Overview of tourism impacts

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Overview of tourism impacts

  1. 1. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM Prepared By: Ma'am L
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES  Introduction of Economics  Explain the economic impacts of tourism  Discuss the responses of the negative impacts  Case Study/News Article
  3. 3. 11/25/12 ECONOMICS Oikos (household) Nomus (management) OIKONOMIA or OIKONOMUS
  4. 4. 11/25/12 SCARCITY Limited resources Unlimited wants Economics refers to managing of scarce resources which requires ALLOCATION to solve scarcity...
  5. 5. 4 BASIC ECONOMIC QUESTIONS
  6. 6. 11/25/12
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  9. 9. 11/25/12
  10. 10. Much of tourism impacts are predominantly the work of economists and has concentrated on the effects of INCOME and EMPLOYMENT. Ecnomic impacts of tourism are linked to, and cannot easily be separated from other types of impact. (MASON, 2008) ECONOMIC IMPACTS
  11. 11. MULTIPLIER EFFECT  A very common tool for assessing economic impacts of tourism and is frequently has a prominent place in gov't and int'l reports.
  12. 12. MULTIPLIER EFFECT  Takes place when spending is circulated throughout an economy  Conceptualizes what happens when tourists spend money on a destination  Shows and distinguish the direct and indirect income derived from tourism
  13. 13. TOURIST SPEND FOR: SECOND ROUND OF EXPENDITURES ULTIMATE BENEFICIARIES Lodging Wages and Salaries Gov't Workers Food Comissions / Tips Advertisers Beverage Licenses Engineers Clothing Utilities Sign Makers Recreation Return to Gov't Farmers Souvenirs Advertising Wholesale Suppliers
  14. 14. POSITIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  15. 15.  Foreign Exchange Earnings  Contribution to Gov't Revenues  Generation of Employment  International Trade  Balance of Payment  Infrastructure Investment  Contribution to local economies
  16. 16. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  17. 17.  Inflation  Opportunity costs  Dependency  Seasonality  Leakage  Enclave Tourism  Prostitution / Underground Economy
  18. 18. INFLATION  Increases in prices of land, houses and food that can occur as a result of tourism.  Prices for commodities can increase when tourists place extra demands on local services at a tourism destination.
  19. 19. OPPORTUNITY COSTS  Engaging in tourism rather than another form of economic activity. EX: In a coastal area, with a predominantly rural farmland, opportunity costs refer to investing in tourism instead of in arable farming, market gardening or fishing.
  20. 20. OVER-DEPENDENCE ON TOURISM  Over time, the emphasis on tourism becomes such that there is virtually no other approach to development. As a result, the country becomes dependent on tourism revenue to the extent that any change in demand is likely to lead to a major economic crisis.
  21. 21. RESPONSE TO THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS  Ensure that the benefits of tourism are spread as widely as possible throughout the host community.  Reduce leakage  Making sure that tourists pay for a fair price.  Protect local businesses.
  22. 22. RESPONSE TO THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS  Provide financial incentives, training and other techniques for local ownership, management and operation on different tourism facilities.  Develop the capability of local inbound operators to handle local agency operations.  Expand the variety of available tourist activities.
  23. 23. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  24. 24. OBJECTIVES  Explain the socio-cultural impacts of tourism  Discuss the responses to the negative impacts  Identify the impacts of tourism to tourists
  25. 25.  Sociology is the study of society and is concerned with people and groups, their interaction, their attitudes and their behavior.  Culture is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society.
  26. 26. CONTACT BETWEEN TOURISTS AND GUESTS MAY ARISE IN THREE SCENARIOS:  Tourist purchase of goods and services from local people  Tourists and local residents use of the same facilities  Purposeful meeting to exchange ideas and information
  27. 27. FACTORS AFFECTING HOST-GUEST CONTACT Cultural Backgrounds of residents and tourists.  Type of tourists and travel motivation  Spatial concentration of tourism development  Relative strength of the cultures of residents and tourists  Attitudes and perception of residents and tourists  Ratio of tourists to host population  Length of stay of tourists
  28. 28. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS
  29. 29. POSITIVE IMPACTS The beneficial impacts of tourism on society include the following:  The creation of employment  The revitalization of poor or non-industrialized regions  Cultural involution  Cross-cultural exchange  Heritage conservation
