Much of tourism impacts are predominantly the
work of economists and has concentrated on
the effects of INCOME and EMPLOYMENT.
Ecnomic impacts of tourism are linked to, and
cannot easily be separated from other types of
impact. (MASON, 2008)
A very common tool for assessing economic
impacts of tourism and is frequently has a
prominent place in gov't and int'l reports.
Takes place when spending is circulated
throughout an economy
Conceptualizes what happens when tourists
spend money on a destination
Shows and distinguish the direct and indirect
income derived from tourism
Lodging Wages and
Food Comissions / Tips Advertisers
Beverage Licenses Engineers
Clothing Utilities Sign Makers
Recreation Return to Gov't Farmers
Souvenirs Advertising Wholesale
Increases in prices of land, houses and food
that can occur as a result of tourism.
Prices for commodities can increase when
tourists place extra demands on local services
at a tourism destination.
Engaging in tourism rather than another form
of economic activity.
In a coastal area, with a predominantly rural
farmland, opportunity costs refer to investing
in tourism instead of in arable farming, market
gardening or fishing.
OVER-DEPENDENCE ON TOURISM
Over time, the emphasis on tourism becomes
such that there is virtually no other approach
to development. As a result, the country
becomes dependent on tourism revenue to
the extent that any change in demand is likely
to lead to a major economic crisis.
RESPONSE TO THE NEGATIVE
Ensure that the benefits of tourism are spread
as widely as possible throughout the host
Making sure that tourists pay for a fair price.
Protect local businesses.
RESPONSE TO THE NEGATIVE
Provide financial incentives, training and other
techniques for local ownership, management
and operation on different tourism facilities.
Develop the capability of local inbound
operators to handle local agency operations.
Expand the variety of available tourist
Explain the socio-cultural impacts of tourism
Discuss the responses to the negative impacts
Identify the impacts of tourism to tourists
Sociology is the study of society and is
concerned with people and groups, their
interaction, their attitudes and their behavior.
Culture is the complex whole that includes
knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs
and any other capabilities and habits acquired
by man as a member of a society.
CONTACT BETWEEN TOURISTS AND
GUESTS MAY ARISE IN THREE
Tourist purchase of goods and services from local people
Tourists and local residents use of the same facilities
Purposeful meeting to exchange ideas and information
FACTORS AFFECTING HOST-GUEST
Cultural Backgrounds of residents and tourists.
Type of tourists and travel motivation
Spatial concentration of tourism development
Relative strength of the cultures of residents and
Attitudes and perception of residents and tourists
Ratio of tourists to host population
Length of stay of tourists
The beneficial impacts of tourism on society include
The creation of employment
The revitalization of poor or non-industrialized
In developing countries, tourism can
encourage greater social mobility through
changes in employment from traditional
agriculture to service industries and may result
in higher wages and better job prospects
Stress to both tourists and residents because
Traditional activities may decline because of
Over dependence to tourism
Modification of their way of life because of
Altered social values caused by tourist invasion
Commodification of human relationships
Loss of cultural character
Authenticity of handicrafts
Potential for conflict
Examples of Customs
Chinese people do not tip
Muslims eat only with their right hand
It is poor manners to Filipinos to eat without
offering food to other people
Germans eat sandwiches with spoon and fork
Most Asian women shave their axilliary hair,
some Europeans don't
Observing tourists will lead to behavioural
changes in the resident population
Young people are susceptible to
Only one form of SEX TOURISM (massage
parlors, sex shops, sex cinemas are other
Institutionalized in some countries
There is a growing scale of sex tourism and
increasingly involved international tourists
Swarbrooke (2009) stated that sustainable
tourism means tourism which is socially
Fair Trade in tourism
Proper tourism management so as to maintain
the dignity and sense of pride of the local
Increase opportunities for everyone to have a
Opportunity to see new parts of the world
Increased interest in cultural tourism
Led to many people buying second homes and
Serves as antidote to stress
Escape from their monotonous lifestyle and
The environment is being increasingly
recognized as the major resource for
Tourism depends ultimately upon the
environment, as it is a major tourism
attraction itself, or is the context in which
tourism activity takes place.
Tourism-environment relationships are
Tourism benefits from being in a good
quality environment and this same
environment should benefit from
measures aimed at protecting and
maintaining its value as a tourist
Tourism has become a major cause of
environmental damage to the
environment rather than a force for
enhancement and protection in the past
ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
The effects on plants as a result of
trampling by visitors.
The modifications to animal
behavior as a result of tourists being
present in their habitat.
Atmosphere pollution caused by
The resulting contribution to global
Consequent effects on both terrestrial and
Stimulate awareness to protect the
environment and/or landscape and/or
Tourism can help to promote the
establishment of National Parks and/or
Tourism can promote the preservation of
buildings/monuments and the
conservation of wildlife.
Tourism may provide money to maintain
historic buildings, heritage sites
and wildlife habitats.
Tourism can lead to the creation of
unsightly human structures
such as buildings that do not fit in
with vernacular architecture.
Tourism may lead to damage
and/or disturbance to wildlife
Also important in relation to
damage/disturbance in the environment.
ENVIRONMENTAL – physical space
and no. of people in a particular space
ECOLOGICAL – threshold measure,
which if exceeded will lead to actual
damage of habitat
PERCEPTUAL – level of crowding that a
tourist is willing to tolerate before deciding
to go elsewhere.
Tourists are likely to litter.
Tourism can contribute to congestion
in terms of overcrowding of people as
well as traffic congestion.
Tourism can contribute to the
pollution of water courses and
Tourism may result in footpath
RESPONSE TO NEGATIVE IMPACTS
Holistic Thinking : the Concept of Ecosystems
Regulation of the Negative Impacts
Encouraging Good Practice
Keeping a Sense of Proportion
Raising Awareness amongst Tourists and the
Paying a Price that Covers the Environmental Costs
Maintaining a Balance Between Conservation and