The Water Cycle

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The Water Cycle

  1. 1. The Water Cycle
  2. 2. Water is… <ul><li>The only common substance that exists as a solid, a liquid, and a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Present everywhere on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>In a continuous state of change and movement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Definition: the combination of all of the different movements of water </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the hydrologic cycle </li></ul><ul><li>A flow of matter (water) and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Called a “closed” system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A material [water] moves from place to place but nothing is gained nor lost. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Water Cycle
  5. 5. Major Processes of the Water Cycle <ul><li>Evaporation and Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>There is more evaporation than precipitation over the surface of the Earth’s oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>There is more precipitation than evaporation over the surface of the Earth’s continents. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Evaporation <ul><li>Definition: the change of state of matter from a liquid to a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: boiling water to steam </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oceans <ul><li>Cover about 75% of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean water is constantly evaporating into the atmosphere (becomes water vapor) </li></ul><ul><li>When water vapor cools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms clouds at higher altitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms fog if close to the ground </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Precipitation <ul><li>Definition: water that falls to the surface from the atmosphere as rain, snow, hail, or sleet </li></ul>
  9. 9. After the precipitation <ul><li>Water can take different routes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Evaporation <ul><li>Back into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the temperature, the faster evaporation occurs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ground Water <ul><li>Water soaks into the ground until it reaches a zone where all of the pores are filled with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: underground streams, aquifers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Soil Moisture <ul><li>Water that remains in the surface layer of soil </li></ul><ul><li>the roots of plants absorb this water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travels up through the stems and branches of the plant into the leaves and is released into the atmosphere as vapor in a process called transpiration . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Surface Runoff <ul><li>Water that flows downhill into streams and rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually empties into the ocean </li></ul>
  14. 14. What makes the ocean salty? <ul><li>Water flows from the surface of the continents into the oceans </li></ul><ul><li>This water carries sediment particles and dissolved minerals into the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>When ocean water evaporates, it leaves the sediments behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the ocean becomes more and more salty. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reservoir vs. Flux <ul><li>Reservoir – a place in the Earth system that holds water . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Oceans, Atmosphere, Clouds , etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flux – the movement of water from one reservoir to another. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Energy is required to make water flow from one reservoir to another. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, the total amount of water in all reservoirs combined is nearly the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of water stored in any one reservoir varies over time. </li></ul>

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