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Guidance and Counseling

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  • 1. 4717511-9525000-952500Misamis University<br />Ozamiz City<br />Graduate School<br />Assignment<br />In partial fulfillment of the requirements in GC 221<br />Submitted to:<br />Prof. Elsa B. Buenavidez, D. Ed.<br />Faculty, Graduate School<br />Submitted by:<br />Reynel Dan L. Galicinao, RN<br />Student, Master in Nursing<br />Major in Nursing Educational Administration<br />October 2, 2011<br />Briefly discuss the following:<br />What will you do with the learners during the period or sessions in Guidance?<br />
    • Assess the Learner’s Needs.
    (1) Use all appropriate sources of information. Review the records. Read the history and the interventions that have been performed. The learners and the family or support persons are the best source of needs assessment information.<br />(2) Identify the knowledge, attitude, or skills needed by the learners or family/support persons. Learning can be divided into three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. <br />(a) Cognitive involves the storing and recalling of new knowledge and information.<br />(b) Affective learning includes changes in attitudes, values, and feelings.<br />(c) Psychomotor learning has occurred when a physical skill has been acquired.<br />(3) Assess emotional and experiential readiness to learn. The readiness to learn in an adult may be related to a social role. Being assured that they are partners in the teaching-learning process gives adult learners the sense of control that they are accustomed to in their daily living.<br />(4) Assess the learner's ability to learn. The teaching approach must be appropriate to the developmental stage of the learner. You should assess the learner's intellectual development, motor development, psychosocial development, and emotional maturity. Chronological age does not guarantee maturity.<br />(5) Identify the learner's strengths. Learning strengths are the learner's personal resources such as psychomotor skills, above-average comprehension, reasoning, memory, or successful learning in the past. <br />(6) Use anticipatory guidance. Anticipatory guidance focuses on psychologically preparing a person for an unfamiliar or painful event. When learners know what to expect, anxiety is reduced and they are able to cope more effectively.<br />
    • Diagnose the Learning Needs. Be realistic. When a lack of knowledge, attitude, or skill hinders a learner's self-promotion of health, the nurse diagnoses the deficit. Confirm your diagnosis with the family. In addition, assess your own knowledge base and teaching skills. You teach information and skills to learners which you lack.
    • 2. Develop a Teaching Plan. Planning ensures the most efficient use of your time and increases the learner's chances for learning. A teaching plan follows the steps of the nursing process.
    (1) Develop measurable learner objectives for each diagnosis of a learning need.<br />(a) Identify short-term and long-term objectives.<br />(b) Prioritize the objectives.<br />(c) Determine who should be included in the teacher-learning process (family members, friends, or other support persons). <br />(d) Include the learner in planning. Ask his permission to involve family members or others.<br />(2) Create a teaching plan. One nurse or several nurses can prepare and use a teaching plan. Individualize the standardized plans to the learner's needs and abilities.<br />(a) Match content with the appropriate teaching strategies and learner activities. <br />(b) Schedule teaching within the limits of time constraints. <br />(c) Decide on group or individual teaching and formal or informal teaching. Some learner objectives are met more readily in a one-to-one encounter (i.e., colostomy care) while others are met more easily in a group discussion with other learners that have similar problems. <br />(d) Formulate a verbal or written contract with the learner. The contract is informal and is not legally binding; however, such an agreement serves to motivate both the learner and the nurse to attain the learning objectives. It points out the responsibilities of both the nurse (teacher) and the learner. <br />
    • Implement the Teaching Plan. The implementation phase may be only a few minutes or the sessions may extend over a period of days, or perhaps months. Use interpersonal skills as well as effective communication techniques. Your attitude has a greater effect on the learner than any other factor. If the learner must learn special techniques or procedures, tell him or her that it takes time and practice to perform these new skills confidently. Review the contractual agreement before implementing the teaching plan.
    (1) Prepare the physical environment. It should be a nonthreatening atmosphere, free of distractions and interruptions. Ensure adequate space and lighting, comfortable chairs, good ventilation, and privacy.<br />(2) Gather all teaching aids: posters, printed material, audiovisual material, and equipment if needed.<br />(3) Deliver content in an organized manner using planned teaching strategies. If you are teaching a skill or procedure, follow the correct sequence so that the learner is not confused.<br />(4) Be flexible. Observe the learner for clues or additional assessment data that could alter the original teaching plan. Adapt or reorganize the teaching plan if necessary.<br />
    • Evaluate the Teaching-Learning. Do not assume that learning has occurred without feedback. The key is to write measurable learner objectives in the teaching plan that describe the desired behavior.
