Energy Alain Álvarez FernándezMª de los Reyes García Fuentes
IndexEnergy definition Renewable energyTypes of energy Non-renewable energyEnergy sources Types of powe stations
Energy definitionThe energy have several definitions in relation with the capacity of do a work, transform or put in movement.In physic its definition adapt to the realization of a work, while in technology and economy its refers to a natural resource, to obtain it, transform it and get it an useful use.
Mechanical energyIt is the energy resulting in the position and the the movement of a body, so that the set of kinetic energy and the potential.It shows the capacity that the bodies with mass have to realice a work.There are two types: Kinetic and potencial.
Potencial energy It is the energy that measured the capacity that have a body or a system to realice a work, in functions of its position or configuration. It can represent like: potential and gravitatory energy, potencial and electrostatic energy and potencial and elastic energy.
Kinetic energyThe kinetic energy of body is the energy that one body has when its in movement. It define like the work necesary for speed a body, with a concret mass since from the rest to the adequate velocity. Once time obtained this energy during the accelertion, the body maintain its kinetic energy unless the velocity change. For the body back to its state of calm its necesary a negative work of the equal magnitude that its kinetic energy.
Electrical energy Its called electric energy to the form of energy that arining of the existence of the potential energy between two point, which enables to create an electric current between them, when an electric driver put them in contact and get the work. This energy is transform into very types of energy, like light energy, mechanical and thermal.
Electromagnetic energyIs the amount of energy stored in a place of the space that can be applied with the presence of an electromagnetic field, , which is represented in function to the intensities of electric and magnetic field.
Sound energy Also called acoustic energy. Is the energy that transport the sound waves. Cames from the vibrational energy of the sound focus and diffuses to the particles that passed as kinetic and potential energy. This energy transmitting to the waves velocity, but part of it desapears as thermal energy. its unit of measureis the Jules (J), although can be calculated by other magnitudes, as the sound intensity as energy flux density or acoustic.
Chemical energyThis energy is another expression of the energy. Especially, is one of the roots of the interior energy of a body and, althoug always appears in the matter, only shows when its produce an intimate alteration of this.
Nuclear energy Also called atomic, is the energy which spontaneously released in nuclear reactions, but can refers to other meaning, the use of the energy for other functions as obtain electric, mechanic and thermal energy. Commonly we mean to the nuclear energy not only as the result of a reaction but as a concept which includes the knowledge and tecnics which permit the use of this energy.
Thermal energyWe called this energy as the released force as heat. We can obtain it of the nature or the sun through an exothermic reaction, for a nuclear reaction of fission or fusion, through the electric energy, through the “Joule” effect.
Joule effect Is the phenomenon by which if a conductor circulating in an electric current part of the kinetic energy of the electrons its transformed in heat becuase of the shocks suffering with the atoms of the conductor material by wich circulate raising its temperature. The name is in honor at its discoverer, the Britanic physical called James Prescott Joule.
Energy SourcesThis are natural elaboration -The solar energy: The sun produce more or less complex in light and heat. which the human can extract -Eolic energy: We use this for for realize a determinate produce electricity. work or make some utility. -Rivers and freshwater streams:At the end of the 20th century Idraulic energy. began to question the -The seas and oceans: Tidal energy. existing emergy model for two reasons: -The heat of the earth: Geothermic energy.-The global warming of the -the energy of the nucleus of planet. radioactive atoms: Nuclear energy.-The risks of nuclear energy -The organic matter: Biomass energy. use that made manifest in -The fuels: Quimic energy. accidents as chernovyl. About non-renewable energies (eolic,The renewable energies these are
Renewable energy The renewable energy is the energy that acquires of natural sources. Types: The eolic, geothermal, hydroelectric, tidal, solar,wave,
Wind energyIs the energy which is achieved by the wind, that it to say the kinetic energy effect caused by air currents, and transformed into useful forms for humans.Today, wind energy is used especially for electrical power through wind turbines. The wind energy is a resource providing abundant, renewable, clean and reduces emissions of greenhouse gases.
Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is energy that can be obtained through the use of heat inside the earth. This heat is due to several causes, among them, must distinguier, the geometric grandiente, heat tadiogenérico ... Uses: -Electric Generation Use direct-heat -Heating and plumbing -Absorption cooling
Hydroelectric energyHydraulic power is the call to that which is achieved through the use of kinetic energy and the corriende potneciales water breaks or tidal waters.This energy is a type of verbal energy when environmental impact is minimal and uses the hydraulic force without stagnate, if otherwise is considered only renewable.The use of constructed major hydroelectric companies. This can hold water in dams, some of the water is let out to move the turbines with a generator of electricity.
