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Characterisitc Of Asd 09
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Characterisitc Of Asd 09



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  • 1. Effective Practices for Elementary Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders UCD Fall 2009
  • 2. Welcome Introductions Jen Melinda Class Course Overview/ Expectations Time Resources Assignments Observations Confidentiality Spelling & Grammar Language Used/ Expectations
  • 3. Expectations and Confidentiality Expectations and Spelling/ Grammar
  • 4. Expectations and Language Use People First Language – means putting the person before the disability…Some people forget that people who have disabilities are people. Using People First Language helps others to remember. (Examples) Using ‘People First Language’, gives people their “personhood.” Dignifying Language – means using language that is respectful. So you would not use “lame, retarded” or “psycho” even when just joking around. You would not treat adults who have disabilities like they are children. And you would not say things that make other people think they should feel sorry for people who have disabilities. Taken from article by: Ability Awareness in Action – The Five Fundamentals
  • 5. Language Use Media Examples What does their use of language say about their attitudes toward people who are different? Who does this language hurt? Are there other ways to express your feelings without using disrespectful and non-dignifying language? What are some alternatives? What would happen if everyone used People First and dignifying Language? Taken from article by: Ability Awareness in Action – The Five Fundamentals
  • 6. Expectations and Language Use Think in terms of the “ Criterion of the Least Dangerous Assumption” “When we can not be sure, because we have too little information, we should base our efforts on assumptions which, if wrong, will have the least dangerous effect on outcomes.” (Donnellan, A. & Leary, M. 1995, p.15)
  • 7. Least Dangerous Assumption Consideration Examine the Attitudes Can’t vs. Won’t
  • 8. Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Fall 2009 UCD
  • 9. Autistic Spectrum Disorders/ Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • 10. Facts
    • Prevalence of autism:
      • 4-5 in 10,000 in initial studies (1960’s)
      • 1 in 1,000 in more recent studies (1980’s)
    • More recently:
      • 1 in 166 (ASA, 2004).
      • 1 in 150 school-age children (CDC, 2/2007)
    • More common in males – 4:1 ratio
    • Knows no geographic, racial or socio-economic distinction – an “equal opportunity disability”(Autism Society of Colorado)
    • Often found in combination with other disabilities
  • 11. Etiology
    • Exact etiology of autism is still unknown, but is most likely multifactorial
    • Strong genetic predisposition- neurobiological disorder
      • “… the brain of a child with autism, while not damaged, may be neurologically wired in a dysfunctional or inefficient manner.” (Paris, 2000, p.283)
    • Multiple possible causes have been suggested
      • “ Refrigerator Mothers”
      • Traumatic Insult
      • Infectious Disease
      • Vaccinations
      • Genetic (Predisposition)
      • Chromosomal Abnormalities
      • Neurochemical Problems
      • Food Allergies / Autoimmune
      • Differences in Brain Development
      • Differences in Brain Function – SPECT scans; looks for over- and/ or under- active areas of the brain (Dr. J. Michael Uszler, UCLA)
  • 12.
    • “ I DON’T KNOW !”
    • “ I DON’T KNOW !”
    • “ I DON’T KNOW !”
  • 13. Triad of Impairment
  • 14. Range of Abilities Measured IQ Social Interaction Communication Motor Skills Gross & Fine Sensory Severe MR Gifted Aloof Active, but Atypical Non-verbal Verbal Awkward/ Uncoordinated Agile/ Coordinated Severe Difficulties Mild Difficulties Passive
  • 15.
    • If you know one student with autism, you know ONE student with autism.
    Credit given to Brenda Smith Myles, “If you have seen one child with autism, you have seen one child with autism.”
  • 16. Challenges in Communication
    • Communicative Range:
      • Non-Verbal
      • Use of Echolalia
      • Limited Meaningful Speech
        • Single Words
        • Phrases/Short Sentences
      • Meaningful Speech
        • Multiple Sentences
        • Lengthy Monologues
  • 17.
    • Expressive Language
      • Difficulties in Language Use
        • Pronouns
        • Yes/No
        • Statements as questions
        • Echolalia
      • Difficulties with Vocabulary
        • Novel Words
        • Word-finding Difficulties
        • Use of Wrong Word
        • Sometimes very well developed (Asperger)
  • 18.
    • Receptive Language
      • Vocabulary
        • Different words with similar meanings (synonyms)
        • Similar words with different meanings
        • Same sounding word & different meanings
      • Poor Comprehension
        • Difficulty with new commands
        • Words with multiple meanings
        • Literal interpretation
        • Humor & Sarcasm
        • Figurative expressions
          • (e.g. “Does the cat have your tongue?”)
        • Lengthy discussions/Lectures
  • 19.
    • Common Challenges with Communication Interactions
      • Initiating Conversations
      • Sustaining the Conversation
        • Maintaining the topic
        • Interrupting
        • Allowing others to comment/ask questions
        • Asking for clarification
        • Showing interest in others’ comments/ideas
      • Ending the Conversation
        • Knowing when/how to end conversations
        • Knowing how to change the topic
        • Knowing when the other person is finished
  • 20. Challenges in Social Interaction
    • “ Unconventional” play
    • Difficulties with sharing
    • Difficulties with personal boundaries
    • Interaction Style:
      • Aloof
      • Passive
      • Active but atypical
    • Peer Relationships
    • Nonverbal Interactions:
      • Eye Contact, Gestures, Facial Expression, Posture/Orientation
  • 21.
