & provided 4.
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 6. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 26. Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 7. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
    • Cold-Climate: Low-Context Societies (nothing matters, anything goes—w/in reason)
    • 1. Who u know matters, but not as much. What u know is more important.
    • 2. Do not be offended by d casual atmosphere.
    • 3. Lack of protocol does not mean rejecting, nor is dishonoring.
    • 4. They do not know what your rules r, so leave your rules at home.
    • 5. Address people by their given names, unless others use titles.
  • 27. Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 7. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
    • Hot-Climate: High-Context Societies (Everything matters)
    • 1. Who u r related 2 matters.
    • 2. Who u know matters.
    • 3. It is better 2 overdress than 2 underdress.
    • 4. Watch 2 see how others respond in a situation in order 2 apply appropriate behavior.
    • 5. Remember 2 honor d people u r dealing w/; 2 casual is insulting.
    • 6. Ask a local person who has lived overseas 4 a while what is important 2 know.
    • 7. Use manners.
    • 8. Respect d rules.
    • 9. Give attention 2 appropriate greetings.
  • 28.
    • Concept of Time: Cold-Climate Cultures:
    • 1. R time-oriented.
    • 2. R structrured in their approach 2 life.
    • 3. Enjoy using time efficiently.
    • 4. Try 2 plan their day, & saving time is a value.
    • 5. Expect d event (dinner, arrival of guest, or meeting 2 begin at d time announced. Visiting or informally chatting happens b4 or after d event).
    Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 8. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
  • 29. Sarah A. Lanier (2000). Chap. 8. Foreign to Familiar . Clarkesville, GA: McDougal Publishing.
    • Concept of Time: Hot-Climate Cultures
    • 1. R not as oriented toward d clock as cold-climate cultures.
    • 2. R event-oriented.
    • 3. R spontaneous & flexible in their approach 2 life.
    • 4. Respond 2 what life brings.
    • 5. Consider that saving time is not as important as experiencing d moment.
    • 6. Recognize that structure is required in some areas of life (e.g. d military)
    • 7. Have informal visiting as part of d event
  • 30. FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS
    • WORLD SITUATION
    • NATIONAL SITUATION
    • REGIONAL SITUATION
    • HISTORICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, CULTURAL, & PERSONALITIES (SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY…)
  • 31. CULTURE SHOCK Rey Ty Kuya Rey
  • 32. TAKE YOUR OWN PHOTOS
    • We will take official photographs
    • Please take your own photos with your cameras
    • NIU faculty, management & staff are not your personal photographers
  • 33. COURTESY
  • 34. CONFUCIUS SAYS:
    • Great minds discuss ideas.
    • Average minds discuss events.
    • Small minds discuss people.
  • 35.  
  • 36. DIGNITY
    • There is dignity in all work: manual, mental and all.
    • Factory work, university work, grocery work, restaurant work
  • 37. RESPECT
    • Treat everyone with respect.
    • Treat others as you want to be treated.
  • 38. NON-DISCRIMINATION
    • Treat people of all colors equally: black, brown , white…
    • Treat people of different incomes equally: poor, middle class, rich
    • Treat people of all professions equally: drivers, janitors, custodians, professors, waitresses, directors, secretaries
  • 39. HUMILITY
    • Humility is a sign of maturity
    • Be humble, NOT hambug ( Filipino word for “arrogant ”) !
  • 40. GREET
    • Greet everyone who you work with or who works with you or for you
    • Drivers, secretaries, instructors, waiters, waitresses
  • 41. 4 MINIMUM WORDS
    • 1. Hi!
    • 2. Please…
    • 3. Thanks!
    • 4. Bye!
  • 42. SAY…
    • SAY “HELLO” TO JOCELYN & OTHER STAFF MEMBERS IN THE HOTEL
    • GREET & THANK DRIVERS
    • SAY THANK YOU (OR “YOU’RE WELCOME”) WHEN PEOPLE THANK YOU
  • 43. CROSSING THE STREET
    • Do not jaywalk
    • Make sure the light for pedestrians is green.
