The Water Cycle
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The Water Cycle

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The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Presentation Transcript

  • The Water Cycle
  • Water is…
    • The only common substance that exists as a solid, a liquid, and a gas.
    • Present everywhere on Earth.
    • In a continuous state of change and movement.
  • The Water Cycle
    • Definition: the combination of all of the different movements of water
    • Also known as the hydrologic cycle
    • A flow of matter (water) and energy
    • Called a “closed” system
      • A material [water] moves from place to place but nothing is gained nor lost.
  • The Water Cycle
  • Major Processes of the Water Cycle
    • Evaporation and Precipitation
    • There is more evaporation than precipitation over the surface of the Earth’s oceans.
    • There is more precipitation than evaporation over the surface of the Earth’s continents.
  • Evaporation
    • Definition: the change of state of matter from a liquid to a gas.
    • Heat is absorbed.
    • Example: boiling water to steam
  • Oceans
    • Cover about 75% of the Earth
    • Ocean water is constantly evaporating into the atmosphere (becomes water vapor)
    • When water vapor cools :
      • Forms clouds at higher altitudes
      • Forms fog if close to the ground
  • Precipitation
    • Definition: water that falls to the surface from the atmosphere as rain, snow, hail, or sleet
  • After the precipitation
    • Water can take different routes:
      • Evaporate
      • Ground Water
      • Soil Moisture
      • Surface runoff
  • Evaporation
    • Back into the atmosphere
    • The higher the temperature, the faster evaporation occurs.
  • Ground Water
    • Water soaks into the ground until it reaches a zone where all of the pores are filled with water.
    • Example: underground streams, aquifers
  • Soil Moisture
    • Water that remains in the surface layer of soil
    • the roots of plants absorb this water.
      • Travels up through the stems and branches of the plant into the leaves and is released into the atmosphere as vapor in a process called transpiration .
  • Surface Runoff
    • Water that flows downhill into streams and rivers
    • Eventually empties into the ocean
  • What makes the ocean salty?
    • Water flows from the surface of the continents into the oceans
    • This water carries sediment particles and dissolved minerals into the ocean.
    • When ocean water evaporates, it leaves the sediments behind.
    • Over time, the ocean becomes more and more salty.
  • Reservoir vs. Flux
    • Reservoir – a place in the Earth system that holds water .
      • Ex. Oceans, Atmosphere, Clouds , etc
    • Flux – the movement of water from one reservoir to another.
    • Energy is required to make water flow from one reservoir to another.
    • On average, the total amount of water in all reservoirs combined is nearly the same.
    • The amount of water stored in any one reservoir varies over time.