    • Difficulty with understanding social rules/ conventions
    • Social Reciprocity
    • Emotional Reciprocity
      • Expression of Affect
      • Reading Other’s Emotions
    • Perspective Taking
      • Joint Attention
      • Theory of Mind
  • 22. Social Rhythms – Dr. Ralph Mauer
    • Rhythms affect everything we do
      • we sustain movement through rhythms
      • many tasks are completed through a rhythm
      • every day has a rhythm – a regular schedule has a rhythm
      • can move and participate more easily when you can predict or are familiar with the rhythm.
      • Information from lecture given by: Kate McGinnity, M.S. and Nan Negri, PhD
      • Conference at the University of San Diego Autism Institute, July 9-11, 2007
  • 23. Social Rhythms Continued
    • People put out rhythms – some strong/ others very subtle
    • We often match the rhythm of each other.
      • Joining another’s rhythm creates synchrony. **Often very difficult for those with ASD to “read” and respond to appropriately
    • More synchrony = more intimacy (better relationship)
      • Up to “us” to accommodate – meet and match
    • Information taken from lecture given by Kate McGinnity, M.S. and Nan Negri, PhD
    • Conference at the University of San Diego, Autism Institute July 9-11, 2007
  • 24. Restricted Range of Interests
    • Preoccupation with parts of objects
    • Insistence on Sameness
      • Perseveration
      • Strong Reactions to Changes
      • (Apparent) “Nonfunctional” Routines/Rituals
    • Stereotyped Motor Mannerisms
    • Preoccupation with an interest that is atypical in intensity or focus
  • 25. Related Areas of Challenges
    • Sensory
    • Uneven Profile of Skills/Weaknesses
    • Fine & Gross Motor/ Movement
    • Academic
    • Organization
    • Attention
    • Emotional Regulation
  • 26.
    • I’ve been talking about sensory difficulties now for about 25 years. I’m getting sick and tired of people not listening. These are real problems.
    • Temple Grandin, speech at the US Autism & Asperger Association 2007 International Conference. (August 9)
  • 27. Sensory Processing Difficulties
    • Unusual & inconsistent responses to the environment
    • Hypo- and/or Hyper-sensitivity to:
      • Visual input
      • Auditory input
      • Gustatory input (Taste/ Oral)
      • Tactile input (Touch)
      • Olfactory input (Smell)
      • Vestibular input
      • Proprioceptive input
  • 28. Uneven Skill Profile
    • IQ can range from cognitive impaired to gifted.
    • Scattered profile of strengths/ weaknesses
      • “ Splinter skills”
    • Physical/ performance vs. verbal
      • Performance typically higher for people with autism
      • Verbal typically higher for people with Asperger Syndrome
    • Concrete vs. abstract
  • 29. Motor/ Movement Difficulties
    • Marked Differences in:
      • Starting
      • Stopping
      • Executing
      • Continuing
      • Combining
      • Switching
      • Actions/ movements
      • Donnellan, A., Leary, M. (1995) Movement Differences and Diversity in Autism/ Mental Retardation Appreciating and Accommodating People with Communication and Behavior Challenges.
  • 30. Motor/ Movement Difficulties
    • May Impede:
      • Postures
      • Actions
      • Speech
      • Thoughts
      • Perceptions
      • Emotions
      • Memories
    • Looking at this list neurologically there are all forms of movement.
    • Donnellan, A., Leary, M. (1995) Movement Differences and Diversity in Autism/ Mental Retardation Appreciating and Accommodating People with Communication and Behavior Challenges .
  • 31. Academics
    • Poor preschool / elementary skills (Autism)
    • Hyperlexia*
    • Rote facts*
    • Good Spelling*
      • * (More commonly Asperger)
    • Poor reading comprehension
      • Making inferences & predictions
    • Difficulty with Abstract concepts
      • Mathematics
      • Literary
  • 32. Organizational Problems
    • Often appear to be inattentive
    • Often lose items
    • Forgets assignments, materials & instructions
    • Difficulty starting assignments
    • Difficulty breaking assignments into subcomponents
    • Difficulty with writing assignments
  • 33. Attention
    • Objects may be easier to attend to than people - Consider why this may be true.
    • Stimulus Overload
    • Stimulus Over-selectivity
    • Distractibility
    • Daydreaming / often seem “lost” in their own thoughts
    • Better Attention to Visual than Auditory Stimuli – Why might this also be true?
    • Difficulty following instructions
  • 34. Emotional-Autism
    • Extreme reactions to changes in routine
    • Frequent tantrums
    • May exhibit overly aggressive or passive reactions
    • Emotional Reaction often does not seem related to situation
      • May laugh or cry “for no (apparent) reason”
      • Facial expression may not “match” situation
  • 35. Emotional - Asperger’s/High Functioning Autism
    • Depression
      • Sensitivity to failure in social and/or academic arenas depression
      • Low self-worth
      • Loss of interest in preferred activities
      • Persecutory feelings / others have it “in for them”
      • Emotionally flat / Irritable
      • Changes in sleep patterns
      • Feelings of hopelessness / negative view of the future
      • May not SEEM as depressed as they are
  • 36.
    • Anxiety
      • Unpredictable / Uncontrollable Situations
        • Changes in plans and/or routines
        • Unfamiliar situations
        • Waiting
      • Academic Achievement
      • Difficulty with Comprehension
      • Social Situations
      • Rule-breaking
      • Emotional Displays / Discussions of Feelings
      • OCD
  • 37.
    • If you know one student with autism, you know ONE student with autism.
    Credit given to Brenda Smith Myles, “If you have seen one child with autism, you have seen one child with autism.”
  • 38.
    • We will not fully understand the puzzle of autism until we begin to put together all the pieces, and seeking the perspective of the individual with autism is a key piece in this puzzle.
    • Patterson, J. (2002), unpublished MA thesis. First-hand Accounts of Social Behavior in Individuals with Autism . San Diego, CA