Ms. Maria Lourdes R. Balucan, BSN,RNStudent, Master in NursingMisamis University
• A change in the environment that is perceived as a threat, challenge, or harm to the persons dynamic equilibrium.• In times of stress, the SNS is activated to produce immediate changes of increased HR, peripheral vasoconstriction, and increased BP.
Typicallystress is seen as harmful and unpleasant yet stress may be beneficial. • How do you view stress?
• Myth 1 I must be stressed to succeed...• Myth 2 All Stress is bad…• Myth 3 If only I could move/change my job/• leave my spouse/get rid of my boss, then my stress would go away...• Myth 4 There is nothing I can do about stress… • *From Stuart, E., Webster, A., Wells-Federman, C.L. 1992 Managing Stress, The Wellness Book
• This response is prolonged by adrenal stimulation and secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
• A limited amount of stress can be a positive motivator to take action• Excessive or prolonged stress can cause emotional discomfort, anxiety, possible panic, and illness
• Prolonged sympathetic-adrenal stimulation may lead to: • High BP • Arteriosclerotic changes • Cardiovascular disease • Acute asthma attack • Peptic ulcer disease • Irritable bowel syndrome • Migraine headaches
Fighting it Flight - Escaping it Freezing Tend and Befriend Everyone responds differently to stressors!
• Can help patients: • Control illnesses • Improve self-esteem • Gain control • Enjoy life more fully
• Involves the identification of physiologic and psychosocial stressors• Assess the following: • The patients education, finances, job, family, habits, activities, personal and family health history, and responsibilities.
• Positive and negative coping methods should also be identified.
• One of the first steps in stress management• Can be used to reduce anxiety brought on by stress
• The simplest technique that can be performed at any time• The patient breathes slowly and deeply until relaxation is achieved• Can lead to hyperventilation if done incorrectly
• Relieves muscle tension related to stress• The patient alternately tenses, then relaxes muscle groups until the entire body feels relaxed
• Can help relieve pain and induce sleep• The patient replaces painful or unpleasant sensations with pleasant ones through self- suggestions• May require extensive coaching at first
• Uses imagination and concentration to take a “mental vacation”• The patient imagines a peaceful, pleasant scene involving multiple senses• Can last as long as the patient decides
• Uses the patients own interests and activities to divert attention from pain or anxiety• Includes listening to music, watching television, reading a book, singing, knitting, doing crafts or projects, or physical activities
• Dealing with the stressors or problem areas and increasing coping behaviors
• Help the patient to recognize specific stressors and determine if they can be altered• Then develop a plan for managing that stressor
• How do I cope with stress?• Coping skills I’d like to add?• Poor coping skills I’d like to drop or change are:• People I know who seem to be in control of their lives are:• Things they do which I could try are:• Other things I could do to gain control over my life are:
• Teach the patient to avoid negative coping behaviors: • Smoking • Drinking • Using drugs • Overeating • Cursing • Using abusive behavior toward others.
• Teach positive coping mechanisms: • Continued use of relaxation techniques • Fostering of support systems • Family, friends, church groups, social groups, or professional support groups
Practice your stress management skills regularly! One stress management strategy isn’t foolproof! Build your ability to bounce back!