  30. 30. POSITIVE IMPACTS  In developing countries, tourism can encourage greater social mobility through changes in employment from traditional agriculture to service industries and may result in higher wages and better job prospects (Mason 2008).
  31. 31. NEGATIVE IMPACTS  Stress to both tourists and residents because of overcrowding.  Traditional activities may decline because of industrialization  Over dependence to tourism  Modification of their way of life because of tourism's seasonality
  32. 32. NEGATIVE IMPACTS  Altered social values caused by tourist invasion  Commodification of human relationships  Loss of cultural character  Authenticity of handicrafts  Potential for conflict
  33. 33. Examples of Customs  Chinese people do not tip  Muslims eat only with their right hand  It is poor manners to Filipinos to eat without offering food to other people  Germans eat sandwiches with spoon and fork  Most Asian women shave their axilliary hair, some Europeans don't
  34. 34. DEMONSTRATION EFFECT  Observing tourists will lead to behavioural changes in the resident population  Young people are susceptible to demonstration effect  Acculturation
  35. 35. PROSTITUTION  Only one form of SEX TOURISM (massage parlors, sex shops, sex cinemas are other examples)  Institutionalized in some countries  There is a growing scale of sex tourism and increasingly involved international tourists
  36. 36. RESPONSE TO NEGATIVE IMPACTS
  37. 37.  Swarbrooke (2009) stated that sustainable tourism means tourism which is socially equitable  Fair Trade in tourism  Proper tourism management so as to maintain the dignity and sense of pride of the local community  Increase opportunities for everyone to have a holiday
  38. 38. EQUITY EQUAL PARTNERS EQUAL OPPORTUNI TIES ETHICS 4 E'S
  39. 39. IMPACT OF TOURISM TO TOURISTS
  40. 40.  Opportunity to see new parts of the world  Increased interest in cultural tourism  Led to many people buying second homes and retirement houses  Serves as antidote to stress  Escape from their monotonous lifestyle and routine
  41. 41. 11/25/12 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
  42. 42. 11/25/12 The environment is being increasingly recognized as the major resource for tourism. Tourism depends ultimately upon the environment, as it is a major tourism attraction itself, or is the context in which tourism activity takes place. Tourism-environment relationships are complex.
  43. 43. 11/25/12 Tourism benefits from being in a good quality environment and this same environment should benefit from measures aimed at protecting and maintaining its value as a tourist resource. Tourism has become a major cause of environmental damage to the environment rather than a force for enhancement and protection in the past 50 years.
  44. 44. 11/25/12 ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM The effects on plants as a result of trampling by visitors. The modifications to animal behavior as a result of tourists being present in their habitat. Atmosphere pollution caused by passenger airlines. The resulting contribution to global climate change. Consequent effects on both terrestrial and marine ecosystem.
  45. 45. 11/25/12 POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
  46. 46. 11/25/12 Stimulate awareness to protect the environment and/or landscape and/or wildlife. Tourism can help to promote the establishment of National Parks and/or Wildlife Reserves. Tourism can promote the preservation of buildings/monuments and the conservation of wildlife. Tourism may provide money to maintain historic buildings, heritage sites and wildlife habitats.
  47. 47. 11/25/12 NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
  48. 48. 11/25/12 Tourism can lead to the creation of unsightly human structures such as buildings that do not fit in with vernacular architecture. Tourism may lead to damage and/or disturbance to wildlife habitats. POLLUTION
  49. 49. 11/25/12 CARRYING CAPACITY Also important in relation to damage/disturbance in the environment. ENVIRONMENTAL – physical space and no. of people in a particular space ECOLOGICAL – threshold measure, which if exceeded will lead to actual damage of habitat PERCEPTUAL – level of crowding that a tourist is willing to tolerate before deciding to go elsewhere.
  50. 50. 11/25/12 Tourists are likely to litter. Tourism can contribute to congestion in terms of overcrowding of people as well as traffic congestion. Tourism can contribute to the pollution of water courses and beaches. Tourism may result in footpath erosion.
  51. 51. 11/25/12 RESPONSE TO NEGATIVE IMPACTS Holistic Thinking : the Concept of Ecosystems Regulation of the Negative Impacts Encouraging Good Practice Keeping a Sense of Proportion Raising Awareness amongst Tourists and the Industry Paying a Price that Covers the Environmental Costs of Tourism Maintaining a Balance Between Conservation and Development

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