    (1) Evaluate whether learner objectives have been met. There are several ways to do this.<br />(a) Observation. Observe the learner to verify that he has put the information that he learned into practice.<br />(b) Learner's comments. The learner will usually state whether or not he or she understands the information being taught.<br />(c) Direct questions. Ask the learner a question requiring a response, which reflects his or her level of knowledge about the topic.<br />(d) Return demonstration. Have the learner perform the procedure as it was demonstrated. This is an excellent method of evaluating proficiency in psychomotor skills.<br />(2) Evaluate teaching. Immediately after each session, evaluate your teaching effectiveness.<br />(a) Quickly review how implementation of the plan went and mentally make note of both your strengths and weaknesses.<br />(b) Seek feedback from the learners. Use a simple questionnaire with space for comments but one, which requires only check marks to answer. The questionnaires may be more honest and helpful if anonymous.<br />(3) Revise the teaching plan. Evaluation may reveal that the teaching plan should be revised. Revision is part of the teaching-learning process; it is not an indication of failure. Make adjustments accordingly to meet the learner's needs.<br />(a) Alter the content and teaching strategies if the objectives were unrealistic, the content too complex, or the teaching strategy inappropriate.<br />(b) Employ motivational counseling if the learner is unwilling to participate in learning activities or to learn how to care for himself.<br />(c) Reschedule teaching sessions if the time and frequency of sessions affected the teacher-learner process.<br />(4) Document the teaching-learning process. Teaching is an important and required nursing responsibility; it must be documented in the learner's record.<br />(a) Include a summary of the diagnosed learning needs, the teaching plan, implementation of the plan, and evaluation results.<br />(b) Show evidence in the evaluation statement that learning has occurred, or how the problem was resolved if the learner or support person did not learn the material taught.<br />What activities would you undertake during the period in Guidance?<br />
    • Establishing a School-Wide Behavior Support System
    • 3. School rules
    • 4. Teaching appropriate behavior
    • 5. Intervention plans
    • 6. Positive reinforcement for behavior
    • 7. Teaching social skills.
    • 8. Assisting Students in the Development of Resiliency Skills
    • 9. Developing supporting relationships with students
    • 10. Maintaining positive and high, but appropriate expectations for all students
    • 11. Providing opportunities for children to participate and contribute
    • 12. Providing growth opportunities for students
    • 13. Ensuring all students have a caring adult in their lives(mentoring)
    • 14. Teaching students they are capable and have strengths
    • 15. Providing opportunities for self-assessment and self-reflection
    • 16. Providing opportunities to work with other students (cooperative learning)
    • 17. Assisting Students in Developing ProSocial Skills
    • 18. Prosocial skills are proactive strategies taught to students to ensure that they obtain the necessary skills required to function socially in society
    • 19. Anger management
    • 20. Conflict resolution
    • 21. Empathy
    • 22. Developing Administrative Procedures and Policies for Dealing with Behavioral Concerns
    • 23. Teacher proactive time-out
    • 24. Contracts
    • 25. Daily communication
    • 26. Debriefing
    • 27. Family group conferencing
    • 28. Suspension policies
    The scope of activities for school counsellors is a series of actions that are based on a comprehensive approach to guidance and counselling services. Within that framework, the specific needs of the school community, the training and experience of the counsellor, and the expertise of colleagues and other professionals working with students are taken into account.<br />The school counselor works within his/her training and experience and must limit service delivery to those areas that a school may be reasonably expected to provide to assist students in finding success at school. Students requiring extensive, ongoing therapy or counselling should be referred to external agencies.<br />Is guidance purely remedial instruction in different subjects?<br />According to Kapunan all guidance is education, not all aspects of education are guidance. That is, in guidance a change for the better takes place within an individual (e.g. behavior and attitude change). Education has an element of indoctrination and compulsion (e.g. learning Math).<br />Guidance programs and services support student learning in areas of personal/social, educational and career development. These services respond to the unique and special needs of all students. Comprehensive guidance and counseling programs provide a range of services from a developmental/preventive focus to a responsive/remedial focus.<br />Guidance is a valuable and indispensable component in the shaping of a person’s total development. For guidance touches on the behavior and attitudes, which are the true important things that help a person through life. True education that integrates guidance is not just a pouring in of knowledge. It creates changes – for the better – within a person.<br /> <br />How can we develop tolerance for children’s troublesome behavior, which will make for a happier relationship with them?<br />A guidance counselor should also have a range of knowledge, and should constantly develop himself/herself to competently help others. That is, knowing a little of everything to be able to guide and refer an individual counselee to the right persons and institutions who can help him with his problems. <br />Guidance is a continuous process, individual differences should be considered although human beings are similar in many respects, guidance is education but not all education is guidance, and guidance is the responsibility of parents in the home and that of teachers in school.