Sustainable tourism


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Sustainable tourism

  1. 1. E AR EP PR Sustainable and Responsible Developmen t D : BY M m a'a L
  2. 2. BRUNTLAND REPORT (1987) “sustainability - meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
  3. 3. 2 Schools of Thought 1. Sustainability meant that the level of individual capital stocks must be maintained for future generations (strong sustainability proponents) 2. The total capital stock must be maintained but it is possible to deplete one stock in order to increase another (weak sustainability proponents)
  4. 4. Capital Stock • Can be used for reproduction that will either be consumed or invested back.
  5. 5. Four Types of Capital Stock Human – population, welfare, health, workforce, educational and skill base Physical – machinery, equipment, buildings Environmental – man-made and natural resources Socio-cultural – well-being, social cohesion, empowerment, equity, cultural heritage
  7. 7. Sustainable Tourism
  8. 8. 3 Fundamental Components acc to WTO: • • • Make optimal use of environmental resources (Environmental Protection) Ensure viable, long term economic operations, providing economic benefits to all stakeholders (Economic Growth) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities (Social Equity)
  9. 9. • Set limits for the future growth of tourism in each destination • Change the behavior of the stakeholders in the tourism industry to make the products currently provided more sustainable • Replace the current tourism products with new products that are sustainable
  10. 10. Economic Aspects • The economic impacts means that tourism competed with other industries for the use of factors of production – Stimulate price inflation – Attracts workers from rural areas who may have bee employed in the traditional industries – Scarce investments funds may be attracted to the tourism industry on the promise of rapid returns
  11. 11. Environmental Aspects • • • • • • Airlines are responsible for a major source of air pollution Tourism competes for land use and depletes the natural environmental stock Tourism activities can be severely disruptive to biodiversity Increased use of fossil fuels for energy consumption Construction of roads, airports and sea ports to cater for the travel tourists Introduction of large number of visitors to environmentally fragile areas will always be accompanied by tension between the natural environment and tourism
  12. 12. Socio-cultural Aspects • Commercialization process that will sooner or later change the local customs and traditions • Demonstration of behavior, dress and customs alter the corresponding behavior, dress and customs of the local residents.
  13. 13. Principles of Sustainable Tourism
  14. 14. Sustainability Principles Refer to environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these dimensions to guarantee its long term sustainability.
  16. 16. Cultural Sustainability Ability of people to retain or adapt elements of their culture that makes them different. It is also refers to retaining a degree of local cultural identity in the face of global tourism
  17. 17. Social Sustainability ` The ability of a community to absorb extra people for short or long periods of time and continue functioning without disharmony or social change
  18. 18. Ecological Sustainability Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
  19. 19. Economic Sustainability It is the level of economic gain from any tourism activity which needs to be sufficient to cover the costs of any special measures taken to cater for the tourist and to mitigate the impact of tourist’s presence
  20. 20. Talks about the conserving of the diversity of plants and animals that live in the world and sometimes includes the concept of conserving the various genetic strains with-in species as well as the actual species themselves.   Conservation Element
  21. 21. Educational Element It is the enlightenment of the new tourist in the cultural ways and norms of those they are visiting – an education for its own sake. The training of the ‘hosts’ so that they are better able to cater for the wishes of the new middle classes who visit them.  
  22. 22. Local Participation Element Local community participates and is consulted regarding everything involving sustainable tourism development, and it is an active decision factor.  
  23. 23. Determinants of Carrying Capacity (Local Factors)
  24. 24. Social Structure  Size of the population  The smaller the local  population, the more  dramatic will be the  social impact of  tourism      
  25. 25. Cultural Heritage • The more unusual the cultural background, the more attractive a destination may become to potential tourists, and the more likely it is to be adversely affected by the presence of tourists.