Tidal or marine energy Is the energy obtained by taking advantage of the tides with their joint to an alternator which can be used to produce electricity. Is a type of renewable energy, this source of energy hasnt got end for their exploitation and its clean, however the amount that can be obtained with the cost to obtain environmental and cost for the devices is a remarkable impenetracion.
Non-renewable energiesThis are those in nature and in a limited amount, once worn not regenerateThere are two types:Fossil fuels: They come from organic matter, are coal, oil and natural gas.Nuclear fuel: He calls all the material that has been adapted for use in nuclear power generation is nuclear power.
Coal They come from remains of living serea is black colored rock that has much carbon as fossil fuel is used. Most of this was formed during the Carboniferous period (of 359 to 299 million years) Its a nonrenewable resource.
PetroleumHomogeneous mixture of organic compounds. It is of fossil origin. In normal states a liquid fat can have different colors and viscosity. It is a renewable resource and is the main energy source in developed countries, so much so that in the United State of America is common to measure the oil in barrels of 158, 987294928.
Natural gas It is one of several important non-renewable energy. It is through mixtures of light gases in oil deposits. Can also be obtained by decomposition of organic waste. The gas thus obtained is called biogas.
Atomic energyAtomic or nuclear energy which is released artificially in nuclear reactions.Two systems discussed to try to create massive energy through nuclear fission this energy and nuclear fusion.The energy released in nuclear processes appears as a moving subatomic particles, we also found nuclear plants where nuclear energy is obtained.
Hydroelectric plant In a hydroelectric plant using water power to generate electricity. Are the current result of the evolution of the old mills that took advantage of the flow of rivers to move a wheel. In general, these plants take advantage of the gravitational potential energy that the water body has a natural channel under a gap, also known as geodetic jump. The water in her fall between two levels of the channel is passed through a hydraulic turbine which transmits power to a generator where it is transformed into electrical energy.
Nuclear plantA power / nuclear power plant is an industrial facility used for generating electricity from nuclear energy. Characterized by the use of nuclear fuel basically composed of fissile material that provides heat by nuclear reaction which in turn is used by a conventional thermodynamic cycle to produce movement of alternators which transform the mechanical work into electric energy. These plants consist of one or more reactors.The core of a nuclear reactor consisting of a container or vessel inside which are housed a block of insulating material of the radioactivity, commonly treated graphite or concrete nuclear fuel filler consisting of fissile material (uranium-235 or plutonium-239 .) In the process establishing a sustained and moderate reaction by the use of auxiliaries to absorb excess neutrons released keeping under control the chain reaction of the radioactive material to these other elements are called moderators.
Solar plant A solar thermal power solar thermal power plant is an industrial facility in which, from a fluid heating by solar radiation and its use in a conventional thermodynamic cycle, it produces the power needed to drive an alternator to generate electricity as a thermal clásica.Consiste the thermal use of solar energy to transfer and store it in a heat transfer medium, usually water. This is an advantage of the CSP, the thermal storage. The technology most commonly used to store this energy are the salts (nitrates) thermal storage. The composition of these salts is variable, the most used the mixture of potassium nitrate, sodium and has recently incorporated the Calcium Nitrate.
Eolic parkA wind farm is a group of wind turbines that Wind farms provide different amounts of energy convert wind energy into electrical energy. depending on the differences on design, location of the turbines, and the fact that olderWind farms can be located on land or at sea turbine designs were less efficient and able to (offshore), the former being the most common, adapt to changes in wind direction and speed. although the offshore parks have experienced significant growth in Europe in recent years.The number of wind turbines that make up a park is very variable, and depends primarily on the available surface and wind characteristics at the site. Before mounting a wind farm wind studies in the chosen location for a time likely to exceed one year. This vanes and anemometers are installed. The data collected will draw a compass rose indicating the prevailing wind direction and speed.
Wind turbine It have been produced by renewable enrgies, they have thougth put turbines in in towns and small cities, with dense population, to facilitate the creation of potable water. A turbine can produce between 100 litres of water per day, with the mediambiental factors (moisture, temperture and wind velocity).