<br />The underlying cause(s) of violent behavior are complex and may be accompanied by other negative behaviors or problems. The most effective way to help such students is to give them the mechanisms to recognize and prevent outbursts before they happen. While the intensity and specificity of interventions may differ, certain “teacher’s strategies” can help build and reinforce positive behavior in all children.<br />Educators are instrumental to creating a school environment in which students learn positive behavior skills. Much of the time educators spend is focused on disciplining or “cleaning up” after a rage-attack, often with little long-term benefit. Certainly discipline plays a role in violence prevention, but it should be employed as a teaching mechanism, not just a means of containing the behavior. Comprehensive prevention strategies and an intervention process that emphasizes problem solving, not punishment, and facilitates collaboration between staff, moms and dads, and children should be implemented. <br />1. “Normalizing” social learning enables students to understand that violent classmates need extra help from the teacher to learn to cope with frustration. <br />2. Address the underlying issue(s) and help the child reframe his objective (e.g., learning to master the task instead of avoiding it).<br />3. Ask the moms and dads to identify triggers and precursor behaviors that they have observed and to recommend coping strategies that work at home. <br />4. Ask the school psychologist to develop uniform criteria for assessing behavior. This helps minimize inconsistencies in referrals due to different behavior tolerances among school staff.<br />5. Avoid beginning the conversation with moms and dads by offering a litany of negatives. Instead emphasize the child’s strengths and how they can be built into the problem solving process.<br />6. Build trust with children by being accessible and encouraging.<br />7. Communicate to children, staff, and moms and dads expectations for behavior and how specific social skills will help children achieve that behavior.<br />8. Congratulate students when you see them make a good choice.<br />9. Convey that your involvement in a problem does not signal a failure on the child’s part, but rather your commitment to help him find a solution. This problem solving approach helps establish a sense of trust with the child and reduces parent defensiveness.<br />10. Designate an office or special place as a “time out room” for students who need to regain safe control. Make sure students know where it is and what adult(s) will be there to help them. This is often the counselor’s office or your office.<br />11. Determine the circumstances that trigger outbursts. Identifying a pattern of when and how the child acts out helps define the factors that trigger the behavior and, subsequently, suggests strategies that will most effectively correct it. <br />12. Develop a problem solving, team approach with other teachers and administrators.<br />13. Develop a signal between the teacher and child that says, “I am having trouble,” and allow the child extra time to complete work or transition to another activity, or provide alternative means to do an assignment. <br />14. Do not try to establish your relationship with moms and dads over the phone. Schedule a meeting. Good face-to-face communications from the start will minimize confrontation and help parents view you and staff as a resource. <br />15. Eliciting the help of a classmate can be effective. <br />16. Engage moms and dads as partners. The cooperation of the child’s parents is essential to changing difficult behavior. The child is almost certainly exhibiting similar behavior at home. Mother and fathers themselves may be worried or frustrated.<br />17. Establish a “safe” place in the classroom where the child can collect himself.<br />18. Violent behavior is often linked to a psychiatric diagnosis (e.g., bipolar disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, Tourette Syndrome, Asperger’s disorder, depression). Work with the moms and dads and school psychologist to identify the cause as well as triggers for the behavior, and to determine if a more thorough psychiatric evaluation is warranted. <br />19. Foster values of empathy, caring, respect, self-awareness, and self-restraint.<br />20. Give students a common language with which to express their feelings and communicate with peers and grown-ups.<br />21. Have educators introduce expectations at the beginning of the year and regularly incorporate opportunities for learning coping skills into the school day.<br />22. Help students distinguish between unacceptable behavior and acceptable differences in learning and socialization. <br />23. Help the child build communication and self-control skills.<br />24. Students usually have a pattern of behaviors that express their growing frustration (e.g., clenching their fists, jiggling their leg, or making sounds of exasperation). These clue the teacher as to when to intervene. <br />25. Identify the underlying impetus of the behavior. Determine why the child resorts to violence or aggression in the first place. Ultimately the behavior is accomplishing what the child wants—or feels he wants—and it is important to know why. <br />26. Implement a school-wide approach to build positive behavior skills for all children.<br />27. In some cases, the best approach may be to keep the child away from those situations that prove especially difficult.<br />28. In the beginning of the school year, school staff may need to intervene quite a bit, but the eventual objective is to enable the child to manage his reactions himself.