    • When crossing a pedestrian lane, first, turn your head left & look left, then wave a “thank you” sign or say “thank you”, cross carefully, and turn your head right and look right, then make a “thank you” sign, and cross carefully.
  • 44. B EHAVIOR B ELIEFS V ALUES & T HOUGHT P ATTERNS What is “Culture?”
  • 45. A. Enculturation = process of learning the culture of your birth
  • 46. Enculturation process of learning the culture of your birth
  • 47. B. Acculturation = process of learning a culture different from your native culture
  • 48. Acculturation process of learning a culture different from your native culture
  • 49. Culture Shock
    • When placed in a foreign culture people tend to experience culture shock, the frustration from having to learn to cope with new cultural cues and expectations
  • 50. SHOP
    • Lip Balm, Chapstick
    • Lotion
    • Paracetamol or aspirin
  • 51. FIRST BRUSH W/ U.S. CULTURE
    • FIGHT IN THE CAFETERIA
    • WHAT TO DO?
  • 52. Months Living in New Culture 1 2 3 4 5 6 Acceptance of New Culture High Low Stages of Culture Shock Daniels & Radebaugh, Int’l Business Frustration Understanding Elation
  • 53. Sources of Problems in Communication
    • Language differences
    • Nonverbal patterns
    • Stereotypes
    • Evaluation of behaviors
    • Stress
  • 54. Culture Shock
    • Culture shock is the process of adjusting to a new country and a new culture.
    • Stages of Culture Shock:
          • Preliminary:Preparation, Excitement
          • Spectator: Honeymoon, Fascination, Euphoria
          • Shock: Irritability, Hostility, Depression, Sadness
          • Acculturation: Understanding and Adjustment
          • Integration and Acceptance
          • Reverse Culture Shock: Re-Entry
  • 55.  
  • 56. Clash of Cultures?
  • 57. Implications for Us
    • Be conscious of your own nonverbal behavior
    • Avoid judging student’s behavior by your values
    • Recognize that the learning environment in the U.S. may differ from what the you are accustomed to
  • 58. WHAT IS CULTURE?
  • 59. CULTURE
    • Edward B. Tylor: "Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." (1871)
  • 60. Culture
    • Definition
    • Components of culture
    • Technology and culture
    • Cultural Diversity
    • Theoretical Analysis
  • 61. CULTURE
    • 1. the arts collectively: art, music, literature, and related intellectual activities
    • Culture is necessary for a healthy society.
    • 2. knowledge and sophistication: enlightenment and sophistication acquired through education and exposure to the arts
    • They are people of culture.
    • 3. shared beliefs and values of a group: the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people
    • Southeast Asian culture
  • 62.
    • 4. people with shared beliefs and practices: a group of people whose shared beliefs and practices identify the particular place, class, or time to which they belong
    • 5. shared attitudes: a particular set of attitudes that characterizes a group of people
    • The company tries hard to avoid a blame culture.
    • 6. growing biological material in special conditions: the growing of biological material, especially plants, microorganisms, or animal tissue, in a nutrient substance in specially controlled conditions for scientific, medical, or commercial purposes
  • 63.
    • 7. biology biological material grown in special conditions: biological material, especially plants, microorganisms, or animal tissue, grown in a nutrient substance culture medium in specially controlled conditions for scientific, medical, or commercial purposes
    • 8. tillage: the cultivation of the land or soil in preparation for growing crops or plants
    • 9. improvement: the development of a skill or expertise through training or education
    • physical culture
  • 64. I. Culture = specialized lifestyle of a group of people including: values, beliefs, artifacts, behaviors and communication styles.
  • 65. Culture
    • culture - the way of life (values, beliefs and behaviors) of a people passed down from one generation to the next through learning
  • 66. What is Culture?
    • Culture is the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life.
    • Can also be referred to as that which differentiates human beings from other creatures.
