Chapter 001 1

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Chapter 001 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1Basic Word Structure 1 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Divide medical terms into their component parts Analyze, pronounce, and spell medical terms using common combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 2 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Important Word Parts Root: the essential meaning of the term Suffix: word ending Prefix: small part added to the beginning of the term Combining vowel: connects roots to suffixes and roots to other roots Combining form: the combination of the root and the combining vowel Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 3 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. General Rules1. Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning of the term and then across2. Drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel: gastritis not gastroitis3. Keep the combining vowel word roots: gastroenterology not gastrenterology Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 4 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Word DivisionExample:ELECTR/O/CARDI/O/GRAM means record ofelectricity in the heartELECTR: rootO: combining vowelCARDI: rootO: combining vowelGRAM: suffix Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 5 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Word Division (cont.)Example:SUB/GASTR/IC means pertaining to underthe stomachSUB: prefix (under)GASTR: root (stomach)IC: suffix (pertaining to) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 6 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Combining Formsaden/o glandarthr/o jointbi/o lifecarcin/o cancer, cancerouscardi/o heart Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 7 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Combining Forms (cont.)cephal/o glandcerebr/o cerebrum, largest part of the braincyst/o urinary bladdercyt/o cellderm/o skin Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 8 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Combining Forms (cont.)dermat/o skinelectr/o electricityencephal/o brainenter/o intestines (often the small intestines) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 9 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Combining Forms (cont.)erythr/o redgastr/o stomachgnos/o knowledgegynec/o woman, femalehem/o blood Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 10 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Combining Forms (cont.)hemat/o bloodhepat/o liverlapar/o abdomenleuk/o whitenephr/o kidney Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 11 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Combining Forms (cont.)neur/o nerveonc/o tumorophthalm/o eyeoste/o bonepath/o disease Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 12 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Combining Forms (cont.)psych/o mindren/o kidneyrhin/o nosesarc/o fleshthromb/o clotting Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 13 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Suffixes- al pertaining to- algia pain- cyte cell- ectomy cutting out; removal, excision Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 14 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Suffixes (cont.)- emia blood condition- globin protein- gram record- ia condition- ic pertaining to Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 15 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Suffixes (cont.)- ism condition, process- itis inflammation- logist specialist in the study of- logy study of Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 16 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Suffixes (cont.)- oma tumor, mass- opsy process of viewing- osis abnormal condition- scope instrument to visually examine Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 17 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Suffixes (cont.)- scopy process of visual examination- sis state of- tomy process of cutting into (incision) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 18 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Prefixesa-, an- no, notaut- selfdia- complete, throughdys- bad, painful, difficult, abnormalendo- within Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 19 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Prefixes (cont.)exo- outsidehyper- excessive, more than normal, too muchhypo- below, less than normal, underperi- surrounding Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 20 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Prefixes (cont.)pro- before, forwardre- backretro- behindsub- below, undertrans- across, through Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 21 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Medical Scramble1. Pertaining to the heart DACCIRA2. Nerve pain UGARENLAI3. Deficiency of hemoglobin causes this condition IMEANA Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 22 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Medical Scramble (cont.)4. Study of cells GLYCOTOY5. Infants are often born in this position…head first! PCLAHIEC6. Inflammation of a gland NIDIEAST Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 23 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Medical Scramble (cont.)Bonus Term: Malignant diagnosis CRNMOACIA Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2003, 1999, 1991 by Saunders, 24 an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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