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Organic - Introduction

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  • 1. Organic Chemistry Introduction
  • 2. Organic Chemistry - is the study of compounds that contain carbon.There are lots of them.90% + of known compounds are OrganicWhy?Because carbon forms chains
  • 3. HydrocarbonsOrganic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon.
  • 4. AlkanesHydrocarbons containing only single covalent bondsEx: CH4 – methane – natural gasDot diagramDashes
  • 5. Reminders about dot diagramsOnly show 2 D shapeCarbon likes to bond in ____ placesHydrogen likes to bond in ____ place
  • 6. Dot diagram for C2H6
  • 7. Straight-chain alkanesContain any number of C atoms, one after the other, in a chain.You should know the names of these next alkanes
  • 8. First 10 straight-chained alkanesMethane CH4 CH4Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3Butane C4H10 CH3CH2CH2CH3Pentane C5H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3Hexane C6H14 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Heptane C7H16 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Octane C8H18 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Nonane C9H20 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Decane C10H22 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  • 9. Homologous seriesA group of compounds in which there is a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next.The alkanes differ by one CH2 group each timeCnH2n+2
  • 10. Types of formulasMolecular formula – C4H10Complete structural formulaCondensed structural formula – C – H bonds are understood.Condensed structural formula – C-H and C-C bonds understoodCarbon skeleton; hydrogens understood
  • 11. Draw a complete structural formula for thestraight-chained alkane having 3 carbons
  • 12. Branched-chain AlkanesSubstituent – an atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule.Parent chain – the longest carbon chain. May not always be written in a straight line on paper.
  • 13. Alkyl group – a hydrocarbon substituentCH3 – methylCH3CH2 – ethylCH3CH2CH2 – propylAlkyl group = alkane – 1 HName = -ane + ylWhat would CH3CH2CH2 CH2be called?
  • 14. Branched-chain alkaneAn alkane with one or more alkyl groups attached.
  • 15. Naming a branched-chain alkane1. Find the longest chain of carbons. This is the parent chain2. # the carbons on the parent chain. Starting with the end that will give the substituents the smallest numbers3. Add #s to the names of the substituent groups to identify their positions on the chain.
  • 16.  4. Use prefixes to indicate if a group appears more than once. Di – 2 Tri – 3 Tetra – 4 Penta – 5 5. List the names of the alkyl substituents in alphabetical order (ignore prefixes when alphabetizing.) 6. Use proper punctuation Commas separate #s from #s Hyphens separate #s from words
  • 17. Properties of alkanesNonpolar – electrons are shared about equallyVery weak van der Walls forces (dispersion)Have a low mass, low boiling pointDo not dissolve in water.Flammable