    • It is a shared way of life or social heritage
  • 67. CULTURES
    • Dominant Culture
    • Sub-Cultures
    • Counter-Cultures or Alternative Cultures
    • Minority Cultures
    • Suppressed and Minoritized Cultures
  • 68. Types of culture
    • Non-material culture – intangible human creations
    • Material culture – tangible creations of a society
    • Shapes what we do
    • Helps form our personalities
    • Informs our definition of what is ‘normal ‘
  • 69. Components of Culture
    • Symbols
    • Language
    • Values and Beliefs
    • Norms
    • Ideal and Real Culture
  • 70. Components of culture
    • Symbols:
    • A symbol is anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture (a flag, a word, a flashing red light, a raised fist, an animal etc).
    • - Diverse meanings can be given to different variations of the same object, for example, the winking of an eye .
    • - Culture shock is a result of inability to read meanings in an unfamiliar environment.
    • - Symbolic meanings also vary within the same society.
  • 71. Components of culture (contd’)
    • Language
    • A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
    • Functions:-
    • - Enhances communication
    • -Ensures continuity of culture
    • -Identifies societies or groups
    • -Determines how the world is perceived
  • 72. Components of culture (contd’)
    • Values and Beliefs
    • -VALUES are culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
    • BELIEFS are specific statements that people hold to be true (e.g. The possibility that the US will one day have a female president - based on the shared value of equal opportunity)
  • 73. What is/are Philippine culture(s)?
  • 74. What are the similarities between the U.S. and Philippine cultures?
  • 75. What are the differences between the U.S. and Philippine cultures?
  • 76. Identity Individualism vs. collectivism
    • Highly individualistic
      • Weak family ties.
      • Privacy is normal.
      • Lasting relationship difficult to achieve.
      • Confrontation is normal.
      • Teachers encourage individual initiative.
      • Students expected to speak up.
      • Purpose of education is learning how to learn.
  • 77.
    • Highly collectivistic
      • Strong family ties.
      • Harmony should be maintained and confrontation avoided.
      • Students’ individual initiatives discouraged.
      • Students will not speak up in class.
      • Purpose of education is learning how to do.
  • 78. Hierarchy Power distance
    • High power distance
      • Parents teach children obedience.
      • Students dependent on teacher.
      • Teacher-centered education.
      • Teachers initiate all communication in class.
  • 79.
    • Low power distance societies
      • Parents treat children as equals.
      • Children treat parents and older relatives as equals.
      • Teachers treat students as equals.
      • Student-centered education.
      • Quality of learning depends on two-way communication and excellence of students.
  • 80. DIFFERENCES
    • USA
    • Egalitarian
    • Informal
    • Individualistic
    • Task Oriented
    • Short-Term, Fluid Relationship
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Philippines
    • Hierarchical
    • Formal
    • Group-Oriented
    • Relationship-Focused
    • Long-Term, Stable Relationship
    • Certainty Avoidance
  • 81. DIFFERENCES
    • Direct Indirect
    • Competitive Cooperative
    • Analytic Relational
    • Future Focused Past/present
    • Earned Status Inherited Status
  • 82. SYMPTOMS OF CULTURE SHOCK
    • fight,
    • flight,
    • filter and
    • flex
  • 83. SYMPTOMS OF CULTURE SHOCK
    • Physical Emotional
    • Inability to sleep Homesickness
    • Excessive sleeping Irritability
    • Chronic fatigue Boredom
    • Head- or backaches Anger
    • Weight gain or loss Depression
    • Frequent illness Low self-esteem
    • Skin rashes Arrogance
    • Substance abuse Hypercriticality
    • Compulsive behaviors Withdrawal
  • 84. Components of culture (contd’)
    • U S Values
    • (according to Sociologist Robin Williams )
    • Equal opportunity
    • Achievement and success
    • Material comfort
    • Activity and work
    • Practicality and efficiency
    • Progress
    • Science
    • Democracy and free enterprise
    • Freedom
    • Racism and group superiority
  • 85. Components of culture (contd’)
    • Conflict of Values
    • -Some dominant cultural values contradict others. For example, racism and group superiority go against the equality of opportunity.
    • NORMS
    • -Rules and expectations by which society guides the behavior of its members
    • TYPES
      • PROSCRIPTIVE
        • Should nots, pro hibited
      • PRESCRIPTIVE
        • Shoulds, prescribed like medicine
  • 86. Components of culture (contd’)
    • FURTHER BREAKDOWN:-
    • MORES (“MORE-ays”)
    • - These are norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
    • FOLKWAYS
    • - Norms for routine or casual interaction (e.g. appropriate greeting or dressing)
  • 87. Components of culture (contd’)
    • “ Ideal” and “Real” Culture
    • Ideal culture prescribes how we should behave.
    • Real culture describes what actually occurs in our everyday life.
  • 88. Visible Culture
    • Food
    • Fiestas
    • Famous People
  • 89. Impact of Visible Culture
    • Language differences
    • Role expectations for male and females
    • Level of parent involvement in schooling
    • Parents’ understanding of grading practices
  • 90. Deep Culture
    • Values, beliefs that influence they way people think, act, communicate
    • Unspoken rules
    • Unconscious rules
  • 91. Impact of Deep Culture
    • The greatest challenges people face in adjusting to a new culture
    • An important part of the dynamics of the teaching-learning process in all classrooms
    • Impact on the way students learn and the way we teach
      • Frequency of stimulation
      • Types of questions asked
  • 92. How Culture Affects Our Lives
    • The effects of our own culture generally remain imperceptible to us.
    • These learned and shared ways penetrate our being.
    • Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.
  • 93. Cultural Orientations
    • Culture Shock - the disorientation that people experience when they come into contact with a different culture.
    • Ethnocentrism - the tendency to use one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other societies.
    • It can create in group loyalties or lead to harmful discrimination.
  • 94. Subcultures and Countercultures
    • Subculture - a world within the larger world of the dominant culture.
    • A subculture has a distinctive way of looking at life.
    • The values and norms tend to be compatible with the larger society.
    • Counterculture - a subculture whose values place its members in opposition to the values of the broader culture.
    • An assault on core values is always met with resistance.
  • 95. Cultural Universals
    • Cultural universals - values, norms, or other cultural traits that are found everywhere.
    • Although there are universal human activities, there is no universally accepted way of doing any of them.
    • Humans have no biological imperative that results in one particular form of behavior throughout the world.
  • 96. Cultural Lag, Diffusion, and Leveling
    • Cultural lag - not all parts of a culture change at the same pace.
    • Material culture usually changes before nonmaterial culture.
    • Cultural diffusion –
    • the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another.
    • Travel and communication unite us.
      • Cultural leveling - a process in which cultures become similar to one another.
  • 97. Cross-Cultural Miscommunication
    • Problem is not due to lack of goodwill.
    • Problem is that meaning is not contained in words or actions alone.
    • Message is interpreted by the receiver.
    • At times non-verbal communication can be misinterpreted
  • 98. Dominant or Mainstream US Culture “ Middle Class” Protestant Psychology of Abundance
  • 99. Minorities in USA Today 12% African American 13% Latinos (Hispanic) 4% Asian and Pacific Islanders 1% Native American
  • 100. Egalitarian Individualistic Task Oriented Shorter-Term Fluid Relationship Informal Post-Modern Cultural Analysis
  • 101. Cultural Analysis Hierarchical Group-oriented Relationship Focused Longer-term Stable Relationship Formal Traditional
  • 102. Cultural Analysis Direct Communication Analytic Thinking Future Focus; Innovative Status is earned Competitive POST-MODERN
  • 103. Cultural Analysis Indirect Communication Relational Thinking Past/Present Focus; Conservative Status is inherited Cooperative TRADITIONAL
  • 104. Power Differences
    • High Power Distance
    • power is in the hands of a few
    Brazil India
  • 105. Low Power Distance power is evenly distributed throughout the citizenry Denmark New Zealand
  • 106. Collectivist promotes group values as most important
  • 107.
    • High-Context
    • most information is the context or person rather than the verbal message
    collectivistic
  • 108. Low-Context most information is stated explicitly in the verbal message U.S.A. individualistic
  • 109. Are we stereotyping? Stop!
  • 110. Generalizing vs. Stereotyping
  • 111. Understanding the U.S. Culture
    • Characteristics considered as “typically American”:
          • Individuality
          • Independence & Self-reliance
          • Honesty & Frankness
          • Competitiveness
          • Measuring Success
                                                                 
  • 112. Social Customs Greetings Use of Names Friendliness & Friendships
  • 113. Greetings
    • Formal Greetings:
    • "How do you do"
    • "Good morning"
    • "Good afternoon," & "Good evening"
    • Usually people will simply say:
    • "Hi" or "Hello “ or “What’s up?” or “Howdy?”
  • 114. Use of Names
    • It is acceptable to use the first name of someone approximately of your same age or younger.
    • You should say "Mr." (for men) or "Ms." (for women) and the person's last name when talking to people in positions of authority.
    • Do not be shy to ask people how they would like you to call them.
  • 115. Social Invitations
    • An invitation is not firm unless a time and place is set.
    • If you have accepted an invitation or if a meeting has been set, Americans usually expect you to arrive at the agreed location at the right time.
  • 116. Friendliness and Friendships
    • It is common for Americans to be informal and casual, even with perfect strangers.
    • Do not be surprised if somebody you do not know says "Hi!" to you for no reason.
    • People often say “How are you?”. The accepted response is “Fine, thank you.”
  • 117. Interpersonal Relationships Directness, openness, and honesty Friendliness and informality Confrontation (vs. Indirection in non-western cultures)
  • 118.
    • When formally invited to someone's home, it is considerate to bring a gift to your host.
    • Thank your host or hostess when you leave.
    • It is considerate to send a thank you note as well or
    • to telephone your thanks the following day.
    Customs Regarding Hospitality
  • 119. Punctuality is one of the most highly valued personal traits.
    • If you know you will be unable to arrive on time, it is customary to telephone the hosts to let them know when you will arrive.
    • To be late for an invitation/engagement is considered insulting to the person who is kept waiting.
  • 120. Behaviors and actions which will almost always get a negative reaction from most Americans : - 1. being late - 2. not keeping appointments - 3. not calling to explain why, and - 4. treating women as less important than men
  • 121.
    • Behaviors and actions not regarded as being positive or negative in the U.S:
    • - 1. using the left hand to give something to someone
    • - 2. calling someone using the right index finger
    • - 3. looking directly in the eyes of an elder or a woman (other than one's wife)
      • - 4. putting one's foot/feet on top of the office desk/chair
    • Should these behaviors occur, no insult or disrespect is intended or assumed.
  • 122. Personal Space
    • Americans tend to require more personal space than in other cultures .
    • If the person to whom you are speaking backs away a little, don't try to close the gap.
    • Avoid physical contact while you are speaking,
  • 123. Telephone Etiquette
    • When you call someone, it is polite to identify yourself
    • It is not polite to call someone before 9 am or after 10 pm, unless it is an emergency.
    • The only exception would be if he or she told you it is ok to call earlier or later.
  • 124. 1. ETHNOCENTRISM 2.CULTURAL RELATIVISM 3. COMMON HUMAN VALUES
  • 125. 1. Racist 2. Romantic 3. Cosmopolitan ATTITUDES
  • 126. ATTITUDES Int’l Business , Ch. 16 Hiring and Managing Employees, by Wild, Wild, & Han Ethnocentric Polycentric Geocentric Bitter, Sweet, & Bittersweet
  • 127. TRAITS THAT CORRELATE WITH FAILURE IN CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
    • Low tolerance to ambiguity or high uncertainty avoidance
    • Overly task-oriented or high need for individual achievement
    • Closed-minded & inflexible
  • 128. As you try to become familiar with the new culture, keep the following in mind….
  • 129. Do not travel with misconceptions!
  • 130.   Do not be judgmental. Residence Halls
  • 131. Keep an open mind. Be sensitive to new culture cues you will be receiving.                                                                                                                                      
  • 132. Take a positive attitude & open mind with you
  • 133. Explore DeKaIb & Chicago!!! Strive to know as much as you can…
  • 134. However, IN ORDER NOT TO CROSS ETHICAL BOUNDARIES…
    • Inform others about your religious or dietary restrictions
    • pro-actively (best) or
    • reactively (too late?)
  • 135. END
  • 136. MARAMING SALAMAT! THANK YOU!