• Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are linked to: – Cardiovascular disease – Type 2 diabetes – Hypertension – Osteoporosis – Some cancers
Recommended• Highly nutritious foods and beverages that limit: – Saturated and trans fats – Cholesterol – Added sugar – Salt – Alcohol
– Fat should account for 20% to 35% of calories, with no more than 10% of calories coming from saturated fat and a bare minimum of trans fat– Cholesterol should not exceed 300 mg
– Carbohydrate intake should include high- fiber fruits, vegetables, and whole grains with little added sugars– The equivalent of 2 cups of fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables should be consumed daily, selecting from vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starch vegetables, and other vegetables).
– Of the approximately six grain products recommended daily, at least half should be whole-grain products.– At least three fat-free or low-fat milk (or milk equivalent) products should be consumed daily.– Sodium intake should not exceed 2,300 mg, while foods should be potassium rich.
• Educate patients about: – The five basic food groups and their placement on the food pyramid – Optimum weight – Calorie requirements – Ways to increase fiber and decrease fat in the diet
– Reduce total fat content by cutting down on: • Red and fatty cuts of meat • Bacon and sausage • Cooking oils • Whole dairy products • Eggs • Baked goods • Cookies and candy • Sauces, soups, and dressings made with cream, eggs, or oil
– Also teach patients to: • Save high-fat foods for a special treat • Reduce portion size • Use fat substitutes • Prepare dishes at home using low-fat recipes
• Encourage patients to keep food diaries• Review them periodically to determine if other adjustments should be made
• If weight loss is desired, have the patient weigh in monthly, and review the diet• Give praise or constructive criticism at this visit• Many people, especially women, respond to group therapy that focuses on education, support, and expression of feelings related to overeating
References:• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2005). Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Executive summary.• Available: www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/docu ment/html/executivesummary.htm