  26. 26. Environment • The environment will be changed by the presence of tourists no matter how sympathetic they may be or how careful the tourism activity is planned • Artificial environment is more resilient to tourism impacts than natural environment • The more fragile and unique an environment is, the more vulnerable it is to change from the presence of humans
  27. 27. Economic Structure • • • The more developed and industrialized the economy, the more robust and adaptable it will be As economies grow and diversify, so too do the skills of the workforce Tourism development may bring with it the economic problems associated with – Migration from rural to urban areas – The transfer of labor from traditional industries to tourism and its related industries
  28. 28. Political Structure • Political instability will deter tourists and therefore hinder tourism development • Political structure may have different influences on tourism development
  29. 29. Resources • When resources are scarce, competition for them will be high and the opportunity cost of using these resources for tourism will also be high • Tourism development may also result in the development of infrastructure that may increase the carrying capacity level
  30. 30. Determinants of Carrying Capacity (Alien Factors)
  31. 31. Tourist Characteristics • The greater the difference between the host’s and the tourist’s social and cultural backgrounds, the greater the impact and consequent change • Will also include as expenditure patterns, mode of transport, structure and size of party, age, educational background, income and purpose of visit
  32. 32. Types of Tourist Activity • The presence of certain activities can bring specific social problems and stresses that are far greater in magnitude than those associated with the same number of tourists undertaking different activities
  33. 33. Planning, management and technology • Changes in technology will have direct and indirect effects on the difficulties associated with the planning and management tasks • The more successful the planning and management, the lower will be the levels of negative impacts and the greater will be the carrying capacity
  34. 34. Impacts of Carrying Capacity
  35. 35. Parameters • The changes that take place to the local and alien factors as a result of different levels and types of interaction
  36. 36. Standards • Acceptable limits applied to parameters
  37. 37. Carrying Capacity Determination • If carrying capacity is exceeded with respect to any of the impact areas, the tourism development process will be hindered and the development may be considered unsustainable
  38. 38. Sustainability as strategy • • • • It is widely used in tourism and in the world Societies seek to use their resources more efficient It can be used to achieve different goals Can adopt longer term time frame
  39. 39. Sustainable Development • • The term “ sustainable development” was first used internationally at the 1972 UN Conference. To sustain means to hold up, to bear, to support, to relieve/prolong from the Latin word sustineo.
  40. 40. bearable equitable viable Hegelian Dialetic Model
  42. 42. Before You Go • Think about where your money goes when booking your holiday. • When you’re finished with your holiday brochures, pass them to a friend or recycle them. • Pack appropriately • Small gifts from home can be a great way to say thank you to your hosts
  43. 43. Shop responsibly • Help the economy by buying local produce • Haggling can be fun, but don’t be obsessed with getting the lowest price • Don’t buy products made from endangered species, hardwoods, shells, or ancient artifacts
  44. 44. Respect the Local Culture • Speaking at least a few words of the local language can make a big impression • Realize that the people in the country you are visiting often have different time concepts and thought patterns from your own • Displaying expensive cameras or jewelry, particularly in very poor communities, may distance you from the culture you’ve come to experience.
  45. 45. Use Natural Resources Sparingly • Help conserve resources in your hotel, lodge or camp by turning off (or down) heating, air conditioning, lights and the TV when not required. Linens can be reused • Use public transport, or hike a bike or walk where possible • Don’t discard litter. Use biodegradable products, reuse bottles, plastic bags and other containers and take used batteries home with you.
  46. 46. Don't litter. Try to carry your own shopping bag to avoid contributing to the plastic problem in many countries of the world. Conserve water. Take shorter showers. Always ask before taking photographs. If someone says no, respect their wishes. Dress respectively. Cover up away from the beach. Cover your head in religious places. Notice local dress codes and adhere to them. Do not give pens, candy or other gifts to local children - it fosters a begging economy. If you wish to donate, contact a local school or tour operator who can ensure the gifts are distributed fairly and properly. Do not support the illegal drug trade or the sex trade.