<br />29. Know that the parents of the child in question may need to adjust some of their own behavior or approach to the problem and may feel they are being judged. So be sensitive to this possibility.<br />30. Lay out an action plan for students to help themselves and each other behave appropriately.<br />31. Maintain open communication with moms and dads and determine how they prefer to be contacted if their child is having difficulty (e.g., a phone call, note home, or e-mail).<br />32. Model the skills you want the students to learn.<br />33. Provide a universal language or set of steps to facilitate learning desired behaviors.<br />34. Provide students the natural opportunity to learn and practice alternative skills under a variety of daily circumstances.<br />35. Provide support staff, including playground aides, lunchroom monitors, and bus drivers, with advice on how to deal effectively with the child.<br />36. Put the aggressive child’s need for more intensive interventions within the positive context of learning something everyone else is learning.<br />37. Reach out to moms and dads. Invite them to let you know if they are concerned about behavior problems at home. Offer to be a resource.<br />38. Reinforce behavior values and desired skills throughout the building by using bulletin boards, wall charts, morning announcements, etc.<br />39. Remember that the cost of prevention strategies is far lower than the cost of remediating or containing far more serious problems down the road.<br />40. Show the child that you are an advocate for his success. Students with serious behavior problems may need extra encouragement to feel supported. Begin interactions with the child by acknowledging some strength. Go out of your way to catch him succeeding. <br />41. Stay in front of the rages. Everyone is better off if grown-ups can help the child stop the violent behavior before it starts. Not only does this minimize the negative impact on others, it changes the child’s expectation that “losing it” is his only option. <br />42. Teach the child to recognize signs that he is getting frustrated and the corresponding feelings and thoughts in order to implement coping strategies before losing control. <br />43. Try to spend some time with the child other than in the midst of a crisis.<br />44. Work with all of the grown-ups involved - and the child - to determine what approaches are most effective. If applicable, these strategies would be incorporated into the child’s IEP.<br />45. You may need to “ignore” certain non-risky behaviors (e.g., walking around in the middle of class) that, when interrupted, set the child off. <br />Give your interpretation of Hamrin’s definition of guidance.<br />According to Hamrin, “Guidance is that aspect of educational programme which is concerned especially with helping the pupil to become adjusted to his personal situation and to plan his future in line with his interests, abilities, and social needs”. Shirley Hamrin (1947) defined guidance as: “Helping John to see through himself in order that he may see himself through”, is a simple and practical but challenging concept of guidance. It helps children to develop and promote their ability to deal with their own problems. It provides for the identification and development of talents and potentialities.<br />Guidance is a helping service. It is by its very nature a self-oriented, problem solving and multifaceted activity. It is the understanding of one’s own abilities, aptitudes, interests, motives, behavior-patterns, skills and achievements up-to-date and social, cultural, economic background. It is the understanding of the real nature of one’s environment and of the educational and vocational opportunities offered by that environment, along with their differential requirements of abilities and attainments. Guidance may be described as a process of relating these two types of understanding so that they become imbued with a new meaning in the life of the individual.<br />In capsule, there is a need for   guidance because human beings need help. Man needs guidance throughout his life. He needs it even from his infancy. When a child is born, the world for him is big, buzzing, blooming confusion and he knows nothing. He learns everything from the society. From the mother, he learns how to stand on his feet, from the father, he learns to walk and from the teacher, he learns to seek knowledge and education, all learning takes place through guidance. The society guides the individual to learn, to adjust oneself to the physical and social environment. To sum up we may say that guidance is a personal help rendered by the society to the individual so as to enable him to adjust to the physical and social environment and to solve the problems of life.<br />It is said that effective guidance is necessary and that it may be viewed in two contexts – product effectiveness and instrument effectiveness. Differentiate one from the other.<br />Effective guidance is necessary and that it may be viewed in two contexts – product effectiveness and instrument effectiveness. Product effectiveness refers to the efficiency of the creation or the produce. Instrument effectiveness, on the other hand, refers to the efficacy of the tool or device used. ‘Effectiveness’ has been defined as what the recipients of guidance (the clients) found useful. Guidance is useful to clients in supporting their transitions into and through professional learning and development when it: provides challenge and direction; gives access to relevant resources; can be accessed over a period of time; brings about positive change(s); and provides support and safety. These are: building a working alliance; exploring potential; identifying options and strategies; plus ending and following-through.  <br />