FACTORS OF LEARNING
1. NATURE OF THE
The learning of complex subject matter
is most effective when it is an intentional
process of constructing meaning from
information and experience.
2. GOALS OF THE
The successful learner, overtime and
with support and instructional guidance,
can create meaningful, coherent
representation s of knowledge.
The successful learner can link new
information with existing knowledge in
4. STRATEGIC THINGKING
The successful learner can create and use
a repertoire of thinking and reasoning
strategies to achieve complex learning
Higher strategies for selecting and
monitoring mental operations facilitate
creative and critical thinking.
6. CONTEXT OF LEARNING
Learning is influenced by environmental
factors, culture, technology, and
Metacognition appears to be one of the most
powerful predictors of learning.
Metacognition is thinking about thinking,
knowing “what we know” and “what we don’t
T H E B A S I C M E TA C O G N I T I V E
S T R AT E G I E S A R E :
1. Connecting new information to former
2. Selecting thinking strategies deliberately.
3. Planning, monitoring, and evaluating thinking
4. A thinking person is in charge of her behavior.
M E TA C O G N I T I V E K N O W L E D G E
Being aware of one’s own learning and memory capabilities and
of what learning tasks can realistically be accomplished.
Knowing which learning strategies are effective and which are
Planning an approach to a learning task that is likely to be
Using effective learning strategies.
Monitoring one’s present knowledge state.
Knowing effective strategies for retrieval of previously
S T R AT E G I E S F O R D E V E L O P I N G
M E TA C O G N I T I V E B E H AV I O R
1. Identifying “what you know” and what “you don’t know.
2. Talking about thinking.
3. Keeping a thinking journal.
4. Planning and self-regulation.
5. Debriefing the thinking process
C O G N I T I V E A N D M E TA C O G N I T I V E
L E A R N I N G S T R AT E G I E S
Cognitive and Metacognitive strategies and skills
are closely related in terms of them both involving cognition
and skill but they are conceptually distinct in at least one
Weinstein and Meyer state that a cognitive learning
strategy is a plan for orchestrating cognitive resources, such
as attention and long term memory to help teach a learning
goal. This indicate that there are several characteristics of
cognitive learning strategies, such as being goal-directed,
intentionally, invoked, effortful, and are not universally
applicable, but situation specific.
metacognitive strategies appear to share
most of this characteristic with the exemption
of the last one since they involve more
universal application through focus upon
planning for implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation. That is to say metacognitive
strategies are not so situation specific but
involve generic skills essential for adult, more
sophisticated forms of thinking and problem
Establishing the metacognitive and environment
A metacognitive environment encourage awareness
of thinking. Planning is shared among Teachers, School
Library media specialist, and students. Various thinking
strategies are discussed while evaluation is on going.
in the creation of a metacognitive environment,
Teachers monitor and apply their knowledge, deliberately
modeling metacognitive behavior to assist student in
becoming aware of their own thinking. Metacognitive
strategies are already in the Teachers repertoires so they must
be alert to this strategies and consciously model them for
problem solving and research activities
in all subjects provide opportunities for
developing metacognitive strategies.
Teachers therefore need to focus attention on
how task are accomplish. Process goes, in
addition content goes goals, must be
established and evaluated with students so
that they can discover but understanding and
transferring thinking process improve
The role of metacognitive knowledge in
learning, Teaching, and assessing
metacognitive knowledge can play an
important role in student learning and by
implication, in the way student are taught and
assessed in the classroom .
first, metacognitive knowledge of strategies and task
as well as self knowledge is link to:
• learn and perform in the classroom
• Student know about the different kinds of strategies for
learning, thinking, and problem solving.
• different strategies or memory task (for ex. are more
likely to use them to recall relevant information.)
• Knows the general strategies for thinking and problem
solving (use in confronting in classroom task. )Bransford et. Al, 199; Schneider & Pressley, 1997;
Weinstein & Mayer, 1986
Related to transferring of knowledge …
• Ability to use knowledge gained in the
• New task required knowledge and skills
that they have not yet learned.
in this case they are likely too use
more general strategies to help the student
think about or solve the problem.
In terms of implication for teaching, It is
important that metacognitive knowledge is
embedded within the usual content driven
lesson in the different subject areas.
In terms of implication for assessment, it is
important to know how it is used by the
students to facilitate their own learning. In
this sense, it is more likely that any assessment
of metacognitive knowledge by Teachers will
be informal